Characterization of Hollow Cone Gas Jets in the Context of Direct Gas Injection in Internal Combustion Engines
Direct injection (DI) compressed natural gas (CNG) engines are emerging as a promising technology for highly efficient and low-emission engines. However, the design of DI systems for compressible gas is challenging due to supersonic flows and the occurrence of shocks. An outwardly opening poppet-type valve design is widely used for DI-CNG. The formation of a hollow cone gas jet resulting from this configuration, its subsequent collapse, and mixing is challenging to characterize using experimental methods. Therefore, numerical simulations can be helpful to understand the process and later to develop models for engine simulations. In this article, the results of high-fidelity large-eddy simulation (LES) of a stand-alone injector are discussed to understand the evolution of the hollow cone gas jet better.