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Technical Paper

A New Approach for Prediction of Crankshaft Stiffness and Stress Concentration Factors

This paper introduces a new approach based on a statistical investigation and finite element analysis (FEA) methodology to predict the crankshaft torsional stiffness and stress concentration factors (SCF) due to torsion and bending which can be used as inputs for simplified crankshaft multibody models and durability calculations. In this way the reduction of the development time and effort of passenger car crankshafts in the pre-layout phase is intended with a least possible accuracy sacrifice. With the designated methodology a better approximation to reality is reached for crank torsional stiffness and SCF due to torsion and bending compared with the empirical approaches, since the prediction does not depend on the component tests with limited numbers of specimen, as in empirical equations, but on various FE calculations.
Technical Paper

Variable Compression Ratio - A Design Solution for Fuel Economy Concepts

The challenge to reduce fuel consumption in S.I. engines is leading to the application of new series production technologies: including direct injection and, recently, the variable valve train, both aiming at unthrottled engine operation. In addition to these technologies, turbo- or mechanical supercharging is of increasing interest because, in principle, it offers a significant potential for improved fuel economy. However, a fixed compression ratio normally leads to a compromise, in that the charged engine is more of a performance enhancement than an improver of fuel economy. Fuel efficient downsizing concepts can be realized through the application of variable compression ratio. In this paper, a variable compression ratio design solution featuring eccentric movement of the crankshaft is described. Special attention is given to the integration of this solution into the base engine.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Hydrodynamic Bearing Behaviour for Pre-layout of Cranktrain Dimensions

Calculating the bearing reliability and behavior is one of the primary tasks which have to be performed to define the main dimensions of the cranktrain of an internal combustion engine. Since the bearing results are essential for the pre-layout of the cranktrain, the conclusion on the bearing safety should be met as early as possible. Therefore detailed simulations like T-EHD or EHD analysis may not be applied to define the dimensions in such an early development phase. In the frame of this study a prediction methodology, based on a HD bearing approach, for bearing reliability of inline-4 crankshafts of passenger cars is proposed. In this way not only the design phase is shortened but also achieving the optimal solution is simplified. Moreover the requirement of a CAD model is eliminated for the preliminary design phase. The influencing parameters on the bearing behavior are first selected and divided into two groups: geometry and loading.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Crankshaft Clearance Influence on Specific Roughness Noise Concern

Passenger car customer expects both: low interior noise level and a sound quality, adapted to vehicle driving condition. The latter should be based upon a comfortable sound character without outstanding noise effects. One of the very unpleasant noise characteristics is roughness, also called rap noise or rumbling noise. Beside intake noise and powertrain structure bending, the dynamic crank train behaviour is one of the potential origins of a rough noise pattern. Material properties of the crankshaft and the layout of crankshaft damper can influence roughness as well as the crank train clearances. Subjects of this study, which was performed on a 4-cylinder spark-ignition (SI) engine, were the identification and objectivation of a specific noise concern which occurred during vehicle acceleration. Aim was to evaluate the noise concern sensitivity to the crank train clearances and to define optimum clearance ranges for noise quality improvement.