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The Future (& Past) of Electrified Vehicles

The presentation offers a brief history of the electric vehicle and parallels the realities of those early vehicles with the challenges and solutions of the electrified vehicles coming to market today. A technology evolution for every major component of these vehicles has now made this mode of transportation viable. The Focus Electric is Ford's first electric passenger car utilizing the advanced technology developments to meet the needs of electric car buyers in this emerging market. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.

Ford: Driving Electric Car Efficiency

The Focus Electric is Ford�s first full-featured 5 passenger battery electric vehicle. The engineering team set our sights on achieving best-in-class function and efficiency and was successful with an EPA certified 1XX MPGe and range XXX then the facing competition allowing for a slightly lower capacity battery pack and larger vehicle without customer trade-off. We briefly overview the engineering method and technologies employed to deliver the results as well as sharing some of the functional challenges unique to this type of vehicle. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.

Hybrid Vehicle Battery OBD: Why, Wherefore, and How

The introduction of hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles has resulted in the introduction of battery systems into the realm of OBD II diagnostics. After a high-level overview of battery systems, general battery system fault responses are discussed, as well as which of these might be OBD faults. The alignment of the OBD regulations and DTC assignment in systems with large numbers of similar/identical components is discussed, along with apparent conflicts between existing OBD regulations and the physical realities of battery systems in HEVs and PHEVs. Presenter Dyche Anderson, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

Advanced Control of Engine RPM for a More Intuitive Driving Experience in Power Split Hybrid Electric Vehicles

The Auto Industry is responding to the environment and energy conservation concerns by ramping up production of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). As the initial hurdles of making the powertrain operate are overcome, challenges such as making the powertrain feel more refined and intuitive remain. This paper investigates one of the key parameters for delivering that refinement: engine RPM behavior. Ideal RPM behavior is explored and included in the design of a control system. System implications are examined with regard to the effect of engine RPM scheduling on Battery usage and vehicle responsiveness.
Technical Paper

Developing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 10 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable as a Recommended Practice for FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards associated with the integration of hydrogen and electrical systems onto the vehicle and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE)-powered vehicles. An update to SAE J1766 for post-crash electrical safety was also published in 2008 to reflect unique aspects of FCVs and to harmonize electrical requirements with international standards. In addition to SAE J2578 and J1766, the SAE FCV Safety Working Group also developed a Technical Information Report (TIR) for vehicular hydrogen systems (SAE J2579).
Technical Paper

An Experimental Battery Powered Ford Cortina Estate Car

The design of the Ford Cortina Estate Car converted to propulsion by currently available batteries is described, and results for power train component performance test and vehicle driving characteristics are given. Concept and purpose of this test vehicle are discussed, and chassis and body modifications are described. Design of the electric power train, employing a dc commutator motor and dc solid state chopper controller, is developed. The car instrumentation is described and operating experience in several driving modes is reported. A discussion of battery characteristics concludes the paper.
Technical Paper

The Automotive Primary Power Supply System

This paper describes the major electrical characteristics of the automotive power supply system. It is a compilation of existing data and new information that will be helpful to both the electrical component and electronic assembly designers. Previously available battery/alternator data is organized to be useful to the designer. New dynamic information on battery impedance is displayed along with “cogging” transients, regulation limits and load dump characteristics.
Technical Paper

Two Alternative, Dielectric-Effect, Flexible-Fuel Sensors

This paper describes two types of dielectric-effect sensors that may be used as alternatives to a dielectric-effect sensor using a single capacitor. In the first type, three capacitors are mounted in a compact module inserted into a vehicle fuel line. The three capacitors are connected together to form an electrical pi-filter network. This approach provides a large variation of output signal as the fuel changes from gasoline to methanol. The sensor can be designed to operate in the 1 to 20 MHz frequency range. The second type of sensor investigated uses a resonant-cavity structure. Ordinarily, sensors based on resonant cavities are useful only if the operating frequency is several hundred MHz or higher. The high relative dielectric constant of methanol allows useful sensors to be built using relatively short lengths of metal tubing for the cavities. For example, a sensor built using a fuel rail only 38.7 cm long operated in a frequency range from 31 to 52 MHz.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Climate Control Power Consumption in DTE Estimation for Electric Vehicles

Distance to empty (DTE) estimation is an important factor to electric vehicle (EV) applications due to its limited driving range. The DTE calculation is based on available energy of the battery and power usage by the powertrain components (e.g. electric motor) and climate control components (e.g. PTC heater and electric AC compressor). The conventional way of estimating the DTE is to treat the power consumed by the climate control system the same as the power by the powertrain for either instantaneous or rolling average estimation. The analysis in this study shows that the power consumption by the climate control system should be estimated based on the current ambient conditions and driver's input instead of using the recorded data from the past driving cycles. The climate control should also be considered separately from the powertrain in power usage rolling average calculation, which results in improvements in DTE estimation especially for extreme hot and cold conditions.

The Automotive Industry and the Global Environment

This book presents an analysis on the potential effects of globalization on the automotive industry and the environment. Energy challenges, market economy growth, and population dynamics are considered. The authors also present future scenarios for transportation technologies to meet the ever growing global demand for transportation of goods and services while minimizing energy and environmental impacts and maximizing cost, value and widespread acceptance.
Journal Article

Centralized Torque Controller for a Nonminimum Phase Phenomenon in a Powersplit HEV

Torque controls for the engine and electric motors in a Powersplit HEV are keys to the success of balancing fuel economy, driveability, and battery power control. The electric variable transmission (EVT) offers an opportunity to let the engine operate at system-optimal fuel efficient points independently of any load. Existing work shows such a benefit can be realized through a decentralized control structure that translates the driver inputs to independent engine torque and speed control. However, our study shows that the decentralized control structures have a fundamental limitation that arises from the nonminimum phase (NMP) zero in the transfer function from the driver power command to the generator torque change rate, and thus not only is it difficult to obtain smooth generator torque but also it can cause violations on battery power limits during transients. Additionally, it adversely affects the driveability due to the generator torque transients reflected at the ring gear.
Journal Article

A Pareto Frontier Analysis of Renewable-Energy Consumption, Range, and Cost for Hydrogen Fuel Cell vs. Battery Electric Vehicles

As automakers strategize approaches to sustainable vehicle technologies, alternative powertrains must be considered to reduce future fleet vehicle emissions and improve energy security. These alternative vehicles include different fuels and electrification. The ultimate for on-road CO2 reductions is a zero emission vehicle, which can be achieved by either a hydrogen fuel cell or battery electric vehicle. These vehicles would also require a renewable energy source to provide their propulsion energy in order to achieve maximum sustainability for both CO2 reduction and energy security. Renewable energy sources such as wind or solar result in heat or electricity that needs to be generated into an energy carrier such as hydrogen or stored in a battery. When examining these options based strictly on the efficiency path, previous analysis have concluded fuel cell vehicles may not be an appropriate suitability strategy in comparison to battery electric vehicles.
Journal Article

Compressive Behavior of Representative Volume Element Specimens of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells under Different Constrained Conditions

The compressive behavior of lithium-iron phosphate battery cells is investigated by conducting in-plane constrained compression tests and out-of-plane compression tests of representative volume element (RVE) specimens. The results for cell RVE specimens under in-plane constrained compression tests without pre-strains and with pre-strains in the out-of-plane direction indicate that the load carrying capacity is characterized by the buckling of cell specimens. As the pre-strain increases, the nominal compressive stress-strain curve becomes higher. The nominal stress-strain curves in the out-of-plane direction were also obtained and used to determine the elastic moduli for the elastic buckling analyses of the cell components in the cell RVE specimens with different pre-strains. Based on the elastic buckling analyses for a beam with different lateral constraints due to different pre-strains in the out-of-plane direction, the number of half waves and the buckling stresses were obtained.
Technical Paper

High-Power Battery Testing Procedures and Analytical Methodologies for HEV's

Novel testing procedures and analytical methodologies to assess the performance of hybrid electric vehicle batteries have been developed. Tests include both characterization and cycle life and/or calendar life, and have been designed for both Power Assist and Dual Mode applications. Analytical procedures include a battery scaling methodology, the calculation of pulse resistance, pulse power, available energy, and differential capacity, and the modeling of calendar- and cycle-life data. Representative performance data and examples of the application of the analytical methodologies including resistance growth, power fade, and cycle- and calendar-life modeling for hybrid electric vehicle batteries are presented.
Technical Paper

Transient Heat Transfer of 42V Ni-MH Batteries for an HEV Application

While a Ni-MH battery has good performance properties, such as a high power density and no memory effect, it needs a powerful thermal management system to maintain within the required narrow thermal operating range for the 42V HEV applications. Inappropriate battery temperatures result in degradation of the battery performance and life. For the battery cooling system, air is blown into the battery pack. The exhaust is then vented outside due to potential safety issues with battery emissions. This cooling strategy can significantly impact fuel economy and cabin climate control. This is particularly true when the battery is experiencing frequent charge and discharge of high-depths in extreme hot or cold weather conditions. To optimize performance and life of HEV traction batteries, the battery cooling design must keep the battery operation temperature below a maximum value and uniform across the battery cells.
Technical Paper

Economic, Environmental and Energy Life-Cycle Assessment of Coal Conversion to Automotive Fuels in China

A life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed to help compare the economic, environmental and energy (EEE) impacts of converting coal to automotive fuels in China. This model was used to evaluate the total economic cost to the customer, the effect on the local and global environments, and the energy efficiencies for each fuel option. It provides a total accounting for each step in the life cycle process including the mining and transportation of coal, the conversion of coal to fuel, fuel distribution, all materials and manufacturing processes used to produce a vehicle, and vehicle operation over the life of the vehicle. The seven fuel scenarios evaluated in this study include methanol from coal, byproduct methanol from coal, methanol from methane, methanol from coke oven gas, gasoline from coal, electricity from coal, and petroleum to gasoline and diesel. The LCA results for all fuels were compared to gasoline as a baseline case.
Journal Article

Model-Based Parameter Identification of Healthy and Aged Li-ion Batteries for Electric Vehicle Applications

Electric vehicles are receiving considerable attention because they offer a more efficient and sustainable transportation alternative compared to conventional fossil-fuel powered vehicles. Since the battery pack represents the primary energy storage component in an electric vehicle powertrain, it requires accurate monitoring and control. In order to effectively estimate the battery pack critical parameters such as the battery state of charge (SOC), state of health (SOH), and remaining capacity, a high-fidelity battery model is needed as part of a robust SOC estimation strategy. As the battery degrades, model parameters significantly change, and this model needs to account for all operating conditions throughout the battery's lifespan. For effective battery management system design, it is critical that the physical model adapts to parameter changes due to aging.
Technical Paper

Communication between Plug-in Vehicles and the Utility Grid

This paper is the first in a series of documents designed to record the progress of the SAE J2293 Task Force as it continues to develop and refine the communication requirements between Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV) and the Electric Utility Grid. In February, 2008 the SAE Task Force was formed and it started by reviewing the existing SAE J2293 standard, which was originally developed by the Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Controls Task Force in the 1990s. This legacy standard identified the communication requirements between the Electric Vehicle (EV) and the EV Supply Equipment (EVSE), including off-board charging systems necessary to transfer DC energy to the vehicle. It was apparent at the first Task Force meeting that the communications requirements between the PEV and utility grid being proposed by industry stakeholders were vastly different in the type of communications and messaging documented in the original standard.
Technical Paper

Full Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Battery Pack System Design, CFD Simulation and Testing

CFD analysis was performed using the FLUENT software to design the thermal system for a hybrid vehicle battery pack. The battery pack contained multiple modular battery elements, called bricks, and the inlet and outlet bus bars that electrically connected the bricks into a series string. The simulated thermal system was comprised of the vehicle cabin, seat cavity, inlet plenum, battery pack, a downstream centrifugal fan, and the vehicle trunk. The fan was modeled using a multiple reference frame approach. A full system analysis was done for airflow and thermal performance optimization to ensure the most uniform cell temperatures under all operating conditions. The mesh for the full system was about 13 million cells run on a 6-node HP cluster. A baseline design was first analyzed for fluid-thermal performance. Subsequently, multiple design iterations were run to create uniform airflow among all the individual bricks while minimizing parasitic pressure drop.