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Technical Paper

Development of a charge motion controlled combustion system for DI SI engines and its vehicle application to EU-4 emission regulations

The development of new passenger car powertrains with gasoline direct- injection engines is facing new requirements which result from the need of different operational modes with stratified and homogeneous air-fuel mixture. Moreover, the exhaust aftertreatment system causes a discontinuous operation with lean-burn absorption periods followed by short rich spikes for catalyst regeneration. Recent work on combustion system development has shown, that gasoline direct injection can create significant fuel economy benefits. Charge motion controlled combustion systems have proven to be of advantage in terms of low raw emissions compared to wall-guided concepts. Based on an initial single-cylinder development phase, a multi-cylinder engine was realized with excellent fuel economy, low raw emissions and operational robustness. Finally, the new engine''s potential has been demonstrated in a mid-class vehicle.
Technical Paper

Borderline Design of Crankshafts Based on Hybrid Simulation Technology

This paper introduces different modeling approaches of crankshafts, compares the refinement levels and discusses the difference between the results of the crankshaft durability calculation methodologies. A V6 crankshaft is considered for the comparison of the refinement levels depending on the deviation between the signals such as main bearing forces and deflection angle. Although a good correlation is observed between the results in low speed range, the deviation is evident through the mid to high speed ranges. The deviation amplitude differs depending on the signal being observed and model being used. An inline 4 crankshaft is considered for the comparison of the durability results. The analysis results show that the durability potential is underestimated with a classical crankshaft calculation approach which leads to a limitation of maximum speed of 5500 rpm.
Technical Paper

Application of Combustion Sound Level (CSL) Analysis for Powertrain

Powertrain noise is a significant factor in determination of the overall vehicle refinement expected by today's discriminating automotive customer. Development of a powertrain to meet these expectations requires a thorough understanding of the contributing noise sources. Specifically, combustion noise greatly impacts the perception of sound levels and quality. The relevance of combustion noise development has increased with the advent of newer efficiency-driven technologies such as direct injection or homogeneous charge compression ignition. This paper discusses the application of a CSL (Combustion Sound Level) analysis-a method for the identification and optimization of combustion noise. Using CSL, it is possible to separate mechanical and combustion noise sources.
Technical Paper

LOTUS: A Co-operation for Low Temperature Urea-Based Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx

The European research co-operation Lotus is presented. The main objectives of the project were i) to show the potential for a urea-based SCR system to comply with the EU standard of years 2005 and 2008 for heavy-duty Diesel engines for different driving conditions with optimal fuel consumption, ii) to reach 95 % conversion of NOx at steady state at full load on a Euro III engine, iii) to reach 75 % NOx reduction for exhaust temperatures between 200-300°C, and 85 % average NOx reduction between 200-500°C. The energy content of the consumed urea should not exceed 1.0 %, calculated as specific fuel consumption. These targets were met in May 2003 and the Lotus SCR system fulfilled the Euro V NOx legislative objectives for year 2008.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Made Fuels for Future Advanced Diesel Combustion Engines

The finite nature and instability of fossil fuel supply has led to an increasing and enduring investigation demand of alternative and regenerative fuels. The Institute for Combustion Engines at the RWTH Aachen University carried out an investigation program to explore the potential of tailor made fuels to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and an acceptable noise level. To enable optimum engine performance a range of different hydrocarbons having different fuel properties like cetane number, boiling temperature and different molecular compositions have been investigated. Paraffines and naphthenes were selected in order to better understand the effects of molecular composition and chain length on emissions and performance of an engine that was already optimized for advanced combustion performance. The diesel single-cylinder research engine used in this study will be used to meet Euro 6 emissions limits and beyond.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Soot Formation of Sprays from Cluster Nozzles for DI Diesel Engines

One of the basic topics in the design of new injection systems for DI Diesel engines is to decrease the soot emissions. A promising approach to minimize soot production are nozzles with clustered holes. A basic idea of the Cluster Configuration (CC) nozzles is to prevent a fuel rich area in the center of the flame where most of the soot is produced, and to minimize the overall soot formation in this way. For this purpose each hole of a standard nozzle is replaced by two smaller holes. The diameter of the smaller holes is chosen so that the flow rate of all nozzles should be equal. The basic strategy of the cluster nozzles is to provide a better primary break up and therefore a better mixture formation caused by the smaller nozzle holes, but a comparable penetration length of the vapor phase due to merging of the sprays. Three possible arrangements of the clustered holes are investigated in this study. Both the cluster angle and the orientation to the injector axis are varied.
Technical Paper

Injection Rate Shaping Investigations on a Small – Bore DI Diesel Engine

So far, the effect of injection rate shaping on the diesel combustion in small-bore DI diesel engines has not been extensively investigated, especially at high part load conditions with high EGR rates. The benefit of injection rate shaping is already verified for heavy duty engines at high load conditions with and without EGR. For this investigation, single cylinder engine investigations were conducted at the VKA / RWTH Aachen University. In order to meet the future NOx legislation limits like US-Tier2Bin5 it is crucial to reduce NOx especially at the high load points of the certification cycles, as FTP75 or US06. For the single cylinder investigations two part load points were chosen, which have relevance for the mentioned certification cycles. The experimental work focuses on different rate shapes as rectangular (Common-Rail type), ramp and boot shape at high EGR rates.
Technical Paper

Diesel Combustion Control with Closed-Loop Control of the Injection Strategy

Current and future emission legislations require a significant reduction of engine-out emissions for Diesel engines. For a further reduction of engine-out emissions, different measures are necessary such as: Especially an advanced emission and closed-loop combustion control has gained increased significance during the past years.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Hydrodynamic Bearing Behaviour for Pre-layout of Cranktrain Dimensions

Calculating the bearing reliability and behavior is one of the primary tasks which have to be performed to define the main dimensions of the cranktrain of an internal combustion engine. Since the bearing results are essential for the pre-layout of the cranktrain, the conclusion on the bearing safety should be met as early as possible. Therefore detailed simulations like T-EHD or EHD analysis may not be applied to define the dimensions in such an early development phase. In the frame of this study a prediction methodology, based on a HD bearing approach, for bearing reliability of inline-4 crankshafts of passenger cars is proposed. In this way not only the design phase is shortened but also achieving the optimal solution is simplified. Moreover the requirement of a CAD model is eliminated for the preliminary design phase. The influencing parameters on the bearing behavior are first selected and divided into two groups: geometry and loading.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Fuel Influence on Atomization and Spray Propagation Using an Outwardly Opening GDI-Injector

One fundamental subprocess for the utilization of alternative fuels for automotive applications is the in-cylinder mixture formation and therefore the fuel injection, which largely affects the combustion efficiency of internal combustion engines. This study analyzes the influence of the physical properties of various model-fuels on atomization and spray propagation at temperatures and pressures matching the operating conditions of today's gasoline engines. The experiments were carried out using an outwardly opening, piezo-driven gasoline injector. In order to cover a wide range of potential fuels the following liquids were investigated: Alcohols (Ethanol, Butanol and Decanol), alkanes (Iso-Octane, Dodecane and Heptane) and one furane (Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol). The macroscopic spray propagation of the fuels was investigated using shadowgraphy. For complementary spray characterization droplet sizes and velocities were measured using Phase-Doppler Anemometry.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Temperature Management for Diesel Engines Assessment of Engine Concepts and Calibration Strategies with Regard to Fuel Penalty

Both, the continuous strengthening of the exhaust emission legislation and the striving for a substantial reduction of carbon dioxide output in the traffic sector depict substantial requirements for the development of future diesel engines. These engines will comprise not only the mandatory diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and particulate filter DPF but a NOx aftertreatment system as well - at least for heavier vehicles. The oxidation catalysts as well as currently available NOx aftertreatment technologies, i.e., LNT and SCR, rely on sufficient exhaust gas temperatures to achieve a proper conversion. This is getting more and more critical due to the fact that today's and future measures for CO₂ reduction will result in further decrease of engine-out temperatures. Additionally this development has to be considered in the light of further engine electrification and hybridization scenarios.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Combustion Control - Enabler of Future Refined Engine Performance Regarding Power, Efficiency, Emissions & NVH under Stringent Governmental Regulations

Both, the continuous strengthening of the exhaust emission legislation and the striving for a substantial reduction of the carbon dioxide output in the traffic sector depict substantial requirements for the global automotive industry and especially for the engine manufacturers. From the multiplicity of possible approaches and strategies for clear compliance with these demands, engine internal measures offer a large and, eventually more important, very economical potential. For example, the achievements in fuel injection technology are a measure which in the last years has contributed significantly to a notable reduction of the emissions of the modern DI Diesel engines at favorable fuel efficiency. Besides the application of modern fuel injection technology, the linked combustion control (Closed Loop Combustion Control) opens possibilities for a further optimization of the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Architecture of a Detailed Three Dimensional Piston Ring Model

Piston rings are faced with a broad range of demands like optimal sealing properties, wear properties and reliability. Even more challenging boundary conditions must be met when latest developments in the fields of direct injection as well as the application of bio fuels. This complex variety of piston ring design requirements leads to the need of a comprehensive simulation model in order to support the development in the early design phase prior to testing. The simulation model must be able to provide classical objectives like friction analysis, wear rate and blow-by. Furthermore, it must include an adequate oil consumption model. The objective of this work is to provide such a simulation model that is embedded in the commercial MBS software ‘FEV Virtual Engine’. The MBS model consists of a cranktrain assembly with a rigid piston that contains flexible piston rings.
Journal Article

Influence of the Mixture Formation on the Lubrication Oil Emission of Combustion Engines

Partly competing objectives, as low fuel consumption, low friction, long oil maintenance rate, and at the same time lowest exhaust emissions have to be fulfilled. Diminishing resources, continuously reduced development periods, and shortened product cycles yield detailed knowledge about oil consumption mechanisms in combustion engines to be essential. There are different ways for the lubricating oil to enter the combustion chamber: for example as blow-by gas, leakage past valve stem seals, piston rings (reverse blow-by) and evaporation from the cylinder liner wall and the combustion chamber. For a further reduction of oil consumption the investigation of these mechanisms has become more and more important. In this paper the influence of the mixture formation and the resulting fuel content in the cylinder liner wall film on the lubricant oil emission was examined.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Spray Characteristics of Di-n-Butyl Ether (DNBE) as an Oxygenated Compound in Diesel Fuel

Increasing concern for the environment and the impending scarcity of fossil fuels requires continued development in hydrocarbon combustion science. For compression-ignition engines, adding oxygenated compounds to the fuel can reduce noise, soot formation, and unburned hydrocarbons while simultaneously increasing thermal efficiency. In order to reliably model and design compression-ignition engines to use new fuel blends, accurate spray characteristic data is required. In this study, the spray characteristics of various blends of the oxygenated compound di-n-butyl ether (DNBE) with standard EN590 Diesel fuel are presented, including spray cone angle and spray penetration length for both liquid and gas phases. The experiments were conducted in a spray chamber at ambient conditions of 50 bar and 800 K, simulating TDC conditions in a Diesel engine. Injection pressures were varied from 700-1600 bar.
Technical Paper

Glow-plug Ignition of Ethanol Fuels under Diesel Engine Relevant Thermodynamic Conditions

The requirement of reducing worldwide CO₂ emissions and engine pollutants are demanding an increased use of bio-fuels. Ethanol with its established production technology can contribute to this goal. However, due to its resistive auto-ignition behavior the use of ethanol-based fuels is limited to the spark-ignited gasoline combustion process. For application to the compression-ignited diesel combustion process advanced ignition systems are required. In general, ethanol offers a significant potential to improve the soot emission behavior of the diesel engine due to its oxygen content and its enhanced evaporation behavior. In this contribution the ignition behavior of ethanol and mixtures with high ethanol content is investigated in combination with advanced ignition systems with ceramic glow-plugs under diesel engine relevant thermodynamic conditions in a high pressure and temperature vessel.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging of Downsized Gasoline DI Engines with 2 and 3 Cylinders

Turbocharged DISI engines with four cylinders have established in the market and provide a performance comparable to larger six-cylinder engines in the smaller compartment of a four-cylinder engine. In the Japanese market, also turbo gasoline engines with 500 - 660 cm₃ displacement have a long tradition in Kei-Cars. However, those engines show a lower specific performance as would be required for propelling typical small or compact vehicles in Europe. Recently, two-cylinder turbo engines have come to market, which are found attractive with respect to sound, package, and also enable low vehicle fuel consumption in NEDC test. The paper presents a turbocharger layout study on 2- and 3-cylinder engines. It discusses the influence of cylinder displacement volume on the sizing of turbines and compressors, and how specific flow phenomena in the turbine can be captured in the simulation model.
Technical Paper

A New CFD Approach for Assessment of Swirl Flow Pattern in HSDI Diesel Engines

The fulfillment of the aggravated demands on future small-size High-Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) Diesel engines requires next to the optimization of the injection system and the combustion chamber also the generation of an optimal in-cylinder swirl charge motion. To evaluate different port concepts for modern HSDI Diesel engines, usually quantities as the in-cylinder swirl ratio and the flow coefficient are determined, which are measured on a steady-state flow test bench. It has been shown that different valve lift strategies nominally lead to similar swirl levels. However, significant differences in combustion behavior and engine-out emissions give rise to the assumption that local differences in the in-cylinder flow structure caused by different valve lift strategies have noticeable impact. In this study an additional criterion, the homogeneity of the swirl flow, is introduced and a new approach for a quantitative assessment of swirl flow pattern is presented.
Technical Paper

Acoustics of Hybrid Vehicles

The technology used in hybrid vehicle concepts is significantly different from conventional vehicle technology with consequences also for the noise and vibration behavior. In conventional vehicles, certain noise phenomena are masked by the engine noise. In situations where the combustion engine is turned off in hybrid vehicle concepts, these noise components can become dominant and annoying. In hybrid concepts, the driving condition is often decoupled from the operation state of the combustion engine, which leads to unusual and unexpected acoustical behavior. New acoustic phenomena such as magnetic noise due to recuperation occur, caused by new components and driving conditions. The analysis of this recuperation noise by means of interior noise simulation shows, that it is not only induced by the powertrain radiation but also by the noise path via the powertrain mounts. The additional degrees of freedom of the hybrid drive train can also be used to improve the vibrational behavior.
Technical Paper

A New Approach for Optimization of Mixture Formation on Gasoline DI Engines

Advanced technologies such as direct injection DI, turbocharging and variable valve timing, have lead to a significant evolution of the gasoline engine with positive effects on driving pleasure, fuel consumption and emissions. Today's developments are primarily focused on the implementation of improved full load characteristics for driving performance and fuel consumption reduction with stoichiometric operation, following the downsizing approach in combination with turbocharging and high specific power. The requirements of a relatively small cylinder displacement with high specific power and a wide flexibility of DI injection specifications lead to competing development targets and additionally to a high number of degrees of freedom during optimization. In order to successfully approach an optimum solution, FEV has evolved an advanced development methodology, which is based on the combination of simulation, optical diagnostics and engine thermodynamics testing.