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Technical Paper

Spectrogram Analysis of Accelerometer-Based Spark Knock Detection Waveforms

Spark knock pressure oscillations can be detected by a cylinder pressure transducer or by an accelerometer mounted on the engine block. Accelerometer-based detection is lower cost but is affected by extraneous mechanical vibrations and the frequency response of the engine block and accelerometer. The knock oscillation frequency changes during the expansion stroke because the chamber geometry is changing due to the piston motion and the burned gases are cooling. Spectrogram analysis shows the time-dependent frequency content of the pressure and acceleration signals, revealing characteristic signatures of knock and mechanical vibrations. Illustrative spectrograms are presented which yield physical insight into accelerometer-based knock detection.
Technical Paper

A Review of the Effect of Engine Operating Conditions on Borderline Knock

The effects of engine operating conditions on the octane requirement and the resulting knock-limited output were studied on a single cylinder engine using production cylinder heads. A 4-valve cylinder head with port deactivation was used to study the effect of fuel octane, inlet air temperature, coolant temperature, air/fuel ratio, compression ratio and exhaust back pressure. The effect of the thermal environment was studied in more detail using separate cooling systems for the cylinder head and engine block on a 2-valve cylinder head. The results of this study compared closely with results found in the literature even though the engine and/or operating conditions were quite different in many cases.