Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Analytical system for combustion engine exhaust emissions

2000-06-12
2000-05-0346
As emission regulations become tighter and tighter, equipment must evolve to be able to achieve the new standards. Also additional test requirements demand a system that is flexible and can accommodate differences both in the tests and the test facility. By that test cell equipment for chassis dynamometer as well as engine dynamometer applications is getting increasingly complex. That also will require new concepts for the design of such systems. In the past emission system design was more likely a collection and packaging process, which has interfaced various independent components. Now, the development of modern analytical emission systems requires a true holistic design process. This paper will describe the demands and the realization of a modern emission system. It can be shown that an extended effort during the design process will result in a high performance system, which still remains simple and robust.
Technical Paper

Development of a Desulfurization Strategy for a NOx Adsorber Catalyst System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0510
The aggressive reduction of future diesel engine NOx emission limits forces the heavy- and light-duty diesel engine manufacturers to develop means to comply with stringent legislation. As a result, different exhaust emission control technologies applicable to NOx have been the subject of many investigations. One of these systems is the NOx adsorber catalyst, which has shown high NOx conversion rates during previous investigations with acceptable fuel consumption penalties. In addition, the NOx adsorber catalyst does not require a secondary on-board reductant. However, the NOx adsorber catalyst also represents the most sulfur sensitive emissions control device currently under investigation for advanced NOx control. To remove the sulfur introduced into the system through the diesel fuel and stored on the catalyst sites during operation, specific regeneration strategies and boundary conditions were investigated and developed.
Technical Paper

Analytical and Empirical Methods for Optimization of Cylinder Liner Bore Distortion

2001-03-05
2001-01-0569
Beside the traditional prediction of stresses and verification by mechanical testing the optimization of cylinder liner bore distortion is one of today's most important topics in crankcase structure development. Low bore distortion opens up potentials for optimizing the piston group. As the piston rings achieve better sealing characteristics in a low deformation cylinder liner, oil consumption and blow-by are reduced. For unchanged oil consumption and blow-by demands, engine friction and subsequently, fuel consumption could be reduced by decreasing the pre-tension of the piston rings. From the acoustical point of view an optimization of piston-slap noise is often based on an optimized bore distortion behavior. Apart from basics to the behavior of liner bore distortion the paper presents advanced analytical and empirical methods for detailed prediction, verification and optimization of bore distortion taking into account the effective engine operation conditions.
Technical Paper

Low Emission Concept for SULEV

2001-03-05
2001-01-1313
Today, SULEV legislation represents the most stringent emission standard for vehicles with combustion engines, and it will be introduced starting by Model Year 2003. In order to meet such standards, even higher effort is required for the development of the exhaust gas emission concept of SI engines. Beyond a facelift of the combustion system, exhaust gas aftertreatment, and the engine management system, new approaches are striven for. The principle keys are well known: low HC feed gas, high thermal load for quick light-off, exhaust system with low heat capacity and highly effective exhaust gas aftertreatment.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Application of a 4-Cylinder Tumble DISI Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0735
SI engines with gasoline direct injection are currently the focus of development for almost all car manufacturers. After the introduction of DISI engines, first to the Japanese market and after a short time delay also in Europe, a broad variety of technical solutions for efficient stratified concepts can be stated. The targets of the development activities in this field are defined by legislation and customer's demands. The potential reduction of fuel consumption with stratified operation has to be combined with a further improvement of the full load potential of the DISI engine. A substantial part of the development activities are the fulfillment of current and future emission standards. Therefore, in order to realize a highly efficient lean operation, new technologies and strategies in the field of exhaust gas aftertreatment and vehicle application are required.
Technical Paper

Impact of Future Exhaust Gas Emission Legislation on the Heavy Duty Truck Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0186
Emission standards as proposed in Europe and the United States for heavy duty diesel engines will require a NOx and particulate reduction of more than 90%. This cannot be achieved by internal engine measures alone. Aftertreatment systems, for either one or both emission components, plus sophisticated electronic control strategies will be required. Various strategies to comply with EU 4, 5 and US 2007 are discussed, also showing their impact on engine performance. For typical 1 and 2 liter per cylinder engines, emission reduction concepts are assessed to identify the most suitable technology for major worldwide markets. The assessment is based on thermodynamic studies, test-bed results and estimates on cost and infrastructure implications.
Technical Paper

Production Feasible DME Technology for Direct Injection CI Engines

2001-05-07
2001-01-2015
DiMethyl Ether (DME) has been shown to be a very attractive fuel for low emission direct injection compression ignition (DICI) engines. It combines the advantages of the high efficiencies of diesel cycle engines with soot free combustion. However, its greatest drawback is the need to develop new fuel injection and handling systems. Previous approaches have been common rail type injection systems which have shown great potential in reducing harmful exhaust emissions and achieving good engine performance and efficiency due to good control of both the fuel injection characteristics and temperature. The concept also has proven benefits with respect to convenient and safe fuel handling. The logical evolution of this concept simplifies the fuel system and avoids special components for DME handling such as high pressure rail pumps while retaining all the benefits of the common rail principle.
Technical Paper

Development of a charge motion controlled combustion system for DI SI engines and its vehicle application to EU-4 emission regulations

2000-06-12
2000-05-0058
The development of new passenger car powertrains with gasoline direct- injection engines is facing new requirements which result from the need of different operational modes with stratified and homogeneous air-fuel mixture. Moreover, the exhaust aftertreatment system causes a discontinuous operation with lean-burn absorption periods followed by short rich spikes for catalyst regeneration. Recent work on combustion system development has shown, that gasoline direct injection can create significant fuel economy benefits. Charge motion controlled combustion systems have proven to be of advantage in terms of low raw emissions compared to wall-guided concepts. Based on an initial single-cylinder development phase, a multi-cylinder engine was realized with excellent fuel economy, low raw emissions and operational robustness. Finally, the new engine''s potential has been demonstrated in a mid-class vehicle.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Heat Recovery System for Modern Cars

2001-03-05
2001-01-1020
The fuel consumption and the emissions of modern passenger cars are highly affected by the fluid and material temperatures of the engine. Unfortunately, the high thermal efficiencies of Direct Injection (DI) Diesel and Spark Ignition (SI) engines cause in many driving situations low heat transfer to the engine components and especially to the oil and the coolant. In these conditions the normal operating temperatures are not achieved. Especially at low ambient temperatures and low engine loads the requirement of a comfortable cabin heating and a fast warm-up of engine oil and coolant cannot be satisfied simultaneously. To reach the required warm-up performance, an Exhaust Heat Recovery System (EHRS) will be demonstrated. Further design and optimization processes for modern cooling systems in fuel-efficient engines require numerical and experimental investigations of supplemental heater systems to meet all requirements under all circumstances.
Technical Paper

Optimization of New Advanced Combustion Systems Using Real-Time Combustion Control

2003-03-03
2003-01-1053
Due to stricter fuel consumption and emissions requirements new gasoline engine concepts using advanced combustion systems such as fully variable valve train and controlled auto-ignition (HCCI) become important. Classical generic methods developed for system optimization with an increased number of variabilities (e.g. DoE - Design of Experiments), need extensions, because closed loop control is required for critical system parameters like valve train actuation and combustion behavior. This paper describes a new approach called “controlled optimization”, which is an extension of DoE using real-time controllers for critical system parameters (e. g. combustion timing). This ensures stable engine operation and protection under all conditions. Less critical parameters are still used as simple DoE-set values. Combustion timing, directly related to spark advance in conventional gasoline engines, is also strongly influenced by valve timing parameters.
Technical Paper

The Interaction Between Diesel Fuel Density and Electronic Engine Management Systems

1996-10-01
961975
The influence of fuel density on exhaust emissions from diesel engines has been investigated in a number of studies and these have generally concluded that particulate emissions rise with increasing density This paper reviews recent work in this area, including the European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies (EPEFE) and reports on a complementary study conducted by CONCAWE, in cooperation with AVL List GmbH The project was carried out with a passenger car equipped with an advanced technology high speed direct injection turbocharged / intercooled diesel engine fitted with a complex engine management system which was referenced to a specific fuel density This production model featured electronic diesel control, closed loop exhaust gas recirculation and an exhaust oxidation catalyst Tests were carried out with two EPEFE fuels which excluded the influence of key fuel properties other than density (828 8 and 855 1 kg/m3) Engine operation was adjusted for changes in fuel density by resetting the electronic programmable, read-only memory to obtain the same energy output from the two test fuels In chassis dynamometer tests over the ECE15 + EUDC test cycle the major impact of fuel density on particulate emissions for advanced engine technology/engine management systems was established A large proportion of the density effect on particulate and NOx emissions was due to physical interaction between fuel density and the electronic engine management system Limited bench engine testing of the basic engine showed that nearly complete compensation of the density effect on smoke (particulate) emissions could be achieved when no advanced technology was applied
Technical Paper

Flame Visualisation in Standard SI-Engines - Results of a Tomographic Combustion Analysis

1997-02-24
970870
An optical sensor system provides access to standard SI engine combustion chambers via the cylinder head gasket. Flame radiation within the plane of the gasket is observed with optical fibers which are arranged to allow the tomographic reconstruction of flame distribution. The effect of convective in-cylinder air motion generated by variations of inlet ports and combustion chamber geometries on flame propagation is directly visible. A high degree of correlation between flame intensity distribution and NOx emission levels yields a useful assessment of combustion chamber configurations with minimum emission levels. The location of knock centers is identified.
Technical Paper

Engineering Vehicle Sound Quality

1997-05-20
972063
The characteristically good fuel economy of the high speed direct injection diesel engine has led to increased market share as the power unit of passenger cars. This trend is particularly true in Europe and, if not halted prematurely by emissions legislation, is likely to continue. However, another characteristic of the high speed DI engine is increased noise and vibration over its gasoline counterpart. This has meant that additional noise and vibration measures are required in order to approach the competitive refinement levels of gasoline engine installations. This paper considers some of the characteristic diesel engine noise and vibration problems associated with vehicle installation and passenger comfort. The paper also discusses subjective and objective assessment and considers approaches to engineering more desirable sound quality.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Numerical Tool for Engine Noise and Vibration Simulation

1997-05-20
971992
The development of low noise engines and vehicles, accompanied by the reduction of costs and development time, can be obtained only if the design engineer is supported by complex calculation tools in a concurrent engineering process. In this respect, the reduction of vibrations (passenger comfort) and of vehicle noise (accelerated pass by noise) are important targets to meet legislative limits. AVL has been developing simulation programs for the dynamic-acoustic optimization of engines and gear trains for many years. To simulate the structure-born and air-born noise behavior of engines under operating conditions, substantial efforts on the mathematical simulation model are necessary. The simulation tool EXCITE, described in this paper, allows the calculation of the dynamic-acoustic behavior of power units.
Technical Paper

A Tomographic Camera System for Combustion Diagnostics in SI Engines

1995-02-01
950681
In order to facilitate the analysis of SI engine combustion phenomena, we have developed a fiber optic system which allows the observation of combustion in essentially standard engines. Optical access to the combustion chamber is achieved with micro-optic elements and optical fibers in the cylinder head gasket. Each fiber views a narrow cone of the combustion chamber and transmits the light seen within this acceptance cone to the detector and recorder unit. A large number of such fiber optic detectors have been incorporated in a cylinder head gasket and this multichannel system was arranged in a geometric configuration which allowed the reconstruction of the spatial flame intensity distribution within the observed combustion chamber cross-section. The spatial information was gained from the line-of-sight intensity signals by means of a tomographic reconstruction technique.
Technical Paper

ULEV Potential of a DI/TCI Diesel Passenger Car Engine Operated on Dimethyl Ether

1995-12-01
952754
The paper describes a feasibility test program on a 2 liter, 4 cylinder DI/TCI passenger car engine operated on the new alternative fuel Dimethyl Ether (DME, CH3 - O - CH3) with the aim of demonstrating its potential of meeting ULEV emissions (0.2 g/mi NOx in the FTP 75 test cycle) when installed in a full size passenger car. Special attention is drawn to the fuel injection equipment (FIE) as well as combustion system requirements towards the reduction of NOx and combustion noise while keeping energetic fuel consumption at the level of the baseline DI/TCI diesel engine. FIE and combustion system parameters were optimized on the steady state dynamometer by variation of a number of parameters, such as rate of injection, number of nozzle holes, compression ratio, piston bowl shape and exhaust gas recirculation.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Technology for Low Emissions HSDI Diesel Engines

1996-10-01
962369
The worldwide trend to increasingly stringent exhaust emissions standards, together with consumer requirements, are forcing both vehicle and engine manufacturers, as well as manufacturers of ancilliary equipment, to introduce new and often novel technology in order to produce clean, quiet and socially acceptable transport at affordable prices. The combustion process lies at the heart of the engine and the quality of the combustion determines the acceptability of the product to a very large extent. The fuel injection system plays a large role in the combustion process and in consequence, the fuel system type and capabilities strongly influence the performance of the combustion system. There has never been such a range of fuel injection systems available at one time as there is today. High pressure hydraulically actuated systems /1/ compete with cam driven fuel injection systems /2/ to deliver the injection requirements demanded by the vehicles both of today and in the future.
Technical Paper

Gasoline DI Engines: The Complete System Approach By Interaction of Advanced Development Tools

1998-02-23
980492
Gasoline direct injection is one of the main issues of actual worldwide SI engine development activities. It requires a comprehensive system approach from the basic considerations on optimum combustion system configuration up to vehicle performance and driveability. The general characteristics of currently favored combustion system configurations are discussed in this paper regarding both engine operation and design aspects. The engine performance, especially power output and emission potential of AVL's DGI engine concept is presented including the interaction of advanced tools like optical diagnostics and 3D-CFD simulation in the combustion system development process. The application of methods like tomographic combustion analysis for investigations in the multicylinder engine within further stages of development is demonstrated. The system layout and operational strategies for fuel economy in conjunction with exhaust gas aftertreatment requirements are discussed.
Technical Paper

Improvement of LEV/ULEV Potential of Fuel Efficient High Performance Engines

1992-02-01
920416
The combined requirement of achieving CAFE values between 32 to 38 mpg plus LEV/ULEV emission standards to comply with US legal requirements between 1995 and 2000 represents the most demanding challenge for engine engineering. Thus all possible methods of engine improvement towards fuel economy and emissions have to be considered. Besides using new ideas also the methods of engine development have to be modernized to cope with the challenge. The paper presents advanced combustion and exhaust gas aftertreatment systems which combine high power output, favourable torque characteristics and high fuel economy with the potential for obtaining LEV/ULEV emission values, as well as improved development techniques.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Inlet Port Design on the In-Cylinder Charge Mixing

1989-02-01
890842
A detailed investigation of the influence of intake port design on the in-cylinder flow structure during the intake and compression strokes, the mixing of the residual gas and a non-premixed intake charge, and the extent and pattern of charge inhomogenity near the time of combustion is described. The engine geometry is typical of the current lean-burn design and the study includes comparison of a helical (swirl) port and an idealized direct (no swirl) port designs. The results show marked dependence of the in-cylinder charge mixing characteristics on the intake port design. It is found that combinations of intake port design and manifold fuel injection timing produce favourably-stratified or irregularly-mixed charge distributions at the time of spark ignition. The consequences with respect to combustion characteristics are pointed out.
X