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Technical Paper

Friction and Wear Characteristics of Micro-Arc Oxidation Coating for Light Weight, Wear Resistant, Powertrain Component Application

1997-02-24
970022
An extremely tough alumina based ceramic coating produced by a modified anodizing process developed at Moscow Aviation Institute has been evaluated for light weight, wear resistant component applications in automotive powertrain. The process details and test results from comparative evaluation of friction and wear properties for cylinder bore application, referenced to cast iron baseline, are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

1.8L Sierra-Mondeo Turbo-Diesel Valvetrain Friction Reduction Using a Solid Film Lubricant

1994-10-01
941986
A 1.8L turbocharged diesel engine valvetrain friction was investigated, and the effectiveness of using a solid film lubricant (SFL) coating in reducing friction was determined throughout the operable speed range. This valvetrain design features direct acting mechanical bucket valve lifters. Camshaft journal bearing surfaces and all camshaft rubbing surfaces except lobe tips were coated. The direct acting bucket shims were etched with a cross hatch pattern to a depth sufficient to sustain a SFL film coating on the shim rubbing surfaces subjected to high surface loads. The SFL coated valvetrain torque was evaluated and compared with uncoated baseline torque. Coating the cam bearing journal surfaces alone with II-25D SFL reduced valvetrain friction losses 8 to 17% for 250 to 2000 rpm cam speed range (i.e. 500 - 4000 rpm engine speed). When bucket tappet and shims were also coated with the SFL, further significant reductions in coated valvetrain friction were observed.
Technical Paper

Material Systems for Cylinder Bore Applications - Plasma Spray Technology

1997-02-24
970023
The development, evaluation, and selection of Plasma spray powder material for the coating of aluminum-alloy engine cylinder block bores was conducted to yield a bore system which provides numerous benefits relative to the present cast iron sleeve system. These include: a reduction in ring/bore wear, friction, and in engine oil consumption as well as a benefit in reduced corrosion. A reduction in engine weight, overall costs, and improvements in machining and honing operations are shown. Alternate thermal spray processes are also described in this investigation. Test evaluation leads to the selection of two plasma powder material spray systems. One system emphasizes low cost relative to the present system. The second system provides significant reduction in friction and ring/bore wear through the introduction of solid lubricant in the material composition.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Valve Overlap on Idle Operation: Comparison of Model and Experiment

1993-10-01
932751
Validation of the Ford General Engine SIMulation program (GESIM) with measured firing data from a modified single cylinder Ricardo HYDRA research engine is described. GESIM predictions for peak cylinder pressure and burn duration are compared to test results at idle operating conditions over a wide range of valve overlap. The calibration of GESIM was determined using data from only one representative world-wide operating point and left unchanged for the remainder of the study. Valve overlap was varied by as much as 36° from its base setting. In most cases, agreement between model and data was within the accuracy of the measurements. A cycle simulation computer model provides the researcher with an invaluable tool for acquiring insight into the thermodynamic and fluid mechanical processes occurring in the cylinder of an internal combustion engine.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Control System for Ford 1.8L Sierra Turbo-Diesel to Meet 1997-2003 Particulate Standards

1994-03-01
940458
Feasibility of wall-flow diesel exhaust filter trap particulate aftertreatment emission control systems to meet the U.S. Federal, CARB, and EC passenger car standards for 1997/2003 and beyond for the 1360 kg (3000 lb.) EAO (Ford European Automotive Operations) 1.8 liter Sierra Turbo-Diesel passenger car is investigated. Plain and Pd catalyzed monolith wall flow diesel particulate traps are examined using Phillips No. 2 diesel fuel (Reference Standard), low sulfur (0.05% S) diesel fuel and an ultra-low sulfur (0.001% S) diesel fuel. Comparisons are made with baseline FTP75 and Highway exhaust emissions and Federal and CARB mandated particulate standards for 1997 and 2003. Effectiveness of catalyzed traps, plain traps, copper octoate trap regeneration fuel additive, and fuel sulfur content on the particulate emissions is determined.
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