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Technical Paper

Optimization of a CNG Driven SI Engine Within a Parallel Hybrid Power Train by Using EGR and an Oversized Turbocharger with Active-WG Control

2010-04-12
2010-01-0820
The hybrid power train technology offers various prospects to optimize the engine efficiency in order to minimize the CO₂ emissions of an internal-combustion-engine-powered vehicle. Today different types of hybrid architectures like parallel, serial, power split or through-the-road concepts are commonly known. To achieve lowest fuel consumption the following hybrid electric vehicle drive modes can be used: Start/Stop, pure electric/thermal driving, recuperation of brake energy and the hybrid mode. The high complexity of the interaction between those power sources requires an extensive investigation to determine the optimal configuration of a natural-gas-powered SI engine within a parallel hybrid power train. Therefore, a turbocharged 1.0-liter 3-cylinder CNG engine was analyzed on the test bench. Using an optimized combustion strategy, the engine was operated at stoichiometric and lean air/fuel ratio applying both high- and low-pressure EGR.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Post-Oxidation in Turbo Charged SI-DI-Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0373
Turbocharged SI-DI-engines in combination with a reduction of engine displacement (“Downsizing”) offer the possibility to remarkably reduce the overall fuel consumption. In charged mode it is possible to scavenge fresh unburnt air into the exhaust system if a positive slope during the overlap phase of the gas exchange occurs. The matching of the turbo system in SI-engines always causes a trade-off between low-end torque and high power output. The higher mass flow at low engine speeds of an engine using scavenging allows a partial solution of this trade-off. Thus, higher downsizing grades and fuel consumption reduction potential can be obtained. Through scavenging the global fuel to air ratio deviates from the local in-cylinder fuel to air ratio. It is possible to use a rich in-cylinder fuel to air ratio, whereas the global fuel to air ratio remains stochiometrical. This could be very beneficial to reduce the effect of catalytic aging on the one hand and engine knock on the other hand.
Technical Paper

Electric Vehicles in the Gulf Region: Performance and Potential

2015-04-14
2015-01-1685
This paper addresses the performance and potential of using electric vehicles in the Gulf Arab states. Based on a survey executed in Salalah, Oman, a representative test driving cycle has been set up. This cycle is the first of its kind for this region, where it is driven with a vehicle provided with special measurement equipment to log important values, e.g. vehicle's speed and position, temperatures and solar irradiance. More than 40 test drives are performed to obtain a representative driver profile. The driving cycle and driver profile are used in a simulation model which is capable of simulating the energy consumption for internal combustion engine or electric motor propulsion systems. The simulation model which contains detailed models for the driver, driving cycle, vehicle components and its dynamics is validated and used to compare the consumed energy for the two different propulsion systems.
Technical Paper

The New Interchangeable Three-belt System in the IVK Full-Scale Wind Tunnel of University of Stuttgart: Design and First Results

2016-04-05
2016-01-1581
With its recent wind tunnel upgrade, FKFS installed the first interchangeable three-belt / five-belt-system (FKFS first®) in a full scale automotive wind tunnel. With the five-belt system, which today is a state-of-the-art ground simulation technique, the system is ideally suited for production vehicle development work. The five-belt system offers high flexibility, quick access to the underfloor and vehicle fixation, and setting the vehicle’s ride height by the restraint device. The first results of the five-belt system have already been published in SAE 2015-01-1557 [1]. The three-belt system on the other hand, offers a much more sophisticated ground simulation technique which is necessary especially for sports and racing cars. For such vehicles with very low ground clearances, it is important to have a more accurate ground simulation, in order to capture the same aerodynamic modes of action and response as on the road.
Technical Paper

Presenting a Fourier-Based Air Path Model for Real-Time Capable Engine Simulation Enhanced by a Semi-Physical NO-Emission Model with a High Degree of Predictability

2016-10-17
2016-01-2231
Longitudinal models are used to evaluate different vehicle-engine concepts with respect to driving behavior and emissions. The engine is generally map-based. An explicit calculation of both fluid dynamics inside the engine air path and cylinder combustion is not considered due to long computing times. Particularly for dynamic certification cycles (WLTC, US06 etc.), dynamic engine effects severely influence the quality of results. Hence, an evaluation of transient engine behavior with map-based engine models is restricted to a certain extent. The coupling of detailed 1D-engine models is an alternative, which rapidly increases the model computation time to approximately 300 times higher than that of real time. In many technical areas, the Fourier transformation (FT) method is applied, which makes it possible to represent superimposed oscillations by their sinusoidal harmonic oscillations of different orders.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Study of the DrivAer Model Aerodynamics

2018-04-03
2018-01-0741
The DrivAer model, a detailed generic open source vehicle geometry, was introduced a few years ago and accepted widely from industry and academia for research in the field of automotive aerodynamics. This paper presents the evaluation of the aerodynamic properties of the 25% scale DrivAer model in both, CFD and in wind tunnel experiment. The results not only include aerodynamic drag and lift but also provide detailed investigations of the flow field around the vehicle. In addition to the available geometries of the DrivAer model, individual changes were introduced created by morphing the geometry of the baseline model. A good correlation between CFD and experiment could be achieved by using a CFD setup including the geometry of the wind tunnel test section. The results give insight into the aerodynamics of the DrivAer model and lead to a better understanding of the flow around the vehicle.
Journal Article

Consumption Optimization in Battery Electric Vehicles by Autonomous Cruise Control using Predictive Route Data and a Radar System

2013-04-08
2013-01-0984
This paper presents an autonomous cruise control for battery electric vehicles. The presented approach is based on the usage of predictive route data which is extracted out of a digital map and a wide range radar system in order to capture vehicles in front. By using the predictive route data and the information of the radar system, the autonomous cruise control can control the vehicle's speed over a wide range of driving situations without any driver interaction. The main aim of the presented autonomous cruise control is to optimize the battery electric vehicle's energy consumption. The main idea is to use predictive route data in order to calculate a consumption optimal vehicle speed trajectory by means of online optimization. The benefits of the autonomous cruise control are shown by means of real test drives and measured data evaluation.
Journal Article

The Recent Upgrade of the Model Scale Wind Tunnel of University of Stuttgart

2017-03-28
2017-01-1527
After being in operation since 1989, the 25% / 20% model scale wind tunnel of University of Stuttgart received its second major upgrade in 2016. In a first upgrade in 2001, a rolling road with a 5 belt system from MTS was installed. This system includes a steel center belt to simulate the road underneath the vehicle and four FKFS designed rubber belts for wheel rotation. The recent upgrade now enables the wind tunnel to be used not only for standard, steady state aerodynamic measurements but also for measurements of unsteady aerodynamic effects. This enables the use of the FKFS swing system as a standard measurement technique. Therefore, the former balance was replaced by a balance manufactured by AND with a high Eigenfrequency and the ability to sample the measurement data at up to 1000 Hz. The second large part of the upgrade was the replacement of the control system. With the new Wind Tunnel Control System (WCTS), control system.
Journal Article

Subjective Perception and Evaluation of Driving Dynamics in the Virtual Test Drive

2017-03-28
2017-01-1564
In addition to the analysis of human driving behavior or the development of new advanced driver assistance systems, the high simulation quality of today’s driving simulators enables investigations of selected topics pertaining to driving dynamics. With high reproducibility and fast generation of vehicle variants the subjective evaluation process leads to a better system understanding in the early development stages. The transfer of the original on-road test run to the virtual reality of the driving simulator includes the full flexibility of the vehicle model, the maneuver and the test track, which allows new possibilities of investigation. With the opportunity of a realistic whole-vehicle simulation provided by the Stuttgart Driving Simulator new analysis of the human’s thresholds of perception are carried out.
Journal Article

Investigation of Aerodynamic Drag in Turbulent Flow Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1605
In this paper the influence of different turbulent flow conditions on the aerodynamic drag of a quarter scale model with notchback and estate back rear ends is investigated. FKFS swing® (Side Wind Generator) is used to generate a turbulent flow field in the test section of the IVK model scale wind tunnel. In order to investigate the increase in drag with increasing yaw, a steady state yaw sweep is performed for both vehicle models. The shape of the drag curves vary for each vehicle model. The notchback model shows a more pronounced drag minimum at 0° yaw angle and experiences a more severe increase in drag at increasing yaw when compared to the estate back model. Unsteady time averaged aerodynamic drag values are obtained at two flow situations with different turbulent length scales, turbulence intensities, and yaw angle amplitudes. While the first one is representing light wind, the second one is recreating the presence of strong gusty wind.
Journal Article

The Effects of Cooling Air on the Flow Field around a Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1603
Cooling air flow is an important factor when it comes to vehicle performance and operating safety. In addition, it is closely linked to vehicle aerodynamics. In recent years more and more effort is being spent to optimize the losses generated by the flow through the vehicle. Grille shutters, better sealing and ducting are only some examples for innovations in this field of work, resulting in a lower contribution of the cooling air flow to overall drag. But cooling air not only affects the internal flow of the vehicle but also changes the flow around it. This paper will show changes in the flow field around the generic DrivAer model resulting from cooling air flow, especially in the wake behind the car and in the region around the front wheels. The results were gathered using PIV measurements, multi-hole-probe measurements and pitot tube measurements in the 1:4 model scale wind tunnel of IVK University of Stuttgart.
Journal Article

Open Grille DrivAer Model - First Results

2015-04-14
2015-01-1553
Cooling air flow is an important factor when it comes to vehicle performance and operating safety. In addition, it is closely linked to vehicle aerodynamics. In recent years more and more effort is being spent to optimize the losses generated by the flow through the vehicle. Grille shutters, better sealing and ducting are only some examples for innovations in this field of work, resulting in a lower contribution of the cooling air flow to overall drag. When investigating those effects, both experiments and numerical simulations are commonly used in the automotive environment. Still, when comparing the results from both methods, differences in the effect of cooling air flow can often be observed. To better understand the effects of cooling air flow, the ECARA Subgroup CFD decided to establish a common design for a generic open source vehicle model with a detailed underhood compartment to lay the foundation for a common investigation model.
Journal Article

New FKFS Technology at the Full-Scale Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel of University of Stuttgart

2015-04-14
2015-01-1557
For many years FKFS has operated the full-scale aeroacoustic wind tunnel of University of Stuttgart. To keep this wind tunnel as one of the most modern ones of its kind, it has again been upgraded significantly. The upgrade improved the aerodynamic as well as the aeroacoustic performance and accelerated the operational processes. Additionally, new innovative features have significantly enlarged the test capabilities. A new patented, modular belt system (FKFS first®) allows high performance measurements for race cars in a 3-belt mode as well as efficient measurements for production vehicle development in a 5-belt mode. The belt system is accompanied by a new, larger turntable and a new under-floor balance which enables high-accuracy measurements of forces and moments also for a high resolution in time. For the elimination of parasitic forces generated at the wheel drive units, a specific correction procedure has been implemented, which is patented, too (FKFS pace®).
Journal Article

Unsteady Aerodynamic Properties of a Vehicle Model and their Effect on Driver and Vehicle under Side Wind Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-0154
In this paper the effect of aerodynamic modifications that influence the unsteady aerodynamic properties of a vehicle on the response of the closed loop system driver-vehicle under side wind conditions is investigated. In today's aerodynamic optimization the side wind sensitivity of a vehicle is determined from steady state values measured in the wind tunnel. There, the vehicle is rotated with respect to the wind tunnel flow to create an angle of attack. In this approach however, the gustiness that is inherent in natural wind is not reproduced. Further, unsteady forces and moments acting on the vehicle are not measured due to the limited dynamic response of the commonly used wind tunnel balances. Therefore, a new method is introduced, overcoming the shortcomings of the current steady state approach. The method consists of the reproduction of the properties of natural stochastic crosswind that are essential for the determination of the side wind sensitivity of a vehicle.
Journal Article

The Development of an Highly Modular Designed Zero-Dimensional Engine Process Calculation Code

2010-04-12
2010-01-0149
The main objective of the FVV-project “Cylinder Module” was the development of a profoundly modular designed concept for object-oriented modeling of in-cylinder processes of internal combustion engines. It was designed in such a way, that it can either be used as a stand-alone real working-process calculation tool or in tools for whole vehicle simulations. It is possible to run the “Cylinder Module”-code inside the FVV-“GPA”-software for transient vehicle and driving cycle simulations and it is possible to use the graphical user interface “ATMOS” of the “GPA”-project. The code can also be used as a user-subroutine in 1-D-flow simulation codes. Much effort was spent on the requirements of flexibility and expandability in order to be well prepared to cope with the diversity of both today's and future tasks. The code is freely available for members of the German Research Association for Combustion Engines (FVV).
Journal Article

Integrated Numerical and Experimental Approach to Determine the Cooling Air Mass Flow in Different Vehicle Development Stages

2010-04-12
2010-01-0287
This paper presents an integrated numerical and experimental approach to take best possible advantage of the common development tools at hand (1D, CFD and wind tunnel) to determine the cooling air mass flow at the different vehicle development stages. 1D tools can be used early in development when neither 3D data nor wind tunnel models with detailed underhood flow are available. A problem that has to be resolved is the dependency on input data. In particular, the pressure coefficients on the outer surface (i.e. at the air inlet and outlet region) and the pressure loss data of single components are of great importance since the amount of cooling air flow is directly linked to these variables. The pressure coefficients at the air inlet and outlet are not only a function of vehicle configuration but also of driving velocity and fan operation. Both, static and total pressure coefficient, yield different advantages and disadvantages and can therefore both be used as boundary conditions.
Journal Article

Active Crosswind Generation and Its Effect on the Unsteady Aerodynamic Vehicle Properties Determined in an Open Jet Wind Tunnel

2018-04-03
2018-01-0722
In this article the unsteady aerodynamic properties of a 25% scale DrivAer notchback model as well as the influence of the wind tunnel environment on the resulting unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments under crosswind excitation are investigated using experimental and corresponding numerical methods. Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) swing® (side wind generator) is used to reproduce the essential properties of natural stochastic crosswind in the open jet test section of the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK) model scale wind tunnel (MWK). The results show that the test environment of an open jet wind tunnel alters the amplitudes of side force and yaw moment under crosswind excitation when compared to an ideal environment neglecting wind tunnel interference effects.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Test System for Holistic Vehicle Dynamics Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0449
In the automotive industry, there is a continued need to improve the development process and handle the increasing complexity of the overall vehicle system. One major step in this process is a comprehensive and complementary approach to both simulation and testing. Knowledge of the overall dynamic vehicle behavior is becoming increasingly important for the development of new control concepts such as integrated vehicle dynamics control aiming to improve handling quality and ride comfort. However, with current well-established test systems, only separated and isolated aspects of vehicle dynamics can be evaluated. To address these challenges and further merge the link between simulation and testing, the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK), University of Stuttgart is introducing a new Handling Roadway (HRW) Test System in cooperation with The Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) and MTS Systems Corporation.
Technical Paper

Introduction of the AeroSUV-A New Generic SUV Model for Aerodynamic Research

2019-04-02
2019-01-0646
Since the introduction of the DrivAer model, an increasing amount of aerodynamic research and CAE method development activities are based on this detailed generic car body. Due to the Open Access nature of the model, it has not only been quickly adopted by academia but also by several automotive OEMs and CAE software developers. The DrivAer has delivered high quality experimental data to permit validation of existing aerodynamic CAE capabilities and to accelerate the development of new sophisticated numerical methods. Within the last decades, the registration number of SUV, especially in Europe, has increased significantly. Among other things, a large cross-sectional area, an increased ground clearance and larger wheels characterize this kind of vehicle. The DrivAer is not capable of depicting this vehicle category. Therefore, there is a demand for an expansion of this generic vehicle concept.
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