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Journal Article

A Sectoral Approach to Modelling Wall Heat Transfer in Exhaust Ports and Manifolds for Turbocharged Gasoline Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0202
A new approach is presented to modelling wall heat transfer in the exhaust port and manifold within 1D gas exchange simulation to ensure a precise calculation of thermal exhaust enthalpy. One of the principal characteristics of this approach is the partition of the exhaust process in a blow-down and a push-out phase. In addition to the split in two phases, the exhaust system is divided into several sections to consider changes in heat transfer characteristics downstream the exhaust valves. Principally, the convective heat transfer is described by the characteristic numbers of Nusselt, Reynolds and Prandtl. However, the phase individual correlation coefficients are derived from 3D CFD investigations of the flow in the exhaust system combined with Low-Re turbulence modelling. Furthermore, heat losses on the valve and the seat ring surfaces are considered by an empirical model approach.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Emission Conversion Performance of Gasoline Particulate Filters Over Lifetime

2019-09-09
2019-24-0156
Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) recently entered the market, and are already regarded a state-of-the-art solution for gasoline exhaust aftertreatment systems to enable EU6d-TEMP fulfilment and beyond. Especially for coated GPF applications, the prognosis of the emission conversion performance over lifetime poses an ambitious challenge, which significantly influences future catalyst diagnosis calibrations. The paper presents key-findings for the different GPF application variants. In the first part, experimental GPF ash loading results are presented. Ash accumulates as thin wall layers and short plugs, but does not penetrate into the wall. However, it suppresses deep bed filtration of soot, initially decreasing the soot-loaded backpressure. For the emission calibration, the non-linear backpressure development complicates the soot load monitoring, eventually leading to compromises between high safety against soot overloading and a low number of active regenerations.
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