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Technical Paper

The Potential for Achieving Low Hydrocarbon and NOx Exhaust Emissions from Large Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

2007-04-16
2007-01-1261
Two large, heavy light-duty gasoline vehicles (2004 model year Ford F-150 with a 5.4 liter V8 and GMC Yukon Denali with a 6.0 liter V8) were baselined for emission performance over the FTP driving cycle in their stock configurations. Advanced emission systems were designed for both vehicles employing advanced three-way catalysts, high cell density ceramic substrates, and advanced exhaust system components. These advanced emission systems were integrated on the test vehicles and characterized for low mileage emission performance on the FTP cycle using the vehicle's stock engine calibration and, in the case of the Denali, after modifying the vehicle's stock engine calibration for improved cold-start and hot-start emission performance.
Technical Paper

The Use of Radioactive Tracer Technology to Measure Real-Time Wear in Engines and Other Mechanical Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1437
Radioactive tracer technology (RATT™) is an important tool for measuring real-time wear in operating engines and other mechanical systems. The use of this technology provides important wear information that is not available by other, more conventional wear measurement methods. The technology has advanced to the point where several components can be interrogated simultaneously, and new methods have extended the method to materials that are normally not amenable to radioactive tracer evaluation. In addition, sensitivity has increased so that the onset of wear can be detected long before practical with non-tracer methods. This improves the ability to measure and determine cause and effect relationships, thus providing a better understanding of wear responses to specific operating conditions and to changes in operating conditions. This paper reviews the radioactive tracer process and recent improvements that have extended its reach in both automotive and non-automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Alternative Combustion Crossing Stoichiometric Air Fuel Ratio for Clean Diesels

2007-07-23
2007-01-1840
Alternative combustion crossing stoichiometric air fuel ratio was investigated to utilize a 4-way catalyst system with LNT (lean NOx trap). The chemical mechanism of restricting soot formation reactions with low combustion temperature was combined with the physical mechanism of reducing smoke by lowering local equivalence ratio to enable low smoke rich and near rich combustion. A new combustion chamber for spatially and timely mixture formation phasing was developed to combine the two mechanisms and allow smooth EGR changing over a wide load range. Through this investigation, rich and near rich combustion to effectively utilize a 4-way catalyst system was realized. In addition, conditions suitable for LNT sulfur regeneration were realized from light to medium load.
Technical Paper

Engine Crankshaft Position Tracking Algorithms Applicable for Given Arbitrary Cam- and Crank-Shaft Position Signal Patterns

2007-04-16
2007-01-1597
This paper describes algorithms that can recognize and track the engine crankshaft position for arbitrary cam- and crank-shaft tooth wheel patterns in both steady-state and transient operating conditions. Crankshaft position tracking resolution is adjustable to accommodate different application requirements. The instantaneous crankshaft position information provided by the position tracking module form the basis for crankshaft angle domain (CAD) engine control and measurement functions such as precise injection / ignition controls and on-line cylinder pressure CAD analyses. The algorithms described make reconfiguration of the tracking module for different and arbitrary cam- and crank-shaft tooth wheel patterns very easy, which is valuable especially for prototyping engine control systems. The effectiveness of the algorithms is shown using test engines with different cam and crank signal patterns.
Technical Paper

US 2010 Emissions Capable Camless Heavy-Duty On-Highway Natural Gas Engine

2007-07-23
2007-01-1930
The goal of this project was to demonstrate a low emissions, high efficiency heavy-duty on-highway natural gas engine. The emissions targets for this project are to demonstrate US 2010 emissions standards on the 13-mode steady state test. To meet this goal, a chemically correct combustion (stoichiometric) natural gas engine with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a three way catalyst (TWC) was developed. In addition, a Sturman Industries, Inc. camless Hydraulic Valve Actuation (HVA) system was used to improve efficiency. A Volvo 11 liter diesel engine was converted to operate as a stoichiometric natural gas engine. Operating a natural gas engine with stoichiometric combustion allows for the effective use of a TWC, which can simultaneously oxidize hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide and reduce NOx. High conversion efficiencies are possible through proper control of air-fuel ratio.
Technical Paper

Impact of Lubricant Oil on Regulated Emissions of a Light-Duty Mercedes-Benz OM611 CIDI-Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-1901
The Partnership for a New Generation Vehicle (PNGV) has identified the compression-ignition, direct-injection (CIDI) engine as a promising technology in meeting the PNGV goal of 80 miles per gallon for a prototype mid-size sedan by 2004. Challenges remain in reducing the emission levels of the CIDI-engine to meet future emission standards. The objective of this project was to perform an initial screening of crank case lubricant contribution to regulated engine-out emissions, particularly when low particulate forming diesel fuel formulations are used. The test engine was the Mercedes-Benz OM611, the test oils were a mineral SAE 5W30, a synthetic (PAO based) SAE 5W30, and a synthetic (PAO based) SAE 15W50, and the test fuels were a California-like certification fuel and an alternative oxygenated diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Dimethoxy Methane in Diesel Fuel: Part 1. The Effect of Fuels and Engine Operating Modes on Emissions of Toxic Air Pollutants and Gas/Solid Phase PAH

2001-09-24
2001-01-3627
The objective of this study was to quantify engine-out emissions of potentially toxic compounds from a modern diesel engine operated with different fuels including 15% v/v dimethoxy methane in a low sulfur diesel fuel. Five diesel fuels were examined: a low-sulfur, low-aromatic hydrocracked (∼1 ppm) fuel, the same low sulfur fuel containing 15% v/v dimethoxy methane, a Fischer-Tropsch fuel, a CARB fuel, and an EPA number 2 certification fuel. A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine was controlled with a SwRI Rapid Prototyping Electronic Control system. The engine was operated over 4 speed-load modes. Each operating mode and fuel combination was run in triplicate. Thirty three potentially toxic compounds were measured for each fuel and mode.
Technical Paper

Dimethoxy Methane in Diesel Fuel: Part 2. The Effect of Fuels on Emissions of Toxic Air Pollutants and Gas/Solid Phase PAH Using a Composite Of Engine Operating Modes

2001-09-24
2001-01-3628
A weighted composite of four engine-operating modes, representative of typical operating modes found in the US FTP driving schedule, were used to compare engine-out emissions of toxic compounds using five diesel fuels. The fuels examined were: a low-sulfur low-aromatic hydrocracked diesel fuel, the same low-sulfur fuel containing 15% v/v dimethoxy methane, a Fischer-Tropsch fuel, a CARB fuel, and a EPA number 2 diesel certification fuel. A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine was operated over 4 speed-load modes: mode 5, 2600 RPM, 8.8 BMEP; mode 6, 2300 RPM, 4.2 BMEP; mode 10, 2000 RPM, 2.0 BMEP; mode 11, 1500 RPM, 2.6 BMEP. The four engine operating modes were weighted as follows: mode 5, 25/1200; mode 6, 200/1200; mode 10, 375/1200; and mode 11, 600/1200. Each operating mode and fuel combination was run in triplicate.
Technical Paper

Dimethoxy Methane in Diesel Fuel: Part 3. The Effect of Pilot Injection, Fuels and Engine Operating Modes on Emissions of Toxic Air Pollutants and Gas/Solid Phase PAH

2001-09-24
2001-01-3630
The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of pilot fuel injection on engine-out emissions of potentially toxic compounds from a modern diesel engine operated with different fuels including 15% v/v dimethoxy methane in a low-sulfur diesel fuel. Five diesel fuels were examined: a low-sulfur (∼1 ppm), low aromatic, hydrocracked fuel, the same low-sulfur fuel containing 15% v/v dimethoxy methane, a Fischer-Tropsch fuel, a California reformulated fuel, and a EPA number 2 certification fuel. A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine was controlled with a SwRI Rapid Prototyping Electronic Control system. The pilot fuel injection was either turned off or turned on with engine control by either Location of Peak Pressure (LPP) of combustion or the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) calibration strategy. These three control strategies were compared over 2 speed-load modes run in triplicate. Thirty-three potentially toxic compounds were measured.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Improving Fuel Economy and Performance Prediction through Coupled Thermal Systems Simulation

2002-03-04
2002-01-1208
Vehicle designers make use of vehicle performance programs such as RAPTOR™ to predict the performance of concept vehicles over ranges of industry standard drive cycles. However, the accuracy of such predictions may be greatly influenced by factors requiring more specialist simulation capabilities. For example, fuel economy prediction will be heavily influenced by the performance of the engine cooling system and its impact on the vehicle's aerodynamic drag, and the load from the air-conditioning system. To improve the predictions, specialist simulation capabilities need to be applied to these aspects, and brought together with the vehicle performance calculations through co-simulation. This paper describes the approach used to enable this cosimulation and the benefits achieved by the vehicle designer.
Technical Paper

Development of the Sequence IVA Valve Train Wear Lubricant Test: Part 1

2000-06-19
2000-01-1820
The ASTM Sequence VE test evaluates lubricant performance for controlling sludge deposits and minimizing overhead camshaft lobe wear. ILSAC asked JAMA to develop a new valve train wear replacement test since the Sequence VE test engine hardware will become obsolete in the year 2000. JAMA submitted the JASO specification M 328-951) KA24E valve train wear test. This first report presents the results of technical studies conducted when JASO M 328-95 was reviewed and the ASTM standardized version of the KA24E test (the Sequence IVA) was proposed. The cam wear mechanism was studied with the goal of improving reproducibility and repeatability. Engine torque was specified to stabilize the NOx concentration in blow-by, which improved test precision. Additionally, the specifications for induction air humidity and temperature, oil temperature control, and test fuel composition were modified when the ASTM version of the KA24E test was proposed.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Improvements and NOx Reduction by Reduction of Parasitic Losses: Effect of Engine Design

2006-10-31
2006-01-3474
Reducing aerodynamic drag and tire rolling resistance in trucks using cooled EGR engines meeting EPA 2004 emissions standards has been observed to result in increases in fuel economy and decreases in NOx emissions. We report here on tests conducted using vehicles equipped a non-EGR engine meeting EPA 2004 emission standards and an electronically-controlled engine meeting EPA 1998 emissions standards. The effects of trailer fairings and single-wide tires on fuel economy and NOx emissions were tested using SAE test procedure J1321. NOx emissions were measured using a portable emissions monitoring system (PEMS). Fuel consumption was estimated by a carbon balance on PEMS output and by the gravimetric method specified by test procedure J1321. Fuel consumption decreased and fuel economy increased by a maximum of about 10 percent, and NOx emissions decreased by a maximum of 20 percent relative to baseline.
Technical Paper

Development and Testing of Optimized Engine Oils for Modern Two-Stroke Cycle Direct Fuel Injected Outboard Engines

2006-11-13
2006-32-0018
Despite the recent increase in fuel prices, the multi-billion dollar recreational boating market in North America continues to experience solid momentum and growth. In the U.S. economy alone, sales of recreational boats continue to increase with over 17 million boats sold in 2004 [1]. Of that share, outboard boats and the engines that power them, accounted for nearly half of all boat sales. Though there has been a shift in outboard technology to four-stroke cycle engines, a significant number of new engine sales represent two-stroke cycle engines employing direct fuel injection as a means to meet emissions regulations. With the life span of modern outboards estimated to be 8 to 10 years, a significant base of two-stroke cycle engines exist in the market place, and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future.
Technical Paper

Intentional Failure of a 5000 psig Hydrogen Cylinder Installed in an SUV Without Standard Required Safety Devices

2007-04-16
2007-01-0431
A vehicle's gasoline fuel tank was removed and replaced with a 5,000-psig, Type-III, aluminum-lined hydrogen cylinder. High-pressure cylinders are typically installed with a thermally-activated pressure relief device (PRD) designed to safely vent the contents of the cylinder in the event of accidental exposure to fire. The objective of this research was to assess the results of a catastrophic failure in the event that a PRD were ineffective. Therefore, no PRD was installed on the vehicle to ensure cylinder failure would occur. The cylinder was pressurized and exposed to a propane bonfire in order to simulate the occurrence of a gasoline pool fire on the underside of the vehicle. Measurements included temperature and carbon monoxide concentration inside the passenger compartment of the vehicle to evaluate tenability. Measurements on the exterior of the vehicle included blast wave pressures. Documentation included standard, infrared, and high-speed video.
Technical Paper

Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Tested in Heavy-Duty Engines Meeting 2004 Emission Standards

2005-05-11
2005-01-2200
Biodiesel produced from soybean oil, canola oil, yellow grease, and beef tallow was tested in two heavy-duty engines. The biodiesels were tested neat and as 20% by volume blends with a 15 ppm sulfur petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The test engines were a 2002 Cummins ISB and 2003 DDC Series 60. Both engines met the 2004 U.S. emission standard of 2.5 g/bhp-h NOx+HC (3.35 g/kW-h) and utilized exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All emission tests employed the heavy-duty transient procedure as specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. Reduction in PM emissions and increase in NOx emissions were observed for all biodiesels in all engines, confirming observations made in older engines. On average PM was reduced by 25% and NOx increased by 3% for the two engines tested for a variety of B20 blends. These changes are slightly larger in magnitude, but in the same range as observed in older engines.
Technical Paper

Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions Comparison for Three Tier II Non-Road Diesel Engines Operating on Ethanol-Diesel Blends

2005-05-11
2005-01-2193
Regulated and unregulated emissions (individual hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes and ketones, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, and soluble organic fraction of particulate matter) were characterized in engines utilizing duplicate ISO 8178-C1 eight-mode tests and FTP smoke tests. Certification No. 2 diesel (400 ppm sulfur) and three ethanol/diesel blends, containing 7.7 percent, 10 percent, and 15 percent ethanol, respectively, were used. The three, Tier II, off-road engines were 6.8-L, 8.1-L, and 12.5-L in displacement and each had differing fuel injection system designs. It was found that smoke and particulate matter emissions decreased with increasing ethanol content. Changes to the emissions of carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen varied with engine design, with some increases and some decreases. As expected, increasing ethanol concentration led to higher emissions of acetaldehyde (increases ranging from 27 to 139 percent).
Technical Paper

On-Board Fuel Property Classifier for Fuel Property Adaptive Engine Control System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0054
This paper explores the possibility of on-board fuel classification for fuel property adaptive compression-ignition engine control system. The fuel classifier is designed to on-board classify the fuel that a diesel engine is running, including alternative and renewable fuels such as bio-diesel. Based on this classification, the key fuel properties are provided to the engine control system for optimal control of in-cylinder combustion and exhaust treatment system management with respect to the fuel. The fuel classifier employs engine input-output response characteristics measured from standard engine sensors to classify the fuel. For proof-of-concept purposes, engine input-output responses were measured for three different fuels at three different engine operating conditions. Two neural-network-based fuel classifiers were developed for different classification scenarios. Of the three engine operating conditions tested, two conditions were selected for the fuel classifier to be active.
Technical Paper

The Use of Radioactive Tracer Technology to Evaluate Engine Wear Under the Influences of Advanced Combustion System Operation and Lubricant Performance

2005-10-24
2005-01-3689
Radioactive tracer technology is an important tool for measuring component wear on a real-time basis and is especially useful in measuring engine wear as it is affected by combustion system operation and lubricant performance. Combustion system operation including the use of early and/or late fuel injection and EGR for emissions control can have a profound effect on aftertreatment contamination and engine reliability due to wear. Liner wear caused by localized fuel impingement can lead to excessive oil consumption and fuel dilution can cause excessive wear of rings and bearings. To facilitate typical wear measurement, the engine's compression rings and connecting rod bearings are initially exposed to thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor to produce artificial radioisotopes that are separately characteristic of the ring and bearing wear surfaces.
Technical Paper

A History of Mack Engine Lubricant Tests from 1985-2005: Mack T-7 through Mack T-12

2005-10-24
2005-01-3713
As on-highway, heavy-duty diesel engine designs have evolved to meet tighter emissions specifications and greater customer requirements, the crankcase environment for heavy-duty engine lubricants has changed. Engine lubricant quality is very important to help ensure engine durability, engine performance, and reduce maintenance downtime. Beginning in the late 1980's, a new Mack genuine oil specification and a new American Petroleum Institute (API) heavy-duty engine lubricant category have been introduced with each new U.S. heavy-duty, on-highway emissions specification. This paper documents the history and development of the Mack T-7, T-8, T-8A, T-8E, T-9, T-10, T-11, and T-12 engine lubricant tests.
Technical Paper

Laser Ignition in a Pre-Mixed Engine: The Effect of Focal Volume and Energy Density on Stability and the Lean Operating Limit

2005-10-24
2005-01-3752
A series of tests using an open beam laser ignition system in an engine run on pre-mixed, gaseous fuels were performed. The ignition system for the engine was a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser. A single cylinder research engine was run on pre-mixed iso-butane and propane to determine the lean limit of the engine using laser ignition. In addition, the effect of varying the energy density of the ignition kernel was investigated by changing the focal volume and by varying laser energy. The results indicate that for a fixed focal volume, there is a threshold beyond which increasing the energy density [kJ/m3] yields little or no benefit. In contrast, increasing the energy density by reducing the focal volume size decreases lean performance once the focal volume is reduced past a certain point. The effect of ignition location relative to different surfaces in the engine was also investigated. The results show a slight bias in favor of igniting closer to a surface with low thermal conductivity.
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