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Technical Paper

Light Duty Diesel Exhaust Gas After Treatment Challenges and Technologies for Post BS-IV Regulations

With the implementation of Emissions Stage 5 in Europe all passenger cars with diesel engines need after treatment systems with Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF). Therefore Indian post BS-IV regulations are expectedto force the introduction of DPFs for the Indian domestic market as well. In this paper a new low porosity Aluminum Titanate (AT) DPF generation is discussed and how this new product family can help address specific requirements for the Indian market. Two new technologies of the DuraTrap®AT DPFs complement the existing portfolio. One technology has an increased soot mass limit, the second new product significantly reduces the pressure drop over the filter.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Temperature Management for Diesel Engines Assessment of Engine Concepts and Calibration Strategies with Regard to Fuel Penalty

Both, the continuous strengthening of the exhaust emission legislation and the striving for a substantial reduction of carbon dioxide output in the traffic sector depict substantial requirements for the development of future diesel engines. These engines will comprise not only the mandatory diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and particulate filter DPF but a NOx aftertreatment system as well - at least for heavier vehicles. The oxidation catalysts as well as currently available NOx aftertreatment technologies, i.e., LNT and SCR, rely on sufficient exhaust gas temperatures to achieve a proper conversion. This is getting more and more critical due to the fact that today's and future measures for CO₂ reduction will result in further decrease of engine-out temperatures. Additionally this development has to be considered in the light of further engine electrification and hybridization scenarios.
Technical Paper

Complex Air Path Management Systems and Necessary Controller Structures for Future High Dynamic Requirements

The future worldwide emission regulations will request a drastic decrease of Diesel engine tailpipe emissions. Depending on the planned application and the real official regulations, a further strong decrease of engine out emissions is necessary, even though the utilized exhaust after-treatment systems are very powerful. To reduce NOx emissions internally, the external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is known as the most effective way. Due to the continuously increasing requirements regarding specific power, dynamic behavior and low emissions, future air path systems have to fulfill higher requirements and, consequently, become more and more complex, e.g. arrangements with a 2-stage turbo charging or 2-stage EGR system with different stages of cooling performance.
Technical Paper

Predicting Pressure Drop of Wall-Flow Diesel Particulate Filters - Theory and Experiment

Information on transport mechanisms in a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) provides crucial insight into the filter performance. Extensive experimental work has been pursued to modify, customize and validate a model yielding accurate predictions of a ceramic wall-flow DPF pressure drop. The model accounts, not only for the major pressure drop components due to flow through porous walls but also, for viscous losses due to channel plugs, flow contraction and expansion due to flow entering and exiting the trap and also for flow secondary inertial effects near the porous walls. Experimental data were collected on a matrix of filters covering change in filter diameter and length, cell density and wall thickness and for a wide range of flow rates. The model yields accurate predictions of DPF pressure drop with no particulate loading and, with adequate adjustment, it is also capable of making predictions of pressure drop for filters lightly-loaded with particulates.
Technical Paper

Performance Aspects of New Catalyzed Diesel Soot Filters Based on Advanced Oxide Filter Materials

Catalyzed soot filters are being fitted to an increasing range of diesel-powered passenger cars in Europe. While the initial applications used silicon carbide wall-flow filters, oxide-based filters are now being successfully applied. Oxide-based filters can offer performance and system cost advantages for applications involving both a catalyzed filter with a separate oxidation catalyst, and a catalyzed filter-only that incorporates all necessary catalytic oxidation functions. Advanced diesel catalyst technologies have been developed for alternative advanced oxide filter materials, including aluminum titanate and advanced cordierite. In the development of the advanced catalyzed filters, improvements were made to the filter material microstructures that were coupled with new catalyst formulations and novel coating processes that had synergistic effects to give enhanced overall performance.
Technical Paper

On Road Durability and Field Experience Obtained with an Aluminum Titanate Diesel Particulate Filter

A novel diesel particulate filter for passenger car applications was introduced by Corning, based on a stabilized aluminum titanate composition. As part of the development and material evaluation Corning has performed extensive on-road testing of the new material. The testing included several vehicles, filters, system layouts and driving profiles. The filters were tested from 100,000 km to 240,000km. All test vehicles were equipped with instrumentation and data acquisition hardware, enabling the detailed recording of the relevant parameters such as temperature profiles inside the filter, the pressure drop as well as engine data. Throughout the field evaluations the filters were regularly checked for emissions over the NEDC on a chassis dynamometer according to the current European test protocol. In all cases excellent emission performance has been observed over the duration of the tests. The pressure drop performance has generally been good.
Journal Article

Regeneration Strategies for an Enhanced Thermal Management of Oxide Diesel Particulate Filters

Diesel particulate filters are expected to be used on most passenger car applications designed to meet coming European emission standards, EU5 and EU6. Similar expectations hold for systems designed to meet US Tier 2 Bin 5 standards. Among the various products oxide filter materials, such as cordierite and aluminum titanate, are gaining growing interest due to their unique properties. Besides the intrinsic robustness of the filter products a well designed operating strategy is required for the successful use of filters. The operating strategy is comprised of two elements: the soot estimation and the regeneration strategy. In this paper the second element is discussed in detail by means of theoretical considerations as well as dedicated engine bench experiments. The impact the key operating variables, soot load, exhaust mass flow, oxygen content and temperature, have on the conditions inside the filter are discussed.
Technical Paper

DuraTrap® AT Particulate Filter for Passenger Car Applications with EU5/BS5 Emissions Legislation

Upcoming EU5 and expected emissions legislation BS5 in India in combination with efforts to optimize the overall fuel economy has created new challenges in the development of aftertreatment systems for passenger cars equipped with diesel engines. Since EU5 and BS5 emissions legislation will strongly be focused on the reduction of particulate matter it is likely that all vehicle applications will need aftertreatment systems with diesel particulate filters. High filtration efficiency combined with a high resistance to thermo-mechanical stress is a strong requirement for diesel particulate filters to meet EU5 and BS5 emission legislation. Besides those requirements the backpressure of particulate filters has to be considered since backpressure is also related to fuel economy and therefore CO₂ emissions.
Journal Article

Oxide Based Particulate Filters for Light-Duty Diesel Applications - Impact of the Filter Length on the Regeneration and Pressure Drop Behavior

Diesel particulate filters are becoming a standard for most light duty diesel applications designed for European EU5 and EU6 regulations. Oxide based filter materials are continuing to gain significant interest and have been in high volume serial application since 2005. Compared to carbide materials they show some unique properties. With respect to the design, the length of a filter is a key variable. Usually the prime design consideration is the desired filter volume. The diameter or frontal area is then usually defined by packaging constraints. Finally, the length is adapted. The paper provides experimental data on the impact this key design parameter has on the pressure drop and the thermal behavior under “worst case” regeneration conditions. A wide range of soot loads (from 4 g/dm3 to 9 g/dm3) as well as filter lengths from 6″ to 12″ is considered and evaluated under comparable experimental conditions.
Technical Paper

DPF Regeneration-Concept to Avoid Uncontrolled Regeneration During Idle

Significant particulate emission reductions of diesel engines can be achieved using diesel particulate filters (DPFs). Ceramic wall flow filters with a PM efficiency of >90% have proven to be effective components in emission control. The challenge for the application lies with the development and adaptation of a reliable regeneration strategy. The main focus is emission efficiency over the legally required durability periods, as well as over the useful vehicle life. It will be shown, that new DPF systems are characterized by a high degree of integration with the engine management system, to allow for initiation of the regeneration and its control for optimum DPF protection. Using selected cases, the optimum combination and tuning will be demonstrated for successful regenerations, taking into account DPF properties.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Emission Conversion Performance of Gasoline Particulate Filters Over Lifetime

Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) recently entered the market, and are already regarded a state-of-the-art solution for gasoline exhaust aftertreatment systems to enable EU6d-TEMP fulfilment and beyond. Especially for coated GPF applications, the prognosis of the emission conversion performance over lifetime poses an ambitious challenge, which significantly influences future catalyst diagnosis calibrations. The paper presents key-findings for the different GPF application variants. In the first part, experimental GPF ash loading results are presented. Ash accumulates as thin wall layers and short plugs, but does not penetrate into the wall. However, it suppresses deep bed filtration of soot, initially decreasing the soot-loaded backpressure. For the emission calibration, the non-linear backpressure development complicates the soot load monitoring, eventually leading to compromises between high safety against soot overloading and a low number of active regenerations.
Journal Article

Modeling of the Soot Oxidation in Gasoline Particulate Filters

The share of gasoline engines based on direct injection (DI) technology is rapidly growing, to a large extend driven by their improved efficiency and potential to lower CO2 emissions. One downside of these advanced engines are their significantly higher particulate emissions compared to engines based on port fuel injection technologies [1]. Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are one potential technology path to address the EU6 particulate number regulation for vehicles powered by gasoline DI engines. For the robust design and operation of GPFs it is essential to understand the mechanisms of soot accumulation and oxidation under typical operating conditions. In this paper we will first discuss the use of detailed numerical simulation to describe the soot oxidation in particulate filters under typical gasoline engine operating conditions. Laboratory experiments are used to establish a robust set of soot oxidation kinetics.
Technical Paper

Catalyst Aging Method for Future Emissions Standard Requirements

This paper describes an alternative catalyst aging process using a hot gas test stand for thermal aging. The solution presented is characterized by a burner technology that is combined with a combustion enhancement, which allows stoichiometric and rich operating conditions to simulate engine exhaust gases. The resulting efficiency was increased and the operation limits were broadened, compared to combustion engines that are typically used for catalyst aging. The primary modification that enabled this achievement was the recirculation of exhaust gas downstream from catalyst back to the burner. The burner allows the running simplified dynamic durability cycles, which are the standard bench cycle that is defined by the legislation as alternative aging procedure and the fuel shut-off simulation cycle ZDAKW. The hot gas test stand approach has been compared to the conventional engine test bench method.
Journal Article

Performance Assessment of a Multi-Functional Reactor Under Conventional and Advanced Combustion Diesel Engine Exhaust Conditions

Current progress in the development of diesel engines substantially contributes to the reduction of NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions but will not succeed to eliminate the application of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) in the future. In the past we have introduced a Multi-Functional Reactor (MFR) prototype, suitable for the abatement of the gaseous and PM emissions of the Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine operation. In this work the performance of MFR prototypes under both conventional and advanced combustion engine operating conditions is presented. The effect of the MFR on the fuel penalty associated to the filter regeneration is assessed via simulation. Special focus is placed on presenting the performance assessment in combination with the existing differences in the morphology and reactivity of the soot particles between the different modes of diesel engine operation (conventional and advanced). The effect of aging on the MFR performance is also presented.
Technical Paper

Severe Soot Oxidations in Gasoline Particulate Filter Applications

With the start of EU6 in 2017 gasoline particulate filters (GPF) have been introduced to production vehicles. It is expected that by 2019 all gasoline direct injection engines sold in Europe will be equipped with a GPF. A similar trend is observed in China with a slight delay compared to Europe, but covering all gasoline engines, including those with port fuel injection technology. With the introduction of GPFs, new requirements are introduced to the management of gasoline engines and their aftertreatment. One requirement is to protect the aftertreatment components from excessive temperatures and damage as result of uncontrolled soot oxidations. While the general fundamentals are similar to those in diesel applications, significant differences exist in the relevant details.
Technical Paper

1D Engine Simulation Approach for Optimizing Engine and Exhaust Aftertreatment Thermal Management for Passenger Car Diesel Engines by Means of Variable Valve Train (VVT) Applications

Using a holistic 1D engine simulation approach for the modelling of full-transient engine operation, allows analyzing future engine concepts, including its exhaust gas aftertreatment technology, early in the development process. Thus, this approach enables the investigation of both important fields - the thermodynamic engine process and the aftertreatment system, together with their interaction in a single simulation environment. Regarding the aftertreatment system, the kinetic reaction behavior of state-of-the-art and advanced components, such as Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) or Selective Catalytic Reduction Soot Filters (SCRF), is being modelled. Furthermore, the authors present the use of the 1D engine and exhaust gas aftertreatment model on use cases of variable valve train (VVT) applications on passenger car (PC) diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Combined Particulate Matter and NOx Aftertreatment Systems for Stringent Emission Standards

The HSDI Diesel engine contributes substantially to the decrease of fleet fuel consumption thus to the reduction of CO2 emissions. This results in the rising market acceptance which is supported by desirable driving performance as well as greatly improved NVH behavior. In addition to the above mentioned requirements on driving performance, fuel economy and NVH behavior, continuously increasing demands on emissions performance have to be met. From today's view the Diesel particulate trap presents a safe technology to achieve the required reduction of the particle emission of more than 95%. However, according to today's knowledge a further, substantial NOx engine-out emission reduction for the Diesel engine is counteracts with the other goal of reduced fuel consumption. To comply with current and future emission standards, Diesel engines will require DeNOx technologies.

Reducing Particulate Emissions in Gasoline Engines

For years, diesel engines have been the focus of particulate matter emission reductions. Now, however, modern diesel engines emit less particles than a comparable gasoline engine. This transformation necessitates an introduction of particulate reduction strategies for the gasoline-powered vehicle. Many strategies can be leveraged from diesel engines, but new combustion and engine control technologies will be needed to meet the latest gasoline regulations across the globe. Particulate reduction is a critical health concern in addition to the regulatory requirements. This is a vital issue with real-world implications. Reducing Particulate Emissions in Gasoline Engines encompasses the current strategies and technologies used to reduce particulates to meet regulatory requirements and curtail health hazards - reviewing principles and applications of these techniques.