Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 13 of 13
Technical Paper

Characterisation of Fuel Ignition under Partly Homogeneous Diesel Combustion

2014-04-01
2014-01-1280
Legislative restrictions on the currently limited exhaust gas components and the future CO2 emissions limits have led to intensive research in the field of alternative fuels and innovative combustion approaches. Increased homogeneity of air-fuel mixture through advanced injection is one combustion approach, which potentially reduces engine-out nitrogen oxide and particulate emissions, with good fuel consumption in certain load ranges. Ignition characteristics under homogenous combustion conditions differ from those under heterogeneous conditions. Among other reasons, this is due to the increased role of low temperature chemistry with increasing homogeneity. The ignition behaviour of diesel fuels is characterised by the Cetane number (CN), which is, however, determined at significant higher temperatures than those prevalent during ignition under homogenous combustion. As a result, its relevance as a fuel characteristic number requires evaluation.
Technical Paper

Meeting 2025 CAFE Standards for LDT with Fuel-Efficient Diesel Powertrains - Approaches and Solutions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0698
In view of changing climatic conditions all over the world, Green House Gas (GHG) saving related initiatives such as reducing the CO2 emissions from the mobility and transportation sectors have gained in importance. Therefore, with respect to the large U.S. market, the corresponding legal authorities have defined aggressive and challenging targets for the upcoming time frame. Due to several aspects and conditions, like hesitantly acting clients regarding electrically powered vehicles or low prices for fossil fuels, convincing and attractive products have to be developed to merge legal requirements with market constraints. This is especially valid for the market segment of Light-Duty vehicles, like SUV’S and Pick-Up trucks, which are in high demand.
Journal Article

The Contribution of Engine Mechanics to Improved Fuel Economy

2014-04-01
2014-01-1663
Measures for reducing engine friction within the powertrain are assessed in this paper. The included measures work in combination with several new technologies such as new combustion technologies, downsizing and alternative fuels. The friction reduction measures are discussed for a typical gasoline vehicle. If powertrain friction could be eliminated completely, a reduction of 15% in CO2 emissions could be achieved. In order to comply with more demanding CO2 legislations, new technologies have to be considered to meet these targets. The additional cost for friction reduction measures are often lower than those of other new technologies. Therefore, these measures are worth following up in detail.
Journal Article

Development Trends for Commercial and Industrial Engines

2014-09-30
2014-01-2325
Exhaust emission reduction and improvements in energy consumption will continuously determine future developments of on-road and off-road engines. Fuel flexibility by substituting Diesel with Natural Gas is becoming increasingly important. To meet these future requirements engines will get more complex. Additional and more advanced accessory systems for waste heat recovery (WHR), gaseous fuel supply, exhaust after-treatment and controls will be added to the base engine. This additional complexity will increase package size, weight and cost of the complete powertrain. Another critical element in future engine development is the optimization of the base engine. Fundamental questions are how much the base engine can contribute to meet the future exhaust emission standards, including CO2 and how much of the incremental size, weight and cost of the additional accessories can be compensated by optimizing the base engine.
Journal Article

Advanced Fuel Formulation Approach using Blends of Paraffinic and Oxygenated Biofuels: Analysis of Emission Reduction Potential in a High Efficiency Diesel Combustion System

2016-10-17
2016-01-2179
This work is a continuation of earlier results presented by the authors. In the current investigations the biofuels hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) and 1-octanol are investigated as pure components and compared to EN 590 Diesel. In a final step both biofuels are blended together in an appropriate ratio to tailor the fuels properties in order to obtain an optimal fuel for a clean combustion. The results of pure HVO indicate a significant reduction in CO-, HC- and combustion noise emissions at constant NOX levels. With regard to soot emissions, at higher part loads, the aromatic free, paraffinic composition of HVO showed a significant reduction compared to EN 590 petroleum Diesel fuel. But at lower loads the high cetane number leads to shorter ignition delays and therefore, ignition under richer conditions.
Journal Article

Future Specification of Automotive LPG Fuels for Modern Turbocharged DI SI Engines with Today’s High Pressure Fuel Pumps

2016-10-17
2016-01-2255
Liquefied Petroleum Gas direct injection (LPG DI) is believed to be the key enabler for the adaption of modern downsized gasoline engines to the usage of LPG, since LPG DI avoids the significant low end torque drop, which goes along with the application of conventional LPG port fuel injection systems to downsized gasoline DI engines, and provides higher combustion efficiencies. However, especially the high vapor pressure of C3 hydrocarbons can result in hot fuel handling issues as evaporation or even in reaching the supercritical state of LPG upstream or inside the high pressure pump (HPP). This is particularly critical under hot soak conditions. As a result of a rapid fuel density drop close to the supercritical point, the HPP is not able to keep the rail pressure constant and the engine stalls.
Journal Article

Potential of Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO) in Future High Efficiency Combustion System

2013-04-08
2013-01-1677
The limited availability of fossil fuels and the increasing environmental pollution will lead to an increased demand for sustainable biofuels. The production of bio-based diesel fuels from vegetable oils is commonly accomplished using a process known as Trans-esterification. The product of Transesterification is Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME), commonly known as Biodiesel. An alternative process is Hydro-treatment of seed oils or animal waste fats to produce highly paraffinic renewable diesel fuel called Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO). Detailed investigations were carried out by the “Department of Advanced Diesel Engine Development” at FEV GmbH Aachen (Germany), to explore the potential of this biofuel compound as a candidate for future compression ignition engines.
Journal Article

Crude Tall Oil-Based Renewable Diesel as a Blending Component in Passenger Car Diesel Engines

2013-10-14
2013-01-2685
The residue and waste streams of existing industry offer feasible and sustainable raw materials for biofuel production. All kind of biomass contains carbon and hydrogen which can be turned into liquid form with suitable processes. Using hydrotreatment or Biomass-to-Liquid technologies (BTL) the liquid oil can be further converted into transportation biofuels. Hydrotreatment technology can be used to convert bio-oils and fats in to high quality diesel fuels that have superior fuel properties (e.g. low aromatic content and high cetane number) compared to regular diesel fuel and first generation ester-type diesel fuel. UPM has developed a new innovative technology based on hydrotreatment that can be used to convert Crude Tall Oil (CTO) into high quality renewable diesel fuel. This study concentrated on determining the functionality and possible effects of CTO based renewable diesel as a blending component on engine emissions and engine performance.
Journal Article

On the Potential of Oxygenated Fuels as an Additional Degree of Freedom in the Mixture Formation in Direct Injection Diesel Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0890
The current and future restrictions on pollutant emissions from internal combustion engines require a holistic investigation of the abilities of alternative fuels to optimize the combustion process and ensure cleaner combustion. In this regard, the Tailor-made Fuels from Biomass (TMFB) Cluster at Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen University aims at designing production processes for biofuels as well as fuels optimal for use in internal combustion engines. The TMFB Cluster's scientific approach considers the molecular structure of the fuels as an additional degree of freedom for the optimization of both the production pathways and the combustion process of such novel biofuels. Thus, the model-based specification of target parameters is of the utmost importance to improve engine combustion performance and to send feedback information to the biofuel production process.
Journal Article

Impact of Biomass-Derived Fuels on Soot Oxidation and DPF Regeneration Behavior

2013-04-08
2013-01-1551
To comply with the new regulations on particulate matter emissions, the manufacturers of light-duty as well as heavy-duty vehicles more commonly use diesel particulate filters (DPF). The regeneration of DPF depends to a significant extent on the properties of the soot stored. Within the Cluster of Excellence "Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass (TMFB)" at RWTH Aachen University, the Institute for Combustion Engines carried out a detailed investigation program to explore the potential of future biofuel candidates for optimized combustion systems. The experiments for particulate measurements and analysis were conducted on a EURO 6-compliant High Efficiency Diesel Combustion System (HECS) with petroleum-based diesel fuel as reference and a today's commercial biofuel (i.e., FAME) as well as a potential future biomass-derived fuel candidate (i.e., 2-MTHF/DBE). Thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA) was used in this study to evaluate the oxidative reactivity of the soot.
Journal Article

Utilization of HVO Fuel Properties in a High Efficiency Combustion System: Part 2: Relationship of Soot Characteristics with its Oxidation Behavior in DPF

2014-10-13
2014-01-2846
The present work is a continuation of the earlier published results by authors on the investigation of Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO) on a High Efficiency Diesel Combustion System (SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. Paper No. 2013-01-1677 and JSAE Paper No. 283-20145128). In order to further validate and interpret the previously published results of soot microstructure and its consequences on oxidation behavior, the test program was extended to analyze the impact of soot composition, optical properties, and physical properties such as size, concentration etc. on the oxidation behavior. The experiments were performed with pure HVO as well as with petroleum based diesel and today's biofuel (i.e. FAME) as baseline fuels. The soot samples for the different analyses were collected under constant engine operating conditions at indicated raw NOx emissions of Euro 6 level using closed loop combustion control methodology.
Journal Article

An Experimental Investigation of Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Light Duty Diesel Engine by In-Cylinder Blending of Ethanol and Diesel

2015-09-01
2015-01-1801
This study investigated dual-fuel operation with a light duty Diesel engine over a wide engine load range. Ethanol was hereby injected into the intake duct, while Diesel was injected directly into the cylinder. At low loads, high ethanol shares are critical in terms of combustion stability and emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons. As the load increases, the rates of heat release become problematic with regard to noise and mechanical stress. At higher loads, an advanced injection of Diesel was found to be beneficial in terms of combustion noise and emissions. For all tests, engine-out NOx emissions were kept within the EU-6.1 limit.
Journal Article

Effects of LPG Fuel Formulations on Knock and Pre-Ignition Behavior of a DI SI Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1947
Due to their CO2 reduction potential and their high knock resistance gaseous fuels present a promising alternative for modern highly boosted spark ignition engines. Especially the direct injection of LPG reveals significant advantages. Previous studies have already shown the highest thermodynamic potential for the LPG direct injection concept and its advantages in comparison to external mixture formation systems. In the performed research study a comparison of different LPG fuels in direct injection mode shows that LPG fuels have better auto-ignition behavior than gasoline. A correlation between auto-ignition behavior and the calculated motor octane number could not be found. However, a significantly higher correlation of R2 = 0.88 - 0.99 for CR13 could be seen when using the methane number. One major challenge in order to implement the LPG direct injection concept is to ensure the liquid state of the fuel under all engine operating conditions.
X