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Video

Real-time Tire Imbalance Detection Using ABS Wheel Speed Sensors

2011-11-15
This presentation proposes an approach to use ABS wheel speed sensor signals together with other vehicle state information from a brake control module to detect an unbalanced tire or tires in real-time. The proposed approach consists of two-stage algorithms that mix a qualitative method using band-pass filtering with a quantitative parameter identification using conditional least squares. This two-stage approach can improve the robustness of tire imbalance or imbalances. The proposed approach is verified through vehicle testing and the test results show the effectiveness of the approach. Presenter Jianbo Lu, Ford Motor Co.
Video

OBD Experiences: A Ford Perspective

2012-01-24
Some the OBD-II regulations have been around for a long time or seem to be intuitively obvious. It is easy to assume to assume that everyone knows how to implement them correctly, that is, until someone actually reads the words and tries to do it. Most often, these issues come up when modifying existing OBD features, not when creating completely new ones. This presentation contains a few examples of features that should have been easy to implement, but turned out not to be easy or simple. Presenter Paul Algis Baltusis, Ford Motor Co.
Video

Future Development of EcoBoost Technology

2012-05-10
Ford's EcoBoost GTDI engine technology (Gasoline Direct Injection, Turbo-charging and Downsizing) is being successfully implemented in the market place with the EcoBoost option accounting for significant volumes in vehicle lines as diverse as the F150 pickup truck, Edge CUV and the Lincoln MKS luxury sedan. A logical question would be what comes after GTDI? This presentation will review some of the technologies that will be required for further improvements in CO2, efficiency and performance building on the EcoBoost foundation as well as some of the challenges inherent in the new technologies and approaches. Presenter Eric W. Curtis, Ford Motor Co.
Video

Ford: Driving Hybrid Efficiency

2012-03-23
Hybrid vehicles in the modern era were developed with a strong primary goal to increase fuel efficiency in the North American market. Over the last 15 years, this market has expanded from zero sales to as high as 3% of total US sales. Most recently, the portfolio of competitive offerings with HEV propulsion systems has grown even more to about 30 models on sale today. Some interesting features and attributes have evolved thru this wider array of products giving the customer much more choice of which characteristics to select to match their needs. Ford�s 3rd generation HEV system will be offered for sale this fall. With it, we have continued our focus on the Fuel Efficiency as the driving force for our efforts. The overall process for the system engineering and some of the relevant subsystem and component contributors to the Fuel Efficiency improvement reflected in the 2013 Model Year Fusion and CMAX Hybrids will be presented. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

Gear Whine Improvements for an Automatic Transmission through Design Retargeting and Manufacturing Variability Reduction

2001-04-30
2001-01-1505
Gear whine in 1st gear for an automatic transmission that has been in production for nearly thirty years was identified as an NVH issue. Due to advances in vehicle level refinement, and reduction of other masking noises, the automatic transmission gear whine became an issue with the customer. Since the transmission was already in production, the improvements had to be within the boundaries of manufacturing feasibility with existing equipment to avoid costly and time consuming investment in new machines. The approach used was one of identifying optimum values of existing gear parameters to provide a reduction in passenger compartment noise. The problem was in a light truck application. Objective noise measurements were recorded for 10 transmissions from more than 50 driven in vehicles. The transmissions were disassembled and the gears inspected.
Technical Paper

NVH Testing of Hybrid Electric Powertrains

2001-04-30
2001-01-1543
The purpose of his paper is to further the understanding of NVH test techniques for hybrid electric powertrains. It addresses dynamometer testing specifically. Due to the nature of the hybrid electric function, which includes situations when the engine is not running as well as different ratios of torque for power component combinations, typical testing methods are not adequate. Hybrid electric testing requires unique test conditions, dyno control, instrumentation and analysis. This paper attempts to establish some test standards directed specifically to the data needs of hybrid electric power trains.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Wind Noise Analysis Using a SEA Model with Measured Source Levels

2001-04-30
2001-01-1629
A series of tests have been performed on a production vehicle to determine the characteristics of the external turbulent flow field in wind tunnel and road conditions. Empirical formulas are developed to use the measured data as source levels for a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model of the vehicle structural and acoustical responses. Exterior turbulent flow and acoustical subsystems are used to receive power from the source excitations. This allows for both the magnitudes and wavelengths of the exterior excitations to be taken into account - a necessary condition for consistently accurate results. Comparisons of measured and calculated interior sound levels show good correlation.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Computational Process for Pass-By Noise Simulation

2001-04-30
2001-01-1561
The Indirect Boundary Element Analysis is employed for developing a computational pass-by noise simulation capability. An inverse analysis algorithm is developed in order to generate the definition of the main noise sources in the numerical model. The individual source models are combined for developing a system model for pass-by noise simulation. The developed numerical techniques are validated through comparison between numerical results and test data for component level and system level analyses. Specifically, the source definition capability is validated by comparing the actual and the computationally reconstructed acoustic field for an engine intake manifold. The overall pass-by noise simulation capability is validated by computing the maximum overall sound pressure level for a vehicle under two separate driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Robust Analysis of Vehicle Suspension System Uncertainty

2001-04-30
2001-01-1582
The paper presents the systematic approaches toward robust stability analysis of H2/H∞ controlled active suspension systems. The computational algorithms for the structured singular value μ are the main features of the work with an emphasis on quantifying the effects of uncertainty of the systems. The representation of vehicle parameter uncertainties is given in detail. The robustness test is subsequently done based on a quarter vehicle model. The results have showed that the H∞ controller is the best one on both robust stability and robust performance.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Rail Rivet and Steel Rail Weld DOE and CAE Studies for NVH

2001-04-30
2001-01-1608
Vehicle body with aluminum riveted construction instead of steel welded one will be a big challenge to NVH. In this paper, aluminum and steel rails with the dimensions similar to the rear rail portion of a typical mid-size sedan were fabricated. Rivets were used to assemble the aluminum rails while welds were used to assemble the steel rails. Adhesive, rivet/weld spacing, and rivet/weld location were the three major factors to be studied and their impact on NVH were investigated. The DOE matrix was developed using these three major factors. Modal tests were performed on those rails according to the DOE matrix. The FEA models corresponding to the hardware were built. CAE modal analysis were performed and compared with test data. The current in-house CAE modeling techniques for spot weld and adhesive were evaluated and validated with test data.
Technical Paper

Engine Excitation Decomposition Methods and V Engine Results

2001-04-30
2001-01-1595
Engine excitation forces have been studied in the past using one of two methods; a lumped sum or a totally distributed approach. The lumped sum approach gives the well-understood engine inherent unbalance and the totally distributed approach is used in engine CAE models to determine the overall engine response. The approach that will be described in this paper identifies an intermediate level of sophistication. The methodology implemented considers single cylinder forces on the engine block, piston side thrust and main bearing forces, and decomposes them into their order content. The forces are then phased and geometrically distributed appropriately for each cylinder and then each order is analyzed relative to know distributions that are NVH concerns, V-block breathing, block side wall breathing, and block lateral and vertical bending.
Technical Paper

Sound Package Design for a Convertible by Statistical Energy Analysis

2001-04-30
2001-01-1623
The application of SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis) to the sound package design for a convertible is presented. SEA modeling was used optimize the soft-top construction and the acoustic insulation in the top-stack area (where the soft-top is stored) which were shown to be important transmission paths for tire noise. Correlation between measurement data and predictions from the SEA model is presented and good agreement shown. It is concluded that SEA can be applied to determine the special sound package requirements for convertible vehicles.
Technical Paper

Finite element simulation of drive shaft in truck/SUV frontal crash

2001-06-04
2001-06-0106
Drive shaft modelling effects frontal crash finite element simulation. A 35 mph rigid barrier impact of a body on frame SUV with an one piece drive shaft and a unibody SUV with a two piece drive shaft have been studied and simulated using finite element analyses. In the model, the drive shaft can take significant load in frontal impact crash. Assumptions regarding the drive shaft model can change the predicted engine motion in the simulation. This change influences the rocker @ B-pillar deceleration. Two modelling methods have been investigated in this study considering both joint mechanisms and material failure in dynamic impact. Model parameters for joint behavior and failure should be determined from vehicle design information and component testing. A body on frame SUV FEA model has been used to validate the drive shaft modeling technique by comparing the simulation results with crash test data.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Benefit of Cylinder Deactivation - Sensitivity to Vehicle Application and Operating Constraints

2001-09-24
2001-01-3591
A Variable Displacement Engine (VDE) improves fuel economy by deactivating half the cylinders at light load. The actual fuel economy benefit attained in the vehicle depends on how often cylinders can be deactivated, which is a function of test cycle, engine size, and vehicle weight. In practice, cylinder deactivation will also be constrained by NVH (noise, vibration, and harshness). This paper presents fuel economy projections for VDE in several different engine and vehicle applications. Sensitivity to NVH considerations is quantified by calculating fuel economy with and without cylinder deactivation in various operating modes: idle, low engine speed, 1st and 2nd gear, and warm-up after cold start. The effects of lug limits and calibration hysteresis are also presented.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion in a 4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3608
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion has been achieved in a production type 4-stroke multi-cylinder gasoline engine. The engine was based on a Ford 1.7L Zetec-SE 16V engine with a compression ratio of 10.3, using substantially standard components modified only in design dimensions to control the gas exchange process in order to significantly increase the trapped residuals. The engine was also equipped with Variable Cam Timing (VCT) on both the intake and exhaust camshafts. It was found that the largely increased trapped residuals alone were sufficient to achieve CAI in this engine and with VCT, a range of loads between 0.5 and 4 bar BMEP and engine speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm were mapped for CAI fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The measured CAI results were compared with those of Spark Ignition (SI) combustion in the same engine but with standard camshafts at the same speeds and loads.
Technical Paper

Dimethoxy Methane in Diesel Fuel: Part 1. The Effect of Fuels and Engine Operating Modes on Emissions of Toxic Air Pollutants and Gas/Solid Phase PAH

2001-09-24
2001-01-3627
The objective of this study was to quantify engine-out emissions of potentially toxic compounds from a modern diesel engine operated with different fuels including 15% v/v dimethoxy methane in a low sulfur diesel fuel. Five diesel fuels were examined: a low-sulfur, low-aromatic hydrocracked (∼1 ppm) fuel, the same low sulfur fuel containing 15% v/v dimethoxy methane, a Fischer-Tropsch fuel, a CARB fuel, and an EPA number 2 certification fuel. A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine was controlled with a SwRI Rapid Prototyping Electronic Control system. The engine was operated over 4 speed-load modes. Each operating mode and fuel combination was run in triplicate. Thirty three potentially toxic compounds were measured for each fuel and mode.
Technical Paper

Dimethoxy Methane in Diesel Fuel: Part 2. The Effect of Fuels on Emissions of Toxic Air Pollutants and Gas/Solid Phase PAH Using a Composite Of Engine Operating Modes

2001-09-24
2001-01-3628
A weighted composite of four engine-operating modes, representative of typical operating modes found in the US FTP driving schedule, were used to compare engine-out emissions of toxic compounds using five diesel fuels. The fuels examined were: a low-sulfur low-aromatic hydrocracked diesel fuel, the same low-sulfur fuel containing 15% v/v dimethoxy methane, a Fischer-Tropsch fuel, a CARB fuel, and a EPA number 2 diesel certification fuel. A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine was operated over 4 speed-load modes: mode 5, 2600 RPM, 8.8 BMEP; mode 6, 2300 RPM, 4.2 BMEP; mode 10, 2000 RPM, 2.0 BMEP; mode 11, 1500 RPM, 2.6 BMEP. The four engine operating modes were weighted as follows: mode 5, 25/1200; mode 6, 200/1200; mode 10, 375/1200; and mode 11, 600/1200. Each operating mode and fuel combination was run in triplicate.
Technical Paper

Dimethoxy Methane in Diesel Fuel: Part 3. The Effect of Pilot Injection, Fuels and Engine Operating Modes on Emissions of Toxic Air Pollutants and Gas/Solid Phase PAH

2001-09-24
2001-01-3630
The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of pilot fuel injection on engine-out emissions of potentially toxic compounds from a modern diesel engine operated with different fuels including 15% v/v dimethoxy methane in a low-sulfur diesel fuel. Five diesel fuels were examined: a low-sulfur (∼1 ppm), low aromatic, hydrocracked fuel, the same low-sulfur fuel containing 15% v/v dimethoxy methane, a Fischer-Tropsch fuel, a California reformulated fuel, and a EPA number 2 certification fuel. A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine was controlled with a SwRI Rapid Prototyping Electronic Control system. The pilot fuel injection was either turned off or turned on with engine control by either Location of Peak Pressure (LPP) of combustion or the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) calibration strategy. These three control strategies were compared over 2 speed-load modes run in triplicate. Thirty-three potentially toxic compounds were measured.
Technical Paper

Control of Passenger Vehicle Internal Aerodynamics Through Forced Air Extraction

2002-03-04
2002-01-0234
The increasing competitiveness in the automobile market has resulted in the incorporation by the manufacturers of certain features in newer cars that are deemed highly desirable by the customer. Among such features that require improvement is the thermal comfort of passengers' within the cabin. Thermal comfort is in increasing demand from motorists bound to cover more mileage driving cars than ever before. As a result, car makers are striving for improved climate conditions inside the car to meet passenger demand for more comfortable trips. The need to improve the climatic comfort within the vehicle is critical not only to passengers' comfort but also to their safety. However, to make progress in this area, a good understanding of the airflow behaviour within the vehicle interior is required. This paper, reports on a novel idea of control the air movement within the cabin by forcibly removing the air from strategically positioned vents.
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