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Journal Article

Consumption Optimization in Battery Electric Vehicles by Autonomous Cruise Control using Predictive Route Data and a Radar System

2013-04-08
2013-01-0984
This paper presents an autonomous cruise control for battery electric vehicles. The presented approach is based on the usage of predictive route data which is extracted out of a digital map and a wide range radar system in order to capture vehicles in front. By using the predictive route data and the information of the radar system, the autonomous cruise control can control the vehicle's speed over a wide range of driving situations without any driver interaction. The main aim of the presented autonomous cruise control is to optimize the battery electric vehicle's energy consumption. The main idea is to use predictive route data in order to calculate a consumption optimal vehicle speed trajectory by means of online optimization. The benefits of the autonomous cruise control are shown by means of real test drives and measured data evaluation.
Technical Paper

Fundamentals of Pressure Trace Analysis for Gasoline Engines with Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition

2010-10-25
2010-01-2182
Regarding further development of gasoline engines several new technologies are investigated in order to diminish pollutant emissions and particularly fuel consumption. The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) seems to be a promising way to reach these targets. Therefore, in the past years there had been a lot of experimental efforts in this field of combustion system engineering. Negative valve overlap with pilot injection before pumping top dead center (PTDC) and an “intermediate” compression and combustion during PTDC, followed by the main injection after PTDC, is one way to realize and to proper control a HCCI operation. For conventional CI and SI combustion the pressure trace analysis (PTA) is a powerful and widely used tool to analyse, understand and optimize the combustion process.
Technical Paper

A Way towards Remarkable Reduction of Co2-Emissions in Motorsports: The CNG-Engine

2011-06-09
2011-37-0006
Until a few years ago the discussion of reduction of CO₂ emissions was completely out of place in motorsports. Nowadays, also in this field, car manufacturers want to investigate different approaches towards a more responsible and sustainable concept. For this target an interesting and feasible solution is the use of methane as an alternative fuel. At the 2009 edition of the 24-hour endurance race of the Nürburgring the Volkswagen Motorsport GmbH, in addition to vehicles powered by gasoline engines, introduced two vehicles powered by turbocharged CNG engines. The aim was to prove that also an "environment-friendly" concept is able to provide the required efficiency, dynamic and reliability for a successful participation in motorsports. After the success in the 2009 edition the engagement has been continued in 2010; this time exclusively with CNG vehicles.
Technical Paper

Improvement of a High-Performance CNG-Engine Based on an innovative Virtual Development Process

2011-09-11
2011-24-0140
Methane as an alternative fuel in motorsports? Actually this solution is well known for the reduction of CO₂ emissions but apparently it does not really awake race feelings. At the 2009 edition of the 24-hour endurance race on the Nürburgring the Volkswagen Motorsport GmbH, in addition to vehicles powered by gasoline engines, introduced two vehicles powered by innovative turbo-charged CNG engines for the first time. The aim was to prove, that also an "environment-friendly" concept is able to provide the required efficiency, dynamic and reliability for a successful participation in motorsports. After the success in the 2009 edition the engagement has been continued also in 2010, this time exclusively with CNG vehicles. Focusing on the CO₂ emission, reclusively the higher hydrogen content of methane which represents the main component of NG leads to a CO₂ reduction during the combustion of about 20% compared to gasoline.
Technical Paper

Virtual Set-up of a Racing Engine for the Optimization of Lap Performance through a Comprehensive Engine-Vehicle-Driver Model

2011-09-11
2011-24-0141
In Motorsports the understanding of the real engine performance within a complete circuit lap is a crucial topic. On the basis of the telemetry data the engineers are able to monitor this performance and try to adapt the engine to the vehicle's and race track's characteristics and driver's needs. However, quite often the telemetry is the sole analysis instrument for the Engine-Vehicle-Driver (EVD) system and it has no prediction capability. The engine optimization for best lap-time or best fuel economy is therefore a topic which is not trivial to solve, without the aid of suitable, reliable and predictive engineering tools. A complete EVD model was therefore built in a GT-SUITE™ environment for a Motorsport racing car (STCC-VW-Scirocco) equipped with a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) turbocharged S.I. engine and calibrated on the basis of telemetry and test bench data.
Journal Article

Integrated Numerical and Experimental Approach to Determine the Cooling Air Mass Flow in Different Vehicle Development Stages

2010-04-12
2010-01-0287
This paper presents an integrated numerical and experimental approach to take best possible advantage of the common development tools at hand (1D, CFD and wind tunnel) to determine the cooling air mass flow at the different vehicle development stages. 1D tools can be used early in development when neither 3D data nor wind tunnel models with detailed underhood flow are available. A problem that has to be resolved is the dependency on input data. In particular, the pressure coefficients on the outer surface (i.e. at the air inlet and outlet region) and the pressure loss data of single components are of great importance since the amount of cooling air flow is directly linked to these variables. The pressure coefficients at the air inlet and outlet are not only a function of vehicle configuration but also of driving velocity and fan operation. Both, static and total pressure coefficient, yield different advantages and disadvantages and can therefore both be used as boundary conditions.
Journal Article

The Development of an Highly Modular Designed Zero-Dimensional Engine Process Calculation Code

2010-04-12
2010-01-0149
The main objective of the FVV-project “Cylinder Module” was the development of a profoundly modular designed concept for object-oriented modeling of in-cylinder processes of internal combustion engines. It was designed in such a way, that it can either be used as a stand-alone real working-process calculation tool or in tools for whole vehicle simulations. It is possible to run the “Cylinder Module”-code inside the FVV-“GPA”-software for transient vehicle and driving cycle simulations and it is possible to use the graphical user interface “ATMOS” of the “GPA”-project. The code can also be used as a user-subroutine in 1-D-flow simulation codes. Much effort was spent on the requirements of flexibility and expandability in order to be well prepared to cope with the diversity of both today's and future tasks. The code is freely available for members of the German Research Association for Combustion Engines (FVV).
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Studies on Mixture Formation with an Outward-Opening Nozzle in a SI Engine with CNG-DI

2016-04-05
2016-01-0801
CNG direct injection is a promising technology to promote the acceptance of natural gas engines. Among the beneficial properties of CNG, like reduced pollutants and CO2 emissions, the direct injection contributes to a higher volumetric efficiency and thus to a better driveability, one of the most limiting drawbacks of today’s CNG vehicles. But such a combustion concept increases the demands on the injection system and mixture formation. Among other things it requires a much higher flow rate at low injection pressure. This can be only provided by an outward-opening nozzle due to its large cross-section. Nevertheless its hollow cone jet with a specific propagation behavior leads to an adverse fuel-air distribution especially at higher loads under scavenging conditions. This paper covers numerical and experimental analysis of CNG direct injection to understand its mixture formation.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Test System for Holistic Vehicle Dynamics Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0449
In the automotive industry, there is a continued need to improve the development process and handle the increasing complexity of the overall vehicle system. One major step in this process is a comprehensive and complementary approach to both simulation and testing. Knowledge of the overall dynamic vehicle behavior is becoming increasingly important for the development of new control concepts such as integrated vehicle dynamics control aiming to improve handling quality and ride comfort. However, with current well-established test systems, only separated and isolated aspects of vehicle dynamics can be evaluated. To address these challenges and further merge the link between simulation and testing, the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK), University of Stuttgart is introducing a new Handling Roadway (HRW) Test System in cooperation with The Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) and MTS Systems Corporation.
Technical Paper

Introduction of the AeroSUV-A New Generic SUV Model for Aerodynamic Research

2019-04-02
2019-01-0646
Since the introduction of the DrivAer model, an increasing amount of aerodynamic research and CAE method development activities are based on this detailed generic car body. Due to the Open Access nature of the model, it has not only been quickly adopted by academia but also by several automotive OEMs and CAE software developers. The DrivAer has delivered high quality experimental data to permit validation of existing aerodynamic CAE capabilities and to accelerate the development of new sophisticated numerical methods. Within the last decades, the registration number of SUV, especially in Europe, has increased significantly. Among other things, a large cross-sectional area, an increased ground clearance and larger wheels characterize this kind of vehicle. The DrivAer is not capable of depicting this vehicle category. Therefore, there is a demand for an expansion of this generic vehicle concept.
Journal Article

Two-Stage Ignition Occurrence in the End Gas and Modeling Its Influence on Engine Knock

2017-09-04
2017-24-0001
The most significant operation limit prohibiting the further reduction of the CO2 emissions of gasoline engines is the occurrence of knock. Thus, being able to predict the incidence of this phenomenon is of vital importance for the engine process simulation - a tool widely used in the engine development. Common knock models in the 0D/1D simulation are based on the calculation of a pre-reaction state of the unburnt mixture (also called knock integral), which is a simplified approach for modeling the progress of the chemical reactions in the end gas where knock occurs. Simulations of thousands of knocking single working cycles with a model representing the Entrainment model’s unburnt zone were performed using a detailed chemical reaction mechanism. The investigations showed that, at specific boundary conditions, the auto-ignition of the unburnt mixture resulting in knock happens in two stages.
Technical Paper

Electric Vehicles in the Gulf Region: Performance and Potential

2015-04-14
2015-01-1685
This paper addresses the performance and potential of using electric vehicles in the Gulf Arab states. Based on a survey executed in Salalah, Oman, a representative test driving cycle has been set up. This cycle is the first of its kind for this region, where it is driven with a vehicle provided with special measurement equipment to log important values, e.g. vehicle's speed and position, temperatures and solar irradiance. More than 40 test drives are performed to obtain a representative driver profile. The driving cycle and driver profile are used in a simulation model which is capable of simulating the energy consumption for internal combustion engine or electric motor propulsion systems. The simulation model which contains detailed models for the driver, driving cycle, vehicle components and its dynamics is validated and used to compare the consumed energy for the two different propulsion systems.
Journal Article

Unsteady Aerodynamic Properties of a Vehicle Model and their Effect on Driver and Vehicle under Side Wind Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-0154
In this paper the effect of aerodynamic modifications that influence the unsteady aerodynamic properties of a vehicle on the response of the closed loop system driver-vehicle under side wind conditions is investigated. In today's aerodynamic optimization the side wind sensitivity of a vehicle is determined from steady state values measured in the wind tunnel. There, the vehicle is rotated with respect to the wind tunnel flow to create an angle of attack. In this approach however, the gustiness that is inherent in natural wind is not reproduced. Further, unsteady forces and moments acting on the vehicle are not measured due to the limited dynamic response of the commonly used wind tunnel balances. Therefore, a new method is introduced, overcoming the shortcomings of the current steady state approach. The method consists of the reproduction of the properties of natural stochastic crosswind that are essential for the determination of the side wind sensitivity of a vehicle.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a CNG Driven SI Engine Within a Parallel Hybrid Power Train by Using EGR and an Oversized Turbocharger with Active-WG Control

2010-04-12
2010-01-0820
The hybrid power train technology offers various prospects to optimize the engine efficiency in order to minimize the CO₂ emissions of an internal-combustion-engine-powered vehicle. Today different types of hybrid architectures like parallel, serial, power split or through-the-road concepts are commonly known. To achieve lowest fuel consumption the following hybrid electric vehicle drive modes can be used: Start/Stop, pure electric/thermal driving, recuperation of brake energy and the hybrid mode. The high complexity of the interaction between those power sources requires an extensive investigation to determine the optimal configuration of a natural-gas-powered SI engine within a parallel hybrid power train. Therefore, a turbocharged 1.0-liter 3-cylinder CNG engine was analyzed on the test bench. Using an optimized combustion strategy, the engine was operated at stoichiometric and lean air/fuel ratio applying both high- and low-pressure EGR.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Sub-Synchronous Oscillations in Exhaust Gas Turbochargers

2015-09-06
2015-24-2531
Due to the demands for today's passenger cars regarding fuel consumption and emissions, exhaust turbo charging has become a fundamental step in achieving these goals. Especially in upper and middle class vehicles it is also necessary to consider the noise comfort. Today, floating bushings are mainly used as radial bearings in turbochargers. In the conventional operating range of the turbocharger dynamic instability occurs in the lubrication films of the bearings. This instability is transferred by structure-borne noise into audible airborne sound and known as constant tone phenomenon. This phenomenon is not the major contributor of the engine noise but its tonal character is very unpleasant. In order to gain a more detailed understanding about the origin of this phenomenon, displacement sensors have been applied to the compressor- and the turbine-side of the rotor, to be able to determine the displacement path.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Simulation of Hybrid Powertrains using Different Combustion Engine Models

2015-09-06
2015-24-2545
This study presents a comparison of different approaches for the simulation of HEV fuel consumption. For this purpose a detailed 1D-CFD model within an HEV drivetrain is compared to a ‘traditional’ map-based combustion engine model as well as different types of simplified engine models which are able to reduce computing time significantly while keeping the model accuracy at a high level. First, a simplified air path model (fast running model) is coupled with a quasi dimensional, predictive combustion model. In a further step of reducing the computation time, an alternative way of modeling the in cylinder processes was evaluated, by replacing the combustion model with a mean value model. For this approach, the most important influencing factors of the 1D-CFD air path model (temperature, pressure, A/F-ratio) are used as input values into neural nets, while the corresponding outputs are in turn used as feedback for the air path model.
Journal Article

Open Grille DrivAer Model - First Results

2015-04-14
2015-01-1553
Cooling air flow is an important factor when it comes to vehicle performance and operating safety. In addition, it is closely linked to vehicle aerodynamics. In recent years more and more effort is being spent to optimize the losses generated by the flow through the vehicle. Grille shutters, better sealing and ducting are only some examples for innovations in this field of work, resulting in a lower contribution of the cooling air flow to overall drag. When investigating those effects, both experiments and numerical simulations are commonly used in the automotive environment. Still, when comparing the results from both methods, differences in the effect of cooling air flow can often be observed. To better understand the effects of cooling air flow, the ECARA Subgroup CFD decided to establish a common design for a generic open source vehicle model with a detailed underhood compartment to lay the foundation for a common investigation model.
Journal Article

New FKFS Technology at the Full-Scale Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel of University of Stuttgart

2015-04-14
2015-01-1557
For many years FKFS has operated the full-scale aeroacoustic wind tunnel of University of Stuttgart. To keep this wind tunnel as one of the most modern ones of its kind, it has again been upgraded significantly. The upgrade improved the aerodynamic as well as the aeroacoustic performance and accelerated the operational processes. Additionally, new innovative features have significantly enlarged the test capabilities. A new patented, modular belt system (FKFS first®) allows high performance measurements for race cars in a 3-belt mode as well as efficient measurements for production vehicle development in a 5-belt mode. The belt system is accompanied by a new, larger turntable and a new under-floor balance which enables high-accuracy measurements of forces and moments also for a high resolution in time. For the elimination of parasitic forces generated at the wheel drive units, a specific correction procedure has been implemented, which is patented, too (FKFS pace®).
Journal Article

The Effects of Cooling Air on the Flow Field around a Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1603
Cooling air flow is an important factor when it comes to vehicle performance and operating safety. In addition, it is closely linked to vehicle aerodynamics. In recent years more and more effort is being spent to optimize the losses generated by the flow through the vehicle. Grille shutters, better sealing and ducting are only some examples for innovations in this field of work, resulting in a lower contribution of the cooling air flow to overall drag. But cooling air not only affects the internal flow of the vehicle but also changes the flow around it. This paper will show changes in the flow field around the generic DrivAer model resulting from cooling air flow, especially in the wake behind the car and in the region around the front wheels. The results were gathered using PIV measurements, multi-hole-probe measurements and pitot tube measurements in the 1:4 model scale wind tunnel of IVK University of Stuttgart.
Journal Article

Investigation of Aerodynamic Drag in Turbulent Flow Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1605
In this paper the influence of different turbulent flow conditions on the aerodynamic drag of a quarter scale model with notchback and estate back rear ends is investigated. FKFS swing® (Side Wind Generator) is used to generate a turbulent flow field in the test section of the IVK model scale wind tunnel. In order to investigate the increase in drag with increasing yaw, a steady state yaw sweep is performed for both vehicle models. The shape of the drag curves vary for each vehicle model. The notchback model shows a more pronounced drag minimum at 0° yaw angle and experiences a more severe increase in drag at increasing yaw when compared to the estate back model. Unsteady time averaged aerodynamic drag values are obtained at two flow situations with different turbulent length scales, turbulence intensities, and yaw angle amplitudes. While the first one is representing light wind, the second one is recreating the presence of strong gusty wind.
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