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The Future (& Past) of Electrified Vehicles

The presentation offers a brief history of the electric vehicle and parallels the realities of those early vehicles with the challenges and solutions of the electrified vehicles coming to market today. A technology evolution for every major component of these vehicles has now made this mode of transportation viable. The Focus Electric is Ford's first electric passenger car utilizing the advanced technology developments to meet the needs of electric car buyers in this emerging market. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.

Real-time Tire Imbalance Detection Using ABS Wheel Speed Sensors

This presentation proposes an approach to use ABS wheel speed sensor signals together with other vehicle state information from a brake control module to detect an unbalanced tire or tires in real-time. The proposed approach consists of two-stage algorithms that mix a qualitative method using band-pass filtering with a quantitative parameter identification using conditional least squares. This two-stage approach can improve the robustness of tire imbalance or imbalances. The proposed approach is verified through vehicle testing and the test results show the effectiveness of the approach. Presenter Jianbo Lu, Ford Motor Co.

OBD Experiences: A Ford Perspective

Some the OBD-II regulations have been around for a long time or seem to be intuitively obvious. It is easy to assume to assume that everyone knows how to implement them correctly, that is, until someone actually reads the words and tries to do it. Most often, these issues come up when modifying existing OBD features, not when creating completely new ones. This presentation contains a few examples of features that should have been easy to implement, but turned out not to be easy or simple. Presenter Paul Algis Baltusis, Ford Motor Co.

Ford: Driving Electric Car Efficiency

The Focus Electric is Ford�s first full-featured 5 passenger battery electric vehicle. The engineering team set our sights on achieving best-in-class function and efficiency and was successful with an EPA certified 1XX MPGe and range XXX then the facing competition allowing for a slightly lower capacity battery pack and larger vehicle without customer trade-off. We briefly overview the engineering method and technologies employed to deliver the results as well as sharing some of the functional challenges unique to this type of vehicle. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.

Hybrid Vehicle Battery OBD: Why, Wherefore, and How

The introduction of hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles has resulted in the introduction of battery systems into the realm of OBD II diagnostics. After a high-level overview of battery systems, general battery system fault responses are discussed, as well as which of these might be OBD faults. The alignment of the OBD regulations and DTC assignment in systems with large numbers of similar/identical components is discussed, along with apparent conflicts between existing OBD regulations and the physical realities of battery systems in HEVs and PHEVs. Presenter Dyche Anderson, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

Analytical and Experimental Techniques in Solving the Plastic Intake Manifold NVH

The intent of this paper is to summarize the work of the V8 power plant intake manifold radiated noise study. In a particular V8 engine application, customer satisfaction feedback provided observations of existing unpleasant noise at the driver's ear. A comprehensive analysis of customer data indicated that a range from 500 to 800 Hz suggests a potential improvement in noise reduction at the driver's ear. In this study the noise source was determined using various accelerometers located throughout the valley of the engine and intake manifold. The overall surface velocity of the engine valley was ranked with respect to the overall surface velocity of the intake manifold. An intensity mapping technique was also used to determine the major component noise contribution. In order to validate the experimental findings, a series of analysis was also conducted. The analysis model included not only the plastic intake manifold, but also the whole powertrain.
Technical Paper

A Magnetorheological Door Check

Several shortcomings of mechanical door checks are overcome using a magnetorheological damper. Because the damper is electrically actuated, it can check in any desired position. The logical decision to activate or release the door check can be made either by passive circuitry based on input signals from switches attached to door handles or under microprocessor control, in which case the decision can take into account a variety of unconventional input factors, including the magnitude of the force applied to the door, the rate of change of the applied force, and the angle of door opening. With the addition of an appropriate proximity sensor, the controllable damper can prevent the door from inadvertently hitting a nearby obstacle. Details of the damper mechanism are described, and several implemented control strategies, both passive and microprocessor based, are discussed.
Technical Paper

The Emerging Fabric of Seamless Mobility

Consider this recent data about the "speed'' of the information age: In a sixty-month window beginning in the year 1995, the number of cellular phone subscribers increased from 90 million to 330 million, the number of people on the internet went from about 5 million to just under 200 million, and not surprisingly the number of websites grew from a few thousands to 50 million. Now further consider that almost every cellular phone subscriber is also an automobile user, be it as a driver or a passenger. A fabric of mobility soon emerges --- one that is formed by the meshing of the strands of information mobility with those of personal mobility. In this paper we explore a "new frontier'' --- a "territory'' on this multidimensional fabric that is defined by the demands of seamless mobility. The typical daily cycle of events in our lives involve many different modalities and time-phases of mobility. We examine the rapidly increasing demands of seamless mobility in this context.
Technical Paper

Starter/Alternator Design for Optimized Hybrid Fuel Economy

A Starter/Alternator (S/A) has been developed at Ford Research laboratories for hybrid electric vehicle applications. During development, the vehicle concept of operation and the system performance requirements were used to select the proper technology. The specification development, component selection and subsystem operation process is described. Subsystem performance and vehicle fuel economy are compared and evaluated using hybrid vehicle simulation analysis. These results can be used to identify potential subsystem modifications and alternative vehicle control strategies.
Technical Paper

Identification of the Optimum Vehicle Class for the Application of 42v Integrated Starter Generator

Today nearly all automotive manufacturers are developing motor-generator systems for improved fuel economy by implementing idling-stop and other power train enhancements. It is said that powertrain technology has always pioneered the development of automotive electronic control throughout history. The integrated starter generator (ISG) promises to expand the scope of powertrain control further through fuel economy improvement, emissions reduction, longitudinal vehicle dynamics improvement and customer feature enhancements. At the present time the cost imposed by usage of an ISG system is very high due mainly to its need for a power optimized 42V battery and high power electronics. This paper takes a critical look at the vehicle benefits attributable to ISG and its implementation costs over various vehicle classes.
Technical Paper

An Open Versus Closed Architecture for Multimedia Systems

For many years, carmakers have developed unique system designs to gain a competitive advantage using some unique technology or an optimization of a design to cut costs or improve quality. This leads to continual increase in complexity, long development times and high development costs. A common platform, based on an "open architecture,'' provides a solution for many of the problems associated with the conventional automotive approach to electrical/electronic system designs. The PC industry is a prime example of how an open architecture can provide benefits to the consumer, manufacturers of software and hardware components, as well as complete system integrators. The PC, based on the initial IBM computer developed in the early eighties, has become a de facto standard that has survived 20 years of fast and dramatic changes in the fundamental technologies used within the platform.
Technical Paper

On-line Oxygen Storage Capacity Estimation of a Catalyst

Presented in this paper is an on-line method for estimating the oxygen storage capacity contained within a catalyst. The oxygen storage capacity of a catalyst changes over time due to catalyst brick temperatures, poisoned catalyst sites, and thermal aging. Information regarding the current oxygen storage capacity of a catalyst is advantageous in the development of robust emission control strategies and on-board diagnostics. The method of collecting the oxygen storage capacity information is extremely important for measurement accuracy and repeatability. Furthermore, the information must be obtained in such a way that it is transparent to the operator and may be implemented on-line during normal drive cycles. This on-line method for estimation of oxygen storage capacity of a catalyst has been demonstrated on a Ford F150 platform with an underbody catalyst.
Technical Paper

Bending Fatigue Behavior of Carburized Gear Steels: Four-Point Bend Test Development and Evaluation

The ability to evaluate the bending fatigue behavior of carburized low alloy steels in a laboratory and relate these measurements to performance of high contact ratio helical gears is important to the design and development of transmissions. Typical methods of evaluating bending fatigue performance of carburized gear steels do not directly represent helical planetary gears because they lack the geometric and loading conditions of planetary pinions. The purpose of this study is twofold; 1) development of a lab fatigue test to represent the fatigue performance of planetary pinion gears tested in a dynamometer and 2) evaluation of the influence of alloy content on bending fatigue performance of two steel alloys. The steels under evaluation were modified 8620M and 4615M alloys machined into bend bars with a notch representing a gear root and carburized to a case depth of approximately 0.35 mm (using the same carburizing cycle as the planetary pinion gears).
Technical Paper

Upfront Durability CAE Analysis for Automotive Sheet Metal Structures

Automotive product development requires higher degree of quality upfront engineering, faster CAE turn-around, and integration with other functional requirements. Prediction of potential durability concerns using analytical methods for sheet metal structures subjected to road loads and other customer uses has become very important. A process has been developed to provide design direction based upon peak loads, simultaneous peak loads, and vehicle program analytical or measured loads. It identifies critical loads at each input location and load sets for multiple input locations, filters load time histories, selects critical areas and analyzes for fatigue life. Several case studies have been completed. The results show that the variations are consistent with the accuracies in finite element analysis, road load data acquisition, and fatigue calculation methods.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Preparation on Cold-Start Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Spark-Ignited Engine

Total and speciated, engine-out, hydrocarbon (HC) emissions have been measured as a function of time after a 23°C cold start of a gasoline-fueled, V-8 engine. Hydrocarbon emissions from two fuel injection systems were compared: a production port-fuel-injection (PFI) system; and a pre-vaporized (heated) central-fuel-injection (PV-CFI) system. The results indicate that, for this particular engine at the chosen operating conditions, the effect of fuel preparation on HC emissions during cold start is minimal at low load (2.57 bar IMEP (gross), MAP = 0.34 bar) but becomes significant at higher load (5.15 bar IMEP, MAP = 0.58 bar) early in the cold start. Comparison of the relative contribution to the exhaust HC of a series of fuel-derived alkanes suggests that fuel absorption in oil films is a minor contributor to HC emissions from this engine during a 23°C cold start.
Technical Paper

Measurement Techniques for Angular Velocity and Acceleration in an impact Environment

The University of Virginia is investigating the use of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) angular rate sensor to measure head angular acceleration in impact testing. Output from the sensor, which measures angular velocity, must be differentiated to produce angular acceleration. As a precursor to their use in actual testing, a torsional pendulum was developed to analyze an MHD sensor's effectiveness in operating under impact conditions. Differentiated and digitally filtered sensor data provided a good match with the vibratory response of the pendulum for various magnitudes of angular acceleration. Subsequent head drop tests verified that MHD sensors are suitable for measuring head angular acceleration in impact testing.
Technical Paper

On-Demand Four Wheel-Drive Transfer Case Modeling

This paper describes the development of a Matrixx Model of an electronically controlled on-demand 4 Wheel-Drive (4WD) Transfer Case. The model was partially validated with respect to available vehicle test data and subsequently used for control system design and evaluation.
Technical Paper

Application of a Laser Vibrometer for Automotive Aeroacoustic Analysis

The Scanning Laser Vibrometer can make full field, high resolution measurements of the normal surface velocity of automotive door glass and sheet metal vibrations. These properties make the vibrometer a very useful tool for locating compliant and noisy areas on the surface of a vehicle, generated by exterior wind noise. An advantage of the vibrometer is that it measures the vibration of the surface, capturing the transfer of noise through the surface, rather than simply measuring the exterior wind noise. Methods of experimental setup, testing, and problem analysis on outside rear view mirror/A-pillar/Sideglass configurations and body panel vibrations are discussed in the paper.