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Technical Paper

Fuel Property Effects on Emissions and Performance of a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0488
Increased demand for highly fuel efficient propulsion systems drives the engine development community to develop advanced technologies allowing improving the overall thermal efficiency while maintaining low emission levels. In addition to improving the thermal efficiencies of the internal combustion engine itself the developments of fuels that allow improved combustion as well as lower the emissions footprint has intensified recently. This paper will describe the effects of five different fuel types with significantly differing fuel properties on a state-of-the-art light-duty HSDI diesel engine. The fuels cetane number ranges between 26 and 76. These fuels feature significantly differing boiling characteristics as well as heating values. The fuel selection also contains one pure biodiesel (SME - Soy Methyl Ester). This study was conducted in part load and full load operating points using a state of the art HSDI diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Gas Exchange Optimization and the Impact on Emission Reduction for HSDI Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-0653
The main tasks for all future powertrain developments are: regulated emissions, CO2-values, comfort, good drivability, high reliability and affordable costs. One widely discussed approach for fuel consumption improvement within passenger car applications, is to incorporate the downsizing effect. To attain constant engine performance an increase of boost pressure and/or rated speed is mandatory. In both cases, the mass flow rate through the intake and exhaust ports and valves will rise. In this context, the impact of the port layout on the system has to be reassessed. In this paper, the impact of the port layout on a modern diesel combustion system will be discussed and a promising concept shall be described in detail. The investigations shown include flow measurements, PIV measurements of intake flow, CFD simulations of the flow field during intake and results from the thermodynamic test bench. One of the important topics is to prove the impact of the flow quality on the combustion.
Journal Article

Effects of Biodiesel Operation on Light-Duty Tier 2 Engine and Emission Control Systems

2008-04-14
2008-01-0080
Due to raising interest in diesel powered passenger cars in the U.S. in combination with a desire to reduce dependency on imported petroleum, there has been increased attention to the operation of diesel vehicles on fuels blended with biodiesel. One of several factors to be considered when operating a vehicle on biodiesel blends is understanding the impact and performance of the fuel on the emission control system. This paper documents the impact of the biodiesel blends on engine-out emissions as well as the overall system performance in terms of emission control system calibration and the overall system efficiency. The testing platform is a light-duty HSDI diesel engine with a Euro 4 base calibration in a 1700 kg sedan vehicle. It employs 2nd generation common-rail injection system with peak pressure of 1600 bar as well as cooled high-pressure EGR. The study includes 3 different fuels (U.S.
Technical Paper

Combined Particulate Matter and NOx Aftertreatment Systems for Stringent Emission Standards

2007-04-16
2007-01-1128
The HSDI Diesel engine contributes substantially to the decrease of fleet fuel consumption thus to the reduction of CO2 emissions. This results in the rising market acceptance which is supported by desirable driving performance as well as greatly improved NVH behavior. In addition to the above mentioned requirements on driving performance, fuel economy and NVH behavior, continuously increasing demands on emissions performance have to be met. From today's view the Diesel particulate trap presents a safe technology to achieve the required reduction of the particle emission of more than 95%. However, according to today's knowledge a further, substantial NOx engine-out emission reduction for the Diesel engine is counteracts with the other goal of reduced fuel consumption. To comply with current and future emission standards, Diesel engines will require DeNOx technologies.
Technical Paper

Developing Drivetrain Robustness for Small Engine Testing

2013-04-08
2013-01-0400
The increased demand in fuel economy and the reduction of CO₂ emissions results in continued efforts to downsize engines. The downsizing efforts result in engines with lower displacement as well as lower number of cylinders. In addition to cylinder and displacement downsizing the development community embarks on continued efforts toward down-speeding. The combination of the aforementioned factors results in engines which can have high levels of torsional vibrations. Such behavior can have detrimental effects on the drivetrain particularly during the development phase of these. Driveshafts, couplings, and dynamometers are exposed to these torsional forces and depending on their frequency costly damages in these components can occur. To account for these effects, FEV employs a multi-body-system modeling approach through which base engine information is used to determine optimized drivetrain setups. All mechanical elements in the setup are analyzed based on their torsional behavior.
Technical Paper

Diesel Combustion Control with Closed-Loop Control of the Injection Strategy

2008-04-14
2008-01-0651
Current and future emission legislations require a significant reduction of engine-out emissions for Diesel engines. For a further reduction of engine-out emissions, different measures are necessary such as: Especially an advanced emission and closed-loop combustion control has gained increased significance during the past years.
Journal Article

Coking Phenomena in Nozzle Orifices of Dl-Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-0837
Within a public founded project test cell investigations were undertaken to identify parameters which predominantly influence the development of critical deposits in injection nozzles. A medium-duty diesel engine was operated in two different coking cycles with a zinc-free lubricant. One of the cycles is dominated by rated power, while the second includes a wide area of the operation range. During the experiments the temperatures at the nozzle tip, the geometries of the nozzle orifice and fuel properties were varied. For a detailed analysis of the deposits methods of electron microscopy were deployed. In the course of the project optical access to all areas in the nozzle was achieved. The experiments were evaluated by means of the monitoring of power output and fuel flow at rated power. The usage of a SEM (scanning electron microscope) and a TEM (transmission electron microscope) revealed images of the deposits with a magnification of up to 160 000.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Low Temperature Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1122
Effects of six different fuels on low temperature premixed compression ignition (PCI) combustion were experimentally investigated in this paper with a light-duty HSDI engine. The PCI combustion concept reduces NOx and smoke emissions simultaneously by low temperature and premixed combustion, respectively. To achieve low temperature and premixed combustion, the ignition delay is prolonged and the injection duration is shortened. Six fuels were chosen to examine the influence of cetane number (CN) and other fuel properties on low temperature PCI combustion. The fuel selection also included a pure Gas- to-Liquid (GTL) fuel and a blend of base diesel and 20% soy based biodiesel (B20). Fuel effects were studied over a matrix of seven part load points in the low temperature combustion mode. The seven part load points were specified by engine speed (RPM) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP).
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