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Journal Article

Dedicated GTL Vehicle: A Calibration Optimization Study

2010-04-12
2010-01-0737
GTL (Gas-To-Liquid) fuel is well known to improve tailpipe emissions when fuelling a conventional diesel vehicle, that is, one optimized to conventional fuel. This investigation assesses the additional potential for GTL fuel in a GTL-dedicated vehicle. This potential for GTL fuel was quantified in an EU 4 6-cylinder serial production engine. In the first stage, a comparison of engine performance was made of GTL fuel against conventional diesel, using identical engine calibrations. Next, adaptations enabled the full potential of GTL fuel within a dedicated calibration to be assessed. For this stage, two optimization goals were investigated: - Minimization of NOx emissions and - Minimization of fuel consumption. For each optimization the boundary condition was that emissions should be within the EU5 level. An additional constraint on the latter strategy required noise levels to remain within the baseline reference.
Technical Paper

Application of Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation (VINS) for NVH Analysis of a Passenger Car

2005-05-16
2005-01-2514
The overall perception of a vehicle's quality is significantly influenced by its interior noise characteristics. Therefore, it is important to strike a balance between “pleasant” and “dynamic” sound that fits the customer requirements with respect to vehicle brand and class [1]. Typically, a significant share of the interior vehicle noise is transferred through structure-borne paths. Hence, the powertrain mounting system plays an important role in designing the interior noise. This paper describes an application of the method of vehicle interior noise simulation (VINS) to achieve a characteristic interior sound. This approach is based on separate measurements (or calculations) of excitations and transfer functions and subsequent calculation of the interior noise in the time domain.
Technical Paper

End-To-End Protection for SIL3 Requirements in a FlexRay Communication System

2008-04-14
2008-01-0112
This paper proposes end-to-end protection mechanisms to be added to a generic FlexRay network in order to achieve fault detection and integrity levels sufficient for a SIL3 fail safe communication system. The mechanisms are derived from the random hardware failure modes to be considered for communication controllers according to IEC 61508. Mechanisms provided by the FlexRay protocol are pointed out. Additional features necessary to fulfil the requirements are discussed. It is shown how to calculate the failure rate probabilities of the CRC used as a safety code with respect to EN 50159.
Technical Paper

Potential of the Spray-guided Combustion System in Combination with Turbocharging

2008-04-14
2008-01-0139
Based on the TurboDISI engine presented earlier [1], [2], a new Spray Guided Turbo (SGT) concept with enhanced engine performance was developed. The turbocharged engine was modified towards utilizing a spray-guided combustion system with a central piezo injector location. Higher specific power and torque levels were achieved by applying specific design and cooling solutions. The engine was developed utilizing a state-of-the-art newly developed charge motion design (CMD) process in combination with single cylinder investigations. The engine control unit has a modular basis and is realized using rapid prototyping hardware. Additional fuel consumption potentials can be achieved with high load EGR, use of alternative fuels and a hybrid powertrain. The CO2 targets of the EU (120 g/km by 2012 in the NEDC) can be obtained with a mid-size vehicle applying the technologies presented within this paper.
Technical Paper

Advanced Combustion for Low Emissions and High Efficiency Part 2: Impact of Fuel Properties on HCCI Combustion

2008-10-06
2008-01-2404
A broad range of diesel, kerosene, and gasoline-like fuels has been tested in a single-cylinder diesel engine optimized for advanced combustion performance. These fuels were selected in order to better understand the effects of ignition quality, volatility, and molecular composition on engine-out emissions, performance, and noise levels. Low-level biofuel blends, both biodiesel (FAME) and ethanol, were included in the fuel set in order to test for short-term advantages or disadvantages. The diesel engine optimized in Part 1 of this study included cumulative engine hardware enhancements that are likely to be used to meet Euro 6 emissions limits and beyond, in part by operating under conditions of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), at least over some portions of the speed and load map.
Technical Paper

Advanced Combustion for Low Emissions and High Efficiency Part 1: Impact of Engine Hardware on HCCI Combustion

2008-10-06
2008-01-2405
Two single-cylinder diesel engines were optimised for advanced combustion performance by means of practical and cumulative hardware enhancements that are likely to be used to meet Euro 5 and 6 emissions limits and beyond. These enhancements included high fuel injection pressures, high EGR levels and charge cooling, increased swirl, and a fixed combustion phasing, providing low engine-out emissions of NOx and PM with engine efficiencies equivalent to today's diesel engines. These combustion conditions approach those of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), especially at the lower part-load operating points. Four fuels exhibiting a range of ignition quality, volatility, and aromatics contents were used to evaluate the performance of these hardware enhancements on engine-out emissions, performance, and noise levels.
Journal Article

Obtaining Diagnostic Coverage Metrics Using Rapid Prototyping of Multicore Systems

2011-04-12
2011-01-1007
With the introduction of the ISO26262 automotive safety standard there is a burden of proof to show that the processing elements in embedded microcontroller hardware are capable of supporting a certain diagnostic coverage level, depending on the required Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL). The current mechanisms used to provide actual metrics of the Built-in Self Tests (BIST) and Lock Step comparators use Register Transfer Level (RTL) simulations of the internal processing elements which force faults into individual nodes of the design and collect diagnostic coverage results. Although this mechanism is robust, it can only be performed by semiconductor suppliers and is costly. This paper describes a new solution whereby the microcontroller is synthesized into a large Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with a test controller on the outside.
Journal Article

Timing Analysis for Hypervisor-based I/O Virtualization in Safety-Related Automotive Systems

2017-03-28
2017-01-1621
The increasing complexity of automotive functions which are necessary for improved driving assistance systems and automated driving require a change of common vehicle architectures. This includes new concepts for E/E architectures such as a domain-oriented vehicle network based on powerful Domain Control Units (DCUs). These highly integrated controllers consolidate several applications on different safety levels on the same ECU. Hence, the functions depend on a strictly separated and isolated implementation to guarantee a correct behavior. This requires middleware layers which guarantee task isolation and Quality of Service (QoS) communication have to provide several new features, depending on the domain the corresponding control unit is used for. In a first step we identify requirements for a middleware in automotive DCUs. Our goal is to reuse legacy AUTOSAR based code in a multicore domain controller.
Technical Paper

Hardware Based Paravirtualization: Simplifying the Co-Hosting of Legacy Code for Mixed Criticality Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-0186
The increased pressure for power, space, and cost reduction in automotive applications together with the availability of high performance, automotive qualified multicore microcontrollers has lead to the ability to engineer Domain Controller ECUs that can host several separate applications in parallel. The standard automotive constraints however still apply, such as use of AUTOSAR operating system, support for legacy code, hosting OEM supplied code and the ability to determine warranty issues and responsibilities between a group of Tier 1 and Tier 2 vendors who all provide Intellectual Property to the final production ECU. Requirements for safety relevant applications add even more complexity, which in most current approaches demand a reconfiguration of all basic software layers and a major effort to redesign parts of the application code to enable co-existence on the same hardware platform. This paper outlines the conflicting requirements of hosting multiple applications.
Journal Article

Virtual 48 V Mild Hybridization: Efficient Validation by Engine-in-the-Loop

2018-04-03
2018-01-0410
New 12 V/48 V power net architectures are potential solutions to close the gap between customer needs and legislative requirements. In order to exploit their potential, an increased effort is needed for functional implementation and hardware integration. Shifting of development tasks to earlier phases (frontloading) is a promising solution to streamline the development process and to increase the maturity level at early stages. This study shows the potential of the frontloading of development tasks by implementing a virtual 48 V mild hybridization in an engine-in-the-loop (EiL) setup. Advanced simulation technics like functional mock-up interface- (FMI) based co-simulation are utilized for the seamless integration of the real-time (RT) simulation models and allow a modular simulation framework as well as a decrease in development time.
Technical Paper

Leveraging Hardware Security to Secure Connected Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0012
Advanced safety features and new services in connected cars depend on the security of the underlying vehicle functions. Due to the interconnection with the outside world and as a result of being an embedded system a modern vehicle is exposed to both, malicious activities as faced by traditional IT world systems as well as physical attacks. This introduces the need for utilizing hardware-assisted security measures to prevent both kinds of attacks. In this paper we present a survey of the different classes of hardware security devices and depict their different functional range and application. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach by conducting a case study on an exemplary implementation of a function-on-demand use case. In particular, our example outlines how to apply the different hardware security approaches in practice to address real-world security topics. We conclude with an assessment of today’s hardware security devices.
Technical Paper

In-Use Compliance Opportunity for Diesel Powertrains

2018-04-03
2018-01-0877
In-use compliance under LEV III emission standards, GHG, and fuel economy targets beyond 2025 poses a great opportunity for all ICE-based propulsion systems, especially for light-duty diesel powertrain and aftertreatment enhancement. Though diesel powertrains feature excellent fuel-efficiency, robust and complete emissions controls covering any possible operational profiles and duty cycles has always been a challenge. Significant dependency on aftertreatment calibration and configuration has become a norm. With the onset of hybridization and downsizing, small steps of improvement in system stability have shown a promising avenue for enhancing fuel economy while continuously improving emissions robustness. In this paper, a study of current key technologies and associated emissions robustness will be discussed followed by engine and aftertreatment performance target derivations for LEV III compliant powertrains.
Technical Paper

Basic Single-Microcontroller Monitoring Concept for Safety Critical Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1488
Electronic Control Units of safety critical systems require constant monitoring of the hardware to be able to bring the system to a safe state if any hardware defects or malfunctions are detected. This monitoring includes memory checking, peripheral checking as well as checking the main processor core. However, checking the processor core is difficult because it cannot be guaranteed that the error will be properly detected if the monitor function is running on a processing system which is malfunctioning. To circumvent this issue, several previously presented monitoring concepts (e.g. SAE#2006-01-0840) employ a second external microprocessor to communicate with the main processor to check its integrity. The addition of a second microcontroller and the associated support circuitry that is required adds to the overall costs of the ECU, increases the size and creates significant system complexity.
Technical Paper

Implementation of a Basic Single-Microcontroller Monitoring Concept for Safety Critical Systems on a Dual-Core Microcontroller

2007-04-16
2007-01-1486
Electronic Control Units of safety critical systems require constant monitoring of the hardware to be able to bring the system to a safe state if any hardware defects or malfunctions are detected. This monitoring includes memory checking, peripheral checking as well as checking the main processor core. However, checking the processor core is difficult because it cannot be guaranteed that the error will be properly detected if the monitor function is running on a processing system which is malfunctioning. To circumvent this issue, several previously presented monitoring concepts (e.g. SAE#2006-01-0840) employ a second external microprocessor to communicate with the main processor to check its integrity. This paper will present a concept which maps the functions of the external monitoring unit into an internal second processing core which are frequently available on modern, 32bit, monolithic, dual-core microcontrollers.
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