Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 18 of 18
Technical Paper

A Low NVH Range-Extender Application with a Small V-2 Engine - Based on a New Vibration Compensation System

2012-10-23
2012-32-0081
The interest in electric propulsion of vehicles has increased in recent years and is being discussed extensively by experts as well as the public. Up to now the driving range and the utilization of pure electric vehicles are still limited in comparison to conventional vehicles due to the limited capacity and the long charging times of today's batteries. This is a challenge to customer acceptance of a pure electric vehicle, even for a city car application. A Range Extender concept could achieve the desired customer acceptance, but should not impact the “electric driving” experience, and should not cause further significant increases in the manufacturing and purchasing cost. The V2 engine concept presented in this paper is particularly suited to a low cost, modular vehicle concept. Advantages regarding packaging can be realized with the use of two generators in combination with the V2 engine.
Technical Paper

Developing Drivetrain Robustness for Small Engine Testing

2013-04-08
2013-01-0400
The increased demand in fuel economy and the reduction of CO₂ emissions results in continued efforts to downsize engines. The downsizing efforts result in engines with lower displacement as well as lower number of cylinders. In addition to cylinder and displacement downsizing the development community embarks on continued efforts toward down-speeding. The combination of the aforementioned factors results in engines which can have high levels of torsional vibrations. Such behavior can have detrimental effects on the drivetrain particularly during the development phase of these. Driveshafts, couplings, and dynamometers are exposed to these torsional forces and depending on their frequency costly damages in these components can occur. To account for these effects, FEV employs a multi-body-system modeling approach through which base engine information is used to determine optimized drivetrain setups. All mechanical elements in the setup are analyzed based on their torsional behavior.
Journal Article

Contribution of High Accuracy Temperature Sensors Towards Fuel Economy and Robust Calibration

2014-04-01
2014-01-1548
Tighter emission limits are discussed and established around the world to improve quality of the air we breathe. In order to control global warming, authorities ask for lower CO2 emissions from combustion engines. Lots of efforts are done to reduce engine out emissions and/or reduce remaining by suitable after treatment systems. Watlow, among others, a manufacturer of high accurate, active temperature sensor ExactSense™, wanted to understand if temperature sensor accuracy can have an influence on fuel consumption (FC). For this purpose a numerical approach was chosen where several non-road driving cycles (NRTCs) were simulated with the data base of a typical Stage IV heavy duty diesel engine. The engine is equipped with an exhaust gas after treatment system consisting of a DOC, CDPF and an SCR. In this work scope, the investigations shall be restricted to the FC benefits obtained in the active and passive DPF regeneration.
Technical Paper

Potential of Advanced, Combined Aftertreatment Systems for Light-Duty Diesel Engines to Meet Upcoming EU and US Emission Regulation

2013-09-08
2013-24-0163
The modern DI-diesel engine represents a valuable platform to achieve worldwide tightened CO2 standards while meeting future strengthened emission regulations in the EU and the US. Due to the simultaneous, partially contrary legal demands, new integrated and combined systems are required to allow best overall performance within the upcoming legal frames concerning pollutant emission reduction and minimization of CO2 output. As extended emission relevant areas in the engine map have to be respected in view of RDE and PEMS scenarios in EU, but also facing the LEVIII standards in the US, comprehensive and synchronized technical solutions have to be engineered. Based on furthermore optimized combustion systems with improved combustion efficiency, meaning also lowered exhaust gas temperatures, especially refined and tailored emission control systems are demanded.
Technical Paper

Functional Safety for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

2012-04-16
2012-01-0032
Hybrid and electric vehicles present a promising trade-off between the necessary reductions in emissions and fuel consumption, the improvement in driving pleasure and performance of today's and tomorrow's vehicles. These hybrid vehicles rely primarily on electronics for the control and the coordination of the different sub-systems or components. The number and complexity of the functions distributed over many control units is increasing in these vehicles. Functional safety, defined as absence of unacceptable risk due to the hazards caused by mal-function in the electric or electronic systems is becoming a key factor in the development of modern vehicles such as electric and hybrid vehicles. This important increase in functional safety-related issues has raised the need for the automotive industry to develop its own functional safety standard, ISO 26262.
Journal Article

Development Trends for Commercial and Industrial Engines

2014-09-30
2014-01-2325
Exhaust emission reduction and improvements in energy consumption will continuously determine future developments of on-road and off-road engines. Fuel flexibility by substituting Diesel with Natural Gas is becoming increasingly important. To meet these future requirements engines will get more complex. Additional and more advanced accessory systems for waste heat recovery (WHR), gaseous fuel supply, exhaust after-treatment and controls will be added to the base engine. This additional complexity will increase package size, weight and cost of the complete powertrain. Another critical element in future engine development is the optimization of the base engine. Fundamental questions are how much the base engine can contribute to meet the future exhaust emission standards, including CO2 and how much of the incremental size, weight and cost of the additional accessories can be compensated by optimizing the base engine.
Journal Article

7-XDCT: Compact and Cost-Efficient Dual Clutch Transmission for Small and Mid-Size Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1271
The automotive industry continues to develop new powertrain technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle level fuel consumption. The ongoing trends of “downsizing” and “down speeding” have led to the development of turbocharged engines with low displacement and high torque density. In order to meet the launch response requirements with these engines as well as fuel economy needs, transmissions with large ratio spreads will need to be developed. Due to the lack of torque amplification from the torque converter, the next generation of dual clutch transmissions (DCT) will need to have larger launch ratios and ratio spreads than currently available in production today. This paper discusses the development of a new family of DCT (called “xDCT”) for use in front wheel drive vehicles, aimed at meeting some of these challenges. The xDCT family features two innovative concepts, the idea of “gear generation” and “supported shifts”.
Journal Article

Automated Verification and Validation Methods for Transmission Control Software

2015-04-14
2015-01-0163
With the increasing popularity of seamless gear changing and smooth driving experience along with the need for high fuel efficiency, transmission system development has rapidly increased in complexity. So too has transmission control software while quality requirements are high and time-to-market is short. As a result, extensive testing and documentation along with quick and efficient development methods are required. FEV responds to these challenges by developing and integrating a transmission software product line with an automated verification and validation process according to the concept of Continuous Integration (CI). Hence, the following paper outlines a software architecture called “PERSIST” where complexity is reduced by a modular architecture approach. Additionally, modularity enables testability and tracking of quality defects to their root cause.
Technical Paper

Robust Emission Compliance and Reduction of System Cost by advanced emission-based Diesel engine air management

2015-01-14
2015-26-0089
The continuously strengthened requirements regarding air quality and pollutant reduction as well as GHG emissions further complicate the compliance with legal standards. Especially in view of cost-sensitive applications this demand strongly collides with the EMS set-up and the sensor requirements with still increasing overall system complexity. The paper in hand describes a novel air path control approach, which offers the potential for a flexible use of multiple EGR routes to meet upcoming legislations more robustly, while providing a significant reduction of calibration effort and sensor content at the same time. By using a direct emission based cylinder charge control, also alterations in operational ambient conditions are covered with system reactions according to physical-based rules to enhance the engine-out emission performance without need for tuning of corrections of any air path set point.
Journal Article

Fuel Economy Benefits for Commercial Diesel Engines with Waste Heat Recovery

2015-09-29
2015-01-2807
In the near future engine emitted carbon dioxides (CO2) are going to be limited for all vehicle categories with respect to the Green House Gases (GHG) norms. To tackle this challenge, new concepts need to be developed. For this reason waste heat recovery (WHR) is a promising research field. For commercial vehicles the first phase of CO2 emission legislation will be introduced in the USA in 2014 and will be further tightened towards 2030. Besides the US, CO2 emission legislation for commercial engines will also be introduced in Europe in the near future. The demanded CO2 reduction calls for a better fuel economy which is also of interest for the end user, specifically for the owners of heavy duty diesel vehicles with high mileages. To meet these future legislation objectives, a waste heat recovery system is a beneficial solution of recovering wasted energies from different heat sources in the engine.
Technical Paper

Development of Combustion System for a 1-Liter Advanced Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection 3-Cylinder Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2243
In recent years, more attention has been focused on environment pollution and energy source issues. As a result, increasingly stringent fuel consumption and emission legislations have been implemented all over the world. For automakers, enhancing engine’s efficiency as a must contributes to lower vehicle fuel consumption. To reach this goal, Geely auto started the development of a 3-cylinder 1.0L turbocharged direct injection (TGDI) gasoline engine to achieve a challenging fuel economy target while maintaining fun-to-drive and NVH performance. Demanding development targets for performance (specific torque 205Nm/L and specific power 100kW/L) and excellent part-load BSFC were defined, which lead to a major challenge for the design of the combustion system. Considering air/fuel mixture, fuel wall impingement and even future potential for lean burn combustion, a symmetrical layout and a central position for the injector with 200bar injection pressure was determined.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Engine Efficiency and Diesel Aftertreatment System Architecture Using an Integrated System Simulation Approach

2016-02-01
2016-28-0227
As emission regulations are becoming increasingly stringent worldwide, multiple exhaust aftertreatment devices are considered in order to minimize diesel engine tailpipe emissions. For the typical diesel applications in developing markets like India, the fuel consumption is a very decisive selling argument for customers. The total cost of ownership needs to be as low as possible. To meet these competing requirements, the aftertreatment and engines must be optimized at the same time as the performance of the one system affects the other. In state-of-the-art calibration processes, the aftertreatment systems are considered separately from the calibration of the thermodynamics. This conventional approach makes it more challenging to achieve a simultaneous optimization of the fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions under transient operating conditions.
Journal Article

Influence of Advanced Technology for Thermal Management on SUV

2016-04-05
2016-01-0238
Reducing fuel consumption is a major challenge for vehicle, especially for SUV. Cooling loss is about 30% in total energy loss under NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) cycle. It is necessary to optimize vehicle thermal management system to improve fuel economy. Otherwise, rapid warm-up is beneficial for friction reduction and passenger comfort in cold-start. Vehicle thermal behavior is influenced by cooling system layout, new technology and control strategy. Thermal management simulation is effective to show the energy flow and fuel consumption under the influence of new technology under NEDC cycle. So 1D thermal management simulation model is created, including vehicle, cooling system, lubrication system and detailed engine model with all friction components. And the interrelations between all the components are considered in the model. For model calibration, large amount of data is obtained from vehicle tests such as transient fuel consumption and transient coolant temperature.
Technical Paper

Meeting 2025 CAFE Standards for LDT with Fuel-Efficient Diesel Powertrains - Approaches and Solutions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0698
In view of changing climatic conditions all over the world, Green House Gas (GHG) saving related initiatives such as reducing the CO2 emissions from the mobility and transportation sectors have gained in importance. Therefore, with respect to the large U.S. market, the corresponding legal authorities have defined aggressive and challenging targets for the upcoming time frame. Due to several aspects and conditions, like hesitantly acting clients regarding electrically powered vehicles or low prices for fossil fuels, convincing and attractive products have to be developed to merge legal requirements with market constraints. This is especially valid for the market segment of Light-Duty vehicles, like SUV’S and Pick-Up trucks, which are in high demand.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study to Assess the Potential of Different Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Concepts for Diesel Powered Ultra-Light Commercial Vehicle Applications in View of Meeting BS VI Legislation

2017-01-10
2017-26-0128
Despite the trend in increased prosperity, the Indian automotive market, which is traditionally dominated by highly cost-oriented producion, is very sensitive to the price of fuels and vehicles. Due to these very specific market demands, the U-LCV (ultra-light commercial vehicle) segment with single cylinder natural aspirated Diesel engines (typical sub 650 cc displacement) is gaining immense popularity in the recent years. By moving to 2016, with the announcement of leapfrogging directly to Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) emission legislation in India, and in addition to the mandatory application of Diesel particle filters (DPF), there will be a need to implement effective NOx aftertreament systems. Due to the very low power-to-weight ratio of these particular applications, the engine operation takes place under full load conditions in a significant portion of the test cycle.
Journal Article

Optimization of Exhaust After-Treatment System (EATS) to BS 6 Emission Level for a Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV) Using Existing BS 4 Engine Results and 1-D Simulation Approach

2017-01-10
2017-26-0119
The emission legislations are becoming increasingly strict all over the world and India too has taken a big leap in this direction by signaling the migration from Bharat Stage 4 (BS 4) to BS 6 in the year 2020. This decision by the Indian government has provided the Indian automotive industry a new challenge to find the most optimal solution for this migration, with the existing BS 4 engines available in their portfolio. Indian market for the LCV segment is highly competitive and cost sensitive where the overall vehicle operation cost (vehicle cost + fluid consumption cost) is the most critical factor. The engine and after-treatment technology for BS 6 emission levels should consider the factors of minimizing the additional hardware cost as well as improving the fuel efficiency. Often both of which are inversely proportional. The presented study involves the optimization of after treatment component size, layout and various systems for NOx and PM reduction.
Technical Paper

In-Use Compliance Opportunity for Diesel Powertrains

2018-04-03
2018-01-0877
In-use compliance under LEV III emission standards, GHG, and fuel economy targets beyond 2025 poses a great opportunity for all ICE-based propulsion systems, especially for light-duty diesel powertrain and aftertreatment enhancement. Though diesel powertrains feature excellent fuel-efficiency, robust and complete emissions controls covering any possible operational profiles and duty cycles has always been a challenge. Significant dependency on aftertreatment calibration and configuration has become a norm. With the onset of hybridization and downsizing, small steps of improvement in system stability have shown a promising avenue for enhancing fuel economy while continuously improving emissions robustness. In this paper, a study of current key technologies and associated emissions robustness will be discussed followed by engine and aftertreatment performance target derivations for LEV III compliant powertrains.
Technical Paper

λDSF: Dynamic Skip Fire with Homogeneous Lean Burn for Improved Fuel Consumption, Emissions and Drivability

2018-04-03
2018-01-0891
Dynamic skip fire (DSF) has shown significant fuel economy improvement potential via reduction of pumping losses that generally affect throttled spark-ignition (SI) engines. In DSF operation, individual cylinders are fired on-demand near peak efficiency to satisfy driver torque demand. For vehicles with a downsized-boosted 4-cylinder engine, DSF can reduce fuel consumption by 8% in the WLTC (Class 3) drive cycle. The relatively low cost of cylinder deactivation hardware further improves the production value of DSF. Lean burn strategies in gasoline engines have also demonstrated significant fuel efficiency gains resulting from reduced pumping losses and improved thermodynamic characteristics, such as higher specific heat ratio and lower heat losses. Fuel-air mixture stratification is generally required to achieve stable combustion at low loads.
X