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Technical Paper

A Simulative Study for Post Oxidation During Scavenging on Turbo Charged SI Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0853
Fulfilling exhaust emissions regulations and meet customer performance needs mainly drive the current engine development. Turbocharging system plays a key role for that. Currently turbocharging should provide highest engine power density at high engine speed by also allowing a very responsive performance at low end. This represents a trade-off in turbocharger development. A large scaled turbine allows having moderate exhaust gas back pressure for peak power region, but leading to loss of torque in low engine speed. In the last years of engine development scavenging helped to get away a bit from this trade-off as it increases the turbine mass flow and also reduces cylinder internal residual gas at low engine speed. The mostly in-use lean strategy runs air fuel ratios of closed to stoichiometric mixture in cylinder and global (pre catalyst) of λ = 1.05 to l = 1.3. This will be out of the narrow air fuel ratio band of λ = 1 to ensure NOx conversion in the 3-way-catalyst.
Technical Paper

Fundamentals of Pressure Trace Analysis for Gasoline Engines with Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition

2010-10-25
2010-01-2182
Regarding further development of gasoline engines several new technologies are investigated in order to diminish pollutant emissions and particularly fuel consumption. The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) seems to be a promising way to reach these targets. Therefore, in the past years there had been a lot of experimental efforts in this field of combustion system engineering. Negative valve overlap with pilot injection before pumping top dead center (PTDC) and an “intermediate” compression and combustion during PTDC, followed by the main injection after PTDC, is one way to realize and to proper control a HCCI operation. For conventional CI and SI combustion the pressure trace analysis (PTA) is a powerful and widely used tool to analyse, understand and optimize the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a CNG Driven SI Engine Within a Parallel Hybrid Power Train by Using EGR and an Oversized Turbocharger with Active-WG Control

2010-04-12
2010-01-0820
The hybrid power train technology offers various prospects to optimize the engine efficiency in order to minimize the CO₂ emissions of an internal-combustion-engine-powered vehicle. Today different types of hybrid architectures like parallel, serial, power split or through-the-road concepts are commonly known. To achieve lowest fuel consumption the following hybrid electric vehicle drive modes can be used: Start/Stop, pure electric/thermal driving, recuperation of brake energy and the hybrid mode. The high complexity of the interaction between those power sources requires an extensive investigation to determine the optimal configuration of a natural-gas-powered SI engine within a parallel hybrid power train. Therefore, a turbocharged 1.0-liter 3-cylinder CNG engine was analyzed on the test bench. Using an optimized combustion strategy, the engine was operated at stoichiometric and lean air/fuel ratio applying both high- and low-pressure EGR.
Technical Paper

Quasi-dimensional and Empirical Modeling of Compression-Ignition Engine Combustion and Emissions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0151
Two combustion models are presented: A quasi-dimensional approach, based on the injection shape and an empirical model. Both models have computation times of less than one second per cycle. The quasi-dimensional approach for CI combustion discretizes the injection jet in slices. Pilot-injections are modeled as separate zones. The forecast capability and the limitations of the model are discussed on the basis of measurements. Mentioned above the base of the quasi-dimensional model is the injection rate. Often it is difficult to obtain these data. There is therefore another empirical approach for combustion, which does not need the injection rate as input. Both models have to be calibrated. This can be done by an automatic calibration tool on the basis of the advanced Powell method. The differences and advantages compared with other optimization methods are shown. Emission-simulation models are highly important in simulating CI engines.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Post-Oxidation in Turbo Charged SI-DI-Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0373
Turbocharged SI-DI-engines in combination with a reduction of engine displacement (“Downsizing”) offer the possibility to remarkably reduce the overall fuel consumption. In charged mode it is possible to scavenge fresh unburnt air into the exhaust system if a positive slope during the overlap phase of the gas exchange occurs. The matching of the turbo system in SI-engines always causes a trade-off between low-end torque and high power output. The higher mass flow at low engine speeds of an engine using scavenging allows a partial solution of this trade-off. Thus, higher downsizing grades and fuel consumption reduction potential can be obtained. Through scavenging the global fuel to air ratio deviates from the local in-cylinder fuel to air ratio. It is possible to use a rich in-cylinder fuel to air ratio, whereas the global fuel to air ratio remains stochiometrical. This could be very beneficial to reduce the effect of catalytic aging on the one hand and engine knock on the other hand.
Technical Paper

Improvement of a High-Performance CNG-Engine Based on an innovative Virtual Development Process

2011-09-11
2011-24-0140
Methane as an alternative fuel in motorsports? Actually this solution is well known for the reduction of CO₂ emissions but apparently it does not really awake race feelings. At the 2009 edition of the 24-hour endurance race on the Nürburgring the Volkswagen Motorsport GmbH, in addition to vehicles powered by gasoline engines, introduced two vehicles powered by innovative turbo-charged CNG engines for the first time. The aim was to prove, that also an "environment-friendly" concept is able to provide the required efficiency, dynamic and reliability for a successful participation in motorsports. After the success in the 2009 edition the engagement has been continued also in 2010, this time exclusively with CNG vehicles. Focusing on the CO₂ emission, reclusively the higher hydrogen content of methane which represents the main component of NG leads to a CO₂ reduction during the combustion of about 20% compared to gasoline.
Technical Paper

Virtual Set-up of a Racing Engine for the Optimization of Lap Performance through a Comprehensive Engine-Vehicle-Driver Model

2011-09-11
2011-24-0141
In Motorsports the understanding of the real engine performance within a complete circuit lap is a crucial topic. On the basis of the telemetry data the engineers are able to monitor this performance and try to adapt the engine to the vehicle's and race track's characteristics and driver's needs. However, quite often the telemetry is the sole analysis instrument for the Engine-Vehicle-Driver (EVD) system and it has no prediction capability. The engine optimization for best lap-time or best fuel economy is therefore a topic which is not trivial to solve, without the aid of suitable, reliable and predictive engineering tools. A complete EVD model was therefore built in a GT-SUITE™ environment for a Motorsport racing car (STCC-VW-Scirocco) equipped with a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) turbocharged S.I. engine and calibrated on the basis of telemetry and test bench data.
Technical Paper

Electric Vehicles in the Gulf Region: Performance and Potential

2015-04-14
2015-01-1685
This paper addresses the performance and potential of using electric vehicles in the Gulf Arab states. Based on a survey executed in Salalah, Oman, a representative test driving cycle has been set up. This cycle is the first of its kind for this region, where it is driven with a vehicle provided with special measurement equipment to log important values, e.g. vehicle's speed and position, temperatures and solar irradiance. More than 40 test drives are performed to obtain a representative driver profile. The driving cycle and driver profile are used in a simulation model which is capable of simulating the energy consumption for internal combustion engine or electric motor propulsion systems. The simulation model which contains detailed models for the driver, driving cycle, vehicle components and its dynamics is validated and used to compare the consumed energy for the two different propulsion systems.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fast, Predictive Burn Rate Model for Gasoline-HCCI

2016-04-05
2016-01-0569
Operating gasoline engines at part load in a so-called Gasoline-HCCI (gHCCI) combustion mode has shown promising results in terms of improved efficiency and reduced emissions. So far, research has primarily been focused on experimental investigations on the test bench, whereas fast, predictive burn rate models for use in process calculation have not been available. Such a phenomenological model is henceforth presented. It describes the current burn rate as the sum of a sequential self-ignition process on the one hand and a laminar-turbulent flame propagation on the other hand. The first mechanism is essentially represented by ignition delay calculation, in which the reaction rate is computed separately for some hundred groups of different temperatures based on the Arrhenius equation. Thermal inhomogeneity is described by a contaminated normal distribution which accounts for the influence of wall temperature on mixture close to the cylinder wall.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Studies on Mixture Formation with an Outward-Opening Nozzle in a SI Engine with CNG-DI

2016-04-05
2016-01-0801
CNG direct injection is a promising technology to promote the acceptance of natural gas engines. Among the beneficial properties of CNG, like reduced pollutants and CO2 emissions, the direct injection contributes to a higher volumetric efficiency and thus to a better driveability, one of the most limiting drawbacks of today’s CNG vehicles. But such a combustion concept increases the demands on the injection system and mixture formation. Among other things it requires a much higher flow rate at low injection pressure. This can be only provided by an outward-opening nozzle due to its large cross-section. Nevertheless its hollow cone jet with a specific propagation behavior leads to an adverse fuel-air distribution especially at higher loads under scavenging conditions. This paper covers numerical and experimental analysis of CNG direct injection to understand its mixture formation.
Technical Paper

Transient Simulation of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions of CI Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-1002
This paper presents a quasi-dimensional emission model for calculating the transient nitric oxide emissions of a diesel engine. Using conventional and high-speed measurement technology, steady-state and transient emissions of a V6 diesel engine were examined. Based on measured load steps and steady-state measurements a direct influence of the combustion chamber wall temperature on the nitric oxide emissions was found. Load steps to and from, as well as steady-state measurements down to almost stoichiometric global combustion air ratios were used to examine the behavior of nitric oxide formation under these operating conditions. An existing emission model was expanded in order to represent the direct influence of the combustion chamber wall temperature on the nitric oxide emissions as well as enabling the forecasting of nitric oxide emissions at low global combustion air ratios: Both particularly important aspects for the simulation of transient emissions.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Investigations of High-Performance SI-Engines by Means of 3D-CFD Simulations

2015-09-06
2015-24-2469
Comparative analyses of a high-performance 4-cylinder DISI-engine and its equivalent single-cylinder research engine were performed by means of fast response 3D-CFD simulations. Both engines have identical geometries of intake and exhaust channels, cylinder head and piston. The used 3D-CFD tool QuickSim was developed at the Forschungsinstitut für Kraftfahrwesen und Fahrzeugmotoren Stuttgart (FKFS), particularly for the numerical simulation of internal combustion engines (ICE). A calibration of the air consumption enabled a comparison of in-cylinder processes, including charge motion, mixture formation and combustion. All calculated operating points showed a similar trend. Deviations during the gas exchange phase led to a higher turbulence level and hence combustion velocity for the single-cylinder research engine. This resulted in a slightly higher maximum cylinder pressure and indicated mean effective pressure.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Simulation of Hybrid Powertrains using Different Combustion Engine Models

2015-09-06
2015-24-2545
This study presents a comparison of different approaches for the simulation of HEV fuel consumption. For this purpose a detailed 1D-CFD model within an HEV drivetrain is compared to a ‘traditional’ map-based combustion engine model as well as different types of simplified engine models which are able to reduce computing time significantly while keeping the model accuracy at a high level. First, a simplified air path model (fast running model) is coupled with a quasi dimensional, predictive combustion model. In a further step of reducing the computation time, an alternative way of modeling the in cylinder processes was evaluated, by replacing the combustion model with a mean value model. For this approach, the most important influencing factors of the 1D-CFD air path model (temperature, pressure, A/F-ratio) are used as input values into neural nets, while the corresponding outputs are in turn used as feedback for the air path model.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Sub-Synchronous Oscillations in Exhaust Gas Turbochargers

2015-09-06
2015-24-2531
Due to the demands for today's passenger cars regarding fuel consumption and emissions, exhaust turbo charging has become a fundamental step in achieving these goals. Especially in upper and middle class vehicles it is also necessary to consider the noise comfort. Today, floating bushings are mainly used as radial bearings in turbochargers. In the conventional operating range of the turbocharger dynamic instability occurs in the lubrication films of the bearings. This instability is transferred by structure-borne noise into audible airborne sound and known as constant tone phenomenon. This phenomenon is not the major contributor of the engine noise but its tonal character is very unpleasant. In order to gain a more detailed understanding about the origin of this phenomenon, displacement sensors have been applied to the compressor- and the turbine-side of the rotor, to be able to determine the displacement path.
Technical Paper

Development Approach for the Investigation of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition in a Free-Piston Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0047
In this paper the development approach and the results of numerical and experimental investigations on homogeneous charge compression ignition in a free piston engine are presented. The Free Piston Linear Generator (FPLG) is a new type of internal combustion engine designed for the application in a hybrid electric vehicle. The highly integrated system consists of a two-stroke combustion unit, a linear generator, and a mass-variable gas spring. These three subsystems are arranged longitudinally in a double piston configuration. The system oscillates linearly between the combustion chamber and the gas spring, while electrical energy is extracted by the centrally arranged linear generator. The mass-variable gas spring is used as intermediate energy storage between the downstroke and upstroke. Due to this arrangement piston stroke and compression ratio are no longer determined by a mechanical system.
Technical Paper

Presenting a Fourier-Based Air Path Model for Real-Time Capable Engine Simulation Enhanced by a Semi-Physical NO-Emission Model with a High Degree of Predictability

2016-10-17
2016-01-2231
Longitudinal models are used to evaluate different vehicle-engine concepts with respect to driving behavior and emissions. The engine is generally map-based. An explicit calculation of both fluid dynamics inside the engine air path and cylinder combustion is not considered due to long computing times. Particularly for dynamic certification cycles (WLTC, US06 etc.), dynamic engine effects severely influence the quality of results. Hence, an evaluation of transient engine behavior with map-based engine models is restricted to a certain extent. The coupling of detailed 1D-engine models is an alternative, which rapidly increases the model computation time to approximately 300 times higher than that of real time. In many technical areas, the Fourier transformation (FT) method is applied, which makes it possible to represent superimposed oscillations by their sinusoidal harmonic oscillations of different orders.
Technical Paper

Development and Experimental Investigation of a Two-Stroke Opposed-Piston Free-Piston Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0046
The proposed paper deals with the development process and initial measurement results of an opposed-piston combustion engine for application in a Free-Piston Linear Generator (FPLG). The FPLG, which is being developed at the German Aerospace Center (DLR), is an innovative internal combustion engine for a fuel based electrical power supply. With its arrangement, the pistons freely oscillate between the compression chamber of the combustion unit and a gas spring with no mechanical coupling like a crank shaft. Linear alternators convert the kinetic energy of the moving pistons into electric energy. The virtual development of the novel combustion system is divided into two stages: On the one hand, the combustion system including e.g. a cylinder liner, pistons, cooling and lubrication concepts has to be developed.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Autoignition, Knock and Combustion for Methane-Based Fuels

2017-10-08
2017-01-2186
Engine Knock is a stochastic phenomenon that occurs during the regular combustion of spark ignition (SI) engines and limits its efficiency. Knock is triggered by an autoignition of local “hot spots” in the unburned zone, ahead of the flame front. Regarding chemical kinetics, the temperature and pressure history as well as the knock resistance of the fuel are the main driver for the autoignition process. In this paper, a new knock modeling approach for natural gas blends is presented. It is based on a kinetic fit for the ignition delay times that has been derived from chemical kinetics simulations. The knock model is coupled with an enhanced burn rate model that was modified for Methane-based fuels. The two newly developed models are incorporated in a predictive 0D/1D simulation tool that provides a cost-effective method for the development of natural gas powered SI engines.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Analysis with a Fast Response 3D-CFD Tool

2017-09-04
2017-24-0103
Main limiting factor in the application of 3D-CFD simulations within an engine development is the very high time demand, which is predominantly influenced by the number of cells within the computational mesh. Arbitrary cell coarsening, however, results in a distinct distortion of the simulation outcome. It is rather necessary to adapt the calculation models to the new mesh structure in order to ensure reliability and predictability of the 3D-CFD engine simulation. In the last decade, a fast response 3D-CFD tool was developed at FKFS in Stuttgart. It aims for a harmonized interaction between computational mesh, implemented calculation models and defined boundary conditions in order to enable fast running simulations for engine development tasks. Their susceptibility to errors is significantly minimized by various measures, e.g. extension of the simulation domain (full engine) and multi-cycle simulations.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Study of Optimal Integration of a Rankine Cycle Based Waste Heat Recovery System into the Cooling System of a Long-Haul Heavy Duty Truck

2018-09-10
2018-01-1779
As a promising solution to improve fuel efficiency of a long-haul heavy duty truck with diesel engine, organic Rankine cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery system (WHR) by utilizing the exhaust gas from internal combustion engine has continuously drawn attention from automobile industry in recent years. The most attractive concept of ORC-based WHR system is the conversion of the thermal energy of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and exhaust gas from Tailpipe (EGT) to kinetic energy which is provided to the engine crankshaft. Due to a shift of the operating point of the engine by applying WHR system, the efficiency of the overall system increases and the fuel consumption reduces respectively. However, the integration of WHR system in truck is challenging by using engine cooling system as heat sink for Rankine cycle. The coolant mass flow rate influences strongly on the exhaust gas bypass which ensures a defined subcooling after condenser to avoid cavitation of pump.
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