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Technical Paper

Sensor Vision and Collision Warning Systems

2000-11-01
2000-01-C001
Due to an earlier analysis of the interrelation between collisions and advanced driver reaction a significant number of accidents could be avoided through timely threat recognition and appropriate maneuvers for collision avoidance. This may be achieved either by suitable warning to the driver or by automatic support to longitudinal or lateral control of the vehicle. A precondition for the registration of the dangerous situation is the incorporation of appropriate sensors. This leads to an surround sensor vision system accompanied by a matched human machine interface. Many vehicles readily offer ultrasonic reversing aids as add-on systems. Furthermore, long-range radar systems for adaptive cruise control are now coming on the market. New sensor technologies, such as short-range radar and video, which are currently under development, open up a plurality of novel functions thus enhancing driving safety and comfort.
Technical Paper

Thermal Simulation within the Brake System Design Process

2002-10-06
2002-01-2587
During the acquisition phase brake system supplier have to make predictions on a system's thermal behavior based on very few reliable parameters. Increasing system knowledge requires the usage of different calculation models along with the progress of the project. Adaptive modeling is used in order to integrate test results from first prototypes or benchmark vehicles. Since changes in the brake force distribution have a great impact on the simulation results fading conditions of the linings have to be integrated as well. The principle of co-simulation is used in order to use the actual brake force distribution of the system.
Technical Paper

The Role of Climatic Conditions on Disc Brake Noise

2006-10-08
2006-01-3209
Since the brake colloquium in 2004 the role of climatic conditions and their relations to noise occurrence, sound pressure level and friction coefficient level is widely discussed in the US and European working groups on brake noise. A systematic study has been started to investigate the influence of relative humidity, absolute humidity and temperature on brake noise and the corresponding friction coefficient level. In this study an enormous effort was taken to keep the influences of the brake parameters, e.g. lining material, Eigenfrequencies and dimensions of the different components as small as possible to investigate the climatic influence only. Strategic humidity and temperature levels were tested according to the Mollier-Entropy-Enthalpy-Diagram which are corresponding to the seasons in the various international regions. A regression analysis evaluates the correlation and the influence of each parameter to noise and friction coefficient level.
Technical Paper

More Safety with Vehicle Stability Control

2007-11-28
2007-01-2759
Since introduction of safety belts in the 70s and airbags in the early 80s, these passive safety technologies have become standard in many markets. Remarkable improvement in passive safety, efforts to alter driver behaviour and infrastructural programmes have led to substantial reductions of fatalities in many regions, although the absolute number of highway fatalities increased e.g. in the USA in 2002 to the highest level since 1990. Electronic Stability Control (ESC) as an active safety technology assists the driver to keep the vehicle on the intended track and thereby actively prevents accidents. In 1995 Bosch was the first supplier to introduce ESC for the Mercedes-Benz S-Class, where it is marketed as ESP® - Electronic Stability Program. Since then, Bosch has produced more than 30 million systems worldwide. Many studies have now confirmed that ESC can prevent a vehicle from skidding or rolling over in nearly all driving situations.
Technical Paper

Application of ISO 26262 in Distributed Development ISO 26262 in Reality

2009-04-20
2009-01-0758
With its origin in the process industry, the IEC 61508 „Functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems” is not fully applicable in the automotive industry, forcing the automotive industry to work on an automotive specific adaptation (ISO 26262 “Functional Safety – Road Vehicles”). This ISO 26262 describes an ideal development process that starts from scratch. In reality development activities are often split locally and in time. This can only be handled with a world wide standard as a basis of a common approach, wide enough to give enough freedom to adapt to diverse boundary conditions, but tight enough to hinder local interpretations to be that far, that a complete safety case becomes impossible. Therefore a strict world-wide standard which allows compatible interpretations is mandatory.
Technical Paper

Advanced Emission and Fuel Economy Concept Using Combined Injection of Gasoline and Hydrogen in SI-Engines

2004-03-08
2004-01-1270
In order to meet future requirements for emission reduction and fuel economy a variety of concepts are available for gasoline engines. In the recent past new pathways have been found using alternative fuels and fuel combinations to establish cost optimized solutions. The presented concept for a SI-engine consists of combined injection of gasoline and hydrogen. A hydrogen enriched gas mixture is being injected additionally to gasoline into the engine manifold. The gas composition represents the output of an onboard gasoline reformer. The simulations and measurements show substantial benefits to improve the combustion process resulting in reduced cold start and warm up emissions and optimized part load operation. The replacement of gasoline by hydrogen-rich gas during engine start leads to zero hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

System Architecture and Algorithm for Advanced Passive Safety by Integration of Surround Sensing Information

2005-04-11
2005-01-1233
Surround sensing methods provide information which can be used in PRECRASH functionalities for advanced control of the passenger protection system. The relevant data (closing velocity (cv), time to impact (tti), and offset of contact point (Δy)) are determined with a Predictive Safety System and transmitted to the airbag control unit for further processing in the PRECRASH algorithm. The PRECRASH algorithm controls both, the activation of reversible restraints and the deployment of irreversible restraints. Therefore it consists of two components: The PREFIRE and the PRESET algorithm. The PREFIRE algorithm uses the PRECRASH information for the activation of the reversible belt pretensioner in advance of a crash to reduce chest load in the crash phase. The PRESET algorithm calculates the trigger decision for deployment of pyrotechnical restraints. Inputs of the PRESET algorithm are the PRECRASH information as well as the acceleration signal.
Technical Paper

Improved Occupant Protection through Cooperation of Active and Passive Safety Systems – Combined Active and Passive Safety CAPS

2006-04-03
2006-01-1144
One of the most important aims of the automotive industry is to provide the best possible protection for drivers, passengers and pedestrians. Through their CAPS (Combined Active and Passive Safety) program (see Figure 1), Bosch is developing new functions which help to achieve these goals and contribute to accident mitigation and/or reduction of accident severity. By linking existing active and passive automobile safety systems and extending these by adding systems for monitoring and evaluating the vehicle's environment, the foundation for new safety functions is created. The growing number of airbags in vehicles provides more and better protection against injury for the occupants. In addition, active safety systems such as the ESP® Electronic Stability Program help to prevent an accident occurring in the first place. If these systems are linked together, they can share information and provide even better safety for drivers and passengers through new functions.
Technical Paper

Challenge Determining a Combustion System Concept for Downsized SI-engines - Comparison and Evaluation of Several Options for a Boosted 2-cylinder SI-engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1730
To meet future CO₂ emissions limits and satisfy the bounds set by exhaust gas legislation reducing the engine displacement while maintaining the power output ("Downsizing") becomes of more and more importance in the SI engine development process. The total number of cylinders per engine has to be reduced to keep the thermodynamic disadvantages of a small combustion chamber layout as small as possible. Doing so new challenges arise concerning the mechanical design, the design of the combustion system concept as well as strategies maintaining a satisfying transient torque behavior. To address these challenges a turbocharged 2-cylinder SI engine was designed for research purposes by Weber Motor GmbH and Robert Bosch GmbH. The design process was described in detail in last year's paper SAE 2012-01-0832. Since the engine design is very modular it allows for several different engine layouts which can be examined and evaluated.
Technical Paper

Loss of Control Car Accidents on Indian Roads - Benefit Estimation of ESC

2019-01-09
2019-26-0009
India has one of the highest growth rates of individual mobility in the world, as well as one of the largest numbers of road casualties. Modern active safety systems are slowly becoming established in the Indian passenger car market. The intension of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of the car safety feature Electronic Stability Control (ESC) for India. The Indian accidents has to be analysed to identify the reliable root cause. For this purpose, passenger car Loss of Control accidents were investigated in more detail with the aim of estimating the safety potential of ESC for India. A methodology is developed to extrapolate the in-depth accident database of Road Accident Sampling System for India (RASSI) to the entire accident situation in India. Loss of Control accidents are analysed with regard to their root causes, crash consequences and contributing factors.
Technical Paper

Comparison of a State of the Art Hydraulic Brake System with a Decentralized Hydraulic Brake System Concept for Electric Vehicles

2017-09-17
2017-01-2515
The ongoing changes in the development of new power trains and the requirements due to driver assistance systems and autonomous driving could be the enabler for completely new brake system configurations. The shift in the brake load collective has to be included in the systems requirements for electric vehicles. Many alternative concepts for hydraulic brake systems, even for decentralized configurations, can be found in the literature. For a decentralized system with all state of the art safety functionalities included, four actuators are necessary. Therefore, the single brake module should be as cost-effective as possible. Previous papers introduced systems which are for example based on plunger-like concepts, which are very expensive and heavy due to the needed gearing and design. In this paper a comparison between a state of the art hydraulic brake system using an electromechanical brake booster, and a completely new decentralized hydraulic brake concept is presented.
Technical Paper

Driving Course Prediction Using Distance Sensor Data

1999-03-01
1999-01-1234
The assignment of vehicles detected by distance sensors to lanes relative to the own vehicle is an important and necessary task for future driver assistance systems like Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC). The collective motion of objects driving in front of the vehicle allows a prediction of the vehicle's own driving course. The method uses not only data of the host vehicle to determine its own trajectory but as well data from a distance sensor supplying distances and angles of objects ahead of the vehicle to determine the trajectories of these objects. Algorithms were developed using an off-line simulation, which was fed with recorded data obtained from a real ACC vehicle. The results show a significant improvement in the quality of the predicted driving course compared to other methods solely based on data of the host vehicle. Particularly in situations of changing curvature, e.g. the beginning of a bend, the algorithm helps to improve the overall system performance of ACC.
Technical Paper

Tool Support for Analyzing and Optimization Methods in Early Brake System Sizing Phases

2000-03-06
2000-01-0442
The manufacturers of passenger cars increasingly assign development and production of complete subsystems to the supplying industry. A brake system supplier has to give predictions about system quality and performance long time before the first prototypical system is built or even before the supplier gets the order for system development. Nowadays, the usage of computer-aided system design and simulation is essential for that task. This article presents a tool designed to support the development process. A special focus will be on how to define quality. A formal definition of quality is provided, illustrated and motivated by two examples.
Technical Paper

OSEKtime: A Dependable Real-Time Fault-Tolerant Operating System and Communication Layer as an Enabling Technology for By-Wire Applications

2000-03-06
2000-01-1051
The new generation of drive-by-wire systems currently under development has demanding requirements on the electronic architecture. Functions such as brake-by-wire or steer-by-wire require continued operation even in the presence of component failures. The electronic architecture must therefore provide fault-tolerance and real-time response. This in turn requires the operating system and the communication layer to be predictable, dependable and composable. It is well known that this properties are best supported by a time-triggered approach. A consortium consisting of German and French car manufacturers and suppliers, which aims at becoming a working group within the OSEK/VDX initiative, the OSEKtime consortium, is currently defining a specification for a time-triggered operating system and a fault-tolerant communication layer.1 The operating system and the communication layer are based on applicable interfaces of the OSEK/VDX standard.
Technical Paper

BOSCH-ABS - Designed for the User

1986-11-01
861977
Bosch's antilock braking system (ABS) is available for any type of vehicle design. It has been developed in cooperation with vehicle manufacturers and users. Safety and reliability were the eminent targets of this development. A new feature is a self-diagnostic system.
Technical Paper

Traction Control (ASR) for Commercial Vehicles. A Further Step Towards Safety on our Roads

1987-11-01
872272
Alongside steering, accelerating and braking are the basic operations in the automobile which are nowadays still left to the driver to perform in their entirety. In performing these basic functions, it may come about that excessive demands are made upon a driver, these arising due to poor road conditions - rain, snow and ice - or as a result of suddenly changing traffic situations. With the introduction of anti-lock braking systems (ABS), a decisive step has been taken to increase active driving and traffic safety. The ABS prevents the lockup of the wheels during overbraking. The vehicle remains steerable and retains stable directional control. Furthermore, in many cases, a shorter braking distance is gained compared to braking with the wheels locked up. BOSCH has been manufacturing and supplying ABS for passenger cars since 1978 and for commercial vehicles and buses since 1981. ABS has proved to be an overwhelming success in practical usage.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Simulation of Transient Tire Forces

1989-02-01
890640
High performance Antilock Braking Systems (ABS) are well known to allow for very rapid pressure changes in the wheel brake cylinders. Recordings of the wheel speed during ABS control show oscillations just after the rapid pressure changes. The oscillations can not be explained by simulation if the usual stationary brake force versus slip curves are used. Thus the investigation of the oscillations requires a different approach to the modelling of the tire. As a first step in the alternative modelling of the tire the forces and moments on the running tire were measured using an experimental car. During the measurement the pressure in the wheel brake cylinder was modulated stepwise. A new Rotating Wheel Dynamometer was used to take those measurements. The results showed that the oscillations which were observed in the wheel speed could also be found in the braking force on the tire. Contrarily, the corresponding oscillations could not be found in the braking torque.
Technical Paper

ABS and ASR for Passenger Cars -Coals and Limits

1989-02-01
890834
Antilock Braking Systems (ABS) and Traction Control Systems (ASR) should ensure maximum stability and steerability even under extreme driving conditions. Since high performance systems additionally improve brake distance and traction within the given physical limits, every vehicle equipped with ABS and ASR offers considerably higher active safety. ABS was introduced into the market by the Robert Bosch GmbH more than ten years ago, and more than 3 million systems have been produced by the end of 1988. Volume production of ASR began in 1987. This paper describes several high-, medium-, and low performance concepts and compares them with regard to safety and performance. Although it seems to be nearly impossible to define a cost/benefit ratio between monetary values and safety, our purpose here is to identify further development strategies through the use of a decision matrix.
Journal Article

Side View Assist - The World’s First Rider Assistance System for Two-Wheelers

2016-11-08
2016-32-0052
The Side View Assist is the World’s first rider assistance system for two-wheelers. This is a Blind Spot Warning system, which uses four ultrasonic sensors to monitor the surrounding of the rider. Whenever there is a vehicle (i.e. a car, truck, or another motorbike) in the rider’s blind spot, the technology warns the rider with an optical signal close to the mirror. This will allow the rider to avoid a collision when changing lanes. In the current vehicle application, Side View Assist is active at speeds ranging from 25 to 80 kilometers per hour and supports riders whenever the difference in relative speed to other road users is small. The system helps to improve safety especially in cities, where heavy traffic makes it necessary to change lanes more often. Originally such systems have been developed for cars and different system solutions for cars have been in serial production for several years. The challenge was to adapt these systems so they would work for two-wheelers as well.
Technical Paper

The Impact of a Combustion Chamber Optimization on the Mixture Formation and Combustion in a CNG-DI Engine in Stratified Operation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0779
A previous study by the authors has shown an efficiency benefit of up to Δηi = 10 % for stratified operation of a high pressure natural gas direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engine compared to the homogeneous stoichiometric operation with port fuel injection (PFI). While best efficiencies appeared at extremely lean operation at λ = 3.2, minimum HC emissions were found at λ = 2. The increasing HC emissions and narrow ignition time frames in the extremely lean stratified operation have given the need for a detailed analysis. To further investigate the mixture formation and flame propagation und these conditions, an optically accessible single-cylinder engine was used. The mixture formation and the flame luminosity have been investigated in two perpendicular planes inside the combustion chamber.
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