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Technical Paper

Analytical and Empirical Methods for Optimization of Cylinder Liner Bore Distortion

2001-03-05
2001-01-0569
Beside the traditional prediction of stresses and verification by mechanical testing the optimization of cylinder liner bore distortion is one of today's most important topics in crankcase structure development. Low bore distortion opens up potentials for optimizing the piston group. As the piston rings achieve better sealing characteristics in a low deformation cylinder liner, oil consumption and blow-by are reduced. For unchanged oil consumption and blow-by demands, engine friction and subsequently, fuel consumption could be reduced by decreasing the pre-tension of the piston rings. From the acoustical point of view an optimization of piston-slap noise is often based on an optimized bore distortion behavior. Apart from basics to the behavior of liner bore distortion the paper presents advanced analytical and empirical methods for detailed prediction, verification and optimization of bore distortion taking into account the effective engine operation conditions.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Nozzle Spray Angle on Pollutant Formation and Combustion Efficiency for a PCCI Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1445
In Common-Rail DI Diesel Engines, a low combustion temperature process is considered as one of the most important possibilities to achieve very small emissions and optimum performance. To reduce NOx and Soot strongly, it is necessary to achieve a homogenization of the mixture in order to avoid the higher local temperatures which are responsible for the NOx formation [1]. Through the homogenization it is also possible to obtain a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio in order to significantly reduce the Soot emissions. One way to achieve this homogeneous condition is to start injection very early together with the use of higher EGR rates. The direct effect of these conditions cause a longer ignition delay (this is the time between start of the injection and auto-ignition during physical and chemical sub processes such as fuel atomization, evaporation, fuel air mixing and chemical pre-reactions take place) so that the mixture formation has more time to achieve a homogeneous state.
Technical Paper

Architecture of a Detailed Three Dimensional Piston Ring Model

2011-09-11
2011-24-0159
Piston rings are faced with a broad range of demands like optimal sealing properties, wear properties and reliability. Even more challenging boundary conditions must be met when latest developments in the fields of direct injection as well as the application of bio fuels. This complex variety of piston ring design requirements leads to the need of a comprehensive simulation model in order to support the development in the early design phase prior to testing. The simulation model must be able to provide classical objectives like friction analysis, wear rate and blow-by. Furthermore, it must include an adequate oil consumption model. The objective of this work is to provide such a simulation model that is embedded in the commercial MBS software ‘FEV Virtual Engine’. The MBS model consists of a cranktrain assembly with a rigid piston that contains flexible piston rings.
Technical Paper

Opposed Piston Opposed Cylinder (opoc™) 450 hp Engine: Performance Development by CAE Simulations and Testing

2006-04-03
2006-01-0277
The new opoc™ diesel engine concept was presented at the SAE 2005 World Congress [1]. Exceptional power density of >1hp/lb and >40% efficiency have been predicted for the 2-stroke opoc™ diesel engine concept. Intensive CAE simulations have been performed during the concept and design phase in order to define the baseline scavenging and combustion parameters, such as port timing, turbocharger configuration and fuel injection nozzle design. Under a DARPA contract, first prototype engines have been built and have undergone a validation testing program. The main goal of the first testing phase was to demonstrate the power output capability of the new engine concept. In close relationship and interaction of testing and CAE simulation, the uniflow scavenging process and parameters of the special diesel direct side injection have been optimized. This paper discusses the latest results of the opoc engine development.
Technical Paper

Applying Representative Interactive Flamelets (RIF) with Special Emphasis on Pollutant Formation to Simulate a DI Diesel Engine with Roof-Shaped Combustion Chamber and Tumble Charge Motion

2007-04-16
2007-01-0167
Combustion and pollutant formation in a new recently introduced Common-Rail DI Diesel engine concept with roof-shaped combustion chamber and tumble charge motion are numerically investigated using the Representative Interactive Flamelet concept (RIF). A reference case with a cup shaped piston bowl for full load operating conditions is considered in detail. In addition to the reference case, three more cases are investigated with a variation of start of injection (SOI). A surrogate fuel consisting of n-decane (70% liquid volume fraction) and α-methylnaphthalene (30% liquid volume fraction) is used in the simulation. The underlying complete reaction mechanism comprises 506 elementary reactions and 118 chemical species. Special emphasis is put on pollutant formation, in particular on the formation of NOx, where a new technique based on a three-dimensional transport equation within the flamelet framework is applied.
Journal Article

Experimental Analysis of the Impact of Injected Biofuels on In-Cylinder Flow Structures

2016-05-18
2016-01-9043
The interaction of biofuel sprays from an outward opening hollow cone injector and the flow field inside an internal combustion engine is analyzed by Mie-Scattering Imaging (MSI) and high-speed stereoscopic particle-image velocimetry (stereo-PIV). Two fuels (ethanol and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)), four injection pressures (50, 100, 150, and 200 bar), three starting points of injection (60°, 277°, and 297° atdc), and two engine speeds (1,500 rpm and 2,000 rpm) define the parameter space of the experiments. The MSI measurements determine the vertical penetration length and the spray cone angle of the ethanol and MEK spray. Stereo-PIV is used to investigate the interaction of the flow field and the ethanol spray after the injection process for a start of injection at 60° atdc. These measurements are compared to stereo-PIV measurements without fuel injection performed in the same engine [19].
Journal Article

Influence of the Mixture Formation on the Lubrication Oil Emission of Combustion Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-1275
Partly competing objectives, as low fuel consumption, low friction, long oil maintenance rate, and at the same time lowest exhaust emissions have to be fulfilled. Diminishing resources, continuously reduced development periods, and shortened product cycles yield detailed knowledge about oil consumption mechanisms in combustion engines to be essential. There are different ways for the lubricating oil to enter the combustion chamber: for example as blow-by gas, leakage past valve stem seals, piston rings (reverse blow-by) and evaporation from the cylinder liner wall and the combustion chamber. For a further reduction of oil consumption the investigation of these mechanisms has become more and more important. In this paper the influence of the mixture formation and the resulting fuel content in the cylinder liner wall film on the lubricant oil emission was examined.
Technical Paper

CFD Simulation of Oil Jets for Piston Cooling Applications Comparing the Level Set and the Volume of Fluid Method

2019-04-02
2019-01-0155
A new CFD simulation model and methodology for oil jet piston cooling has been developed using the modern level set approach. In contrast to the widely used volume of fluid (VOF) method, the level set approach explicitly tracks the interface surface between oil and air, using an additional field equation. The method has been extensively tested on two- and three-dimensional examples using results from literature for comparison. Furthermore, several applications of oil jet piston cooling on Ford engines have been investigated and demonstrated. For example, three-dimensional simulations of piston cooling nozzle jets on a diesel engine have been calculated and compared to test-rig measurements. Laminar jets, as well as jets with droplets and fully atomized jets, have been simulated using realistic material properties, surface tension, and gravity.
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