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Video

The Future (& Past) of Electrified Vehicles

2011-11-04
The presentation offers a brief history of the electric vehicle and parallels the realities of those early vehicles with the challenges and solutions of the electrified vehicles coming to market today. A technology evolution for every major component of these vehicles has now made this mode of transportation viable. The Focus Electric is Ford's first electric passenger car utilizing the advanced technology developments to meet the needs of electric car buyers in this emerging market. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.
Video

Real-time Tire Imbalance Detection Using ABS Wheel Speed Sensors

2011-11-15
This presentation proposes an approach to use ABS wheel speed sensor signals together with other vehicle state information from a brake control module to detect an unbalanced tire or tires in real-time. The proposed approach consists of two-stage algorithms that mix a qualitative method using band-pass filtering with a quantitative parameter identification using conditional least squares. This two-stage approach can improve the robustness of tire imbalance or imbalances. The proposed approach is verified through vehicle testing and the test results show the effectiveness of the approach. Presenter Jianbo Lu, Ford Motor Co.
Video

OBD Experiences: A Ford Perspective

2012-01-24
Some the OBD-II regulations have been around for a long time or seem to be intuitively obvious. It is easy to assume to assume that everyone knows how to implement them correctly, that is, until someone actually reads the words and tries to do it. Most often, these issues come up when modifying existing OBD features, not when creating completely new ones. This presentation contains a few examples of features that should have been easy to implement, but turned out not to be easy or simple. Presenter Paul Algis Baltusis, Ford Motor Co.
Video

Ford: Driving Electric Car Efficiency

2012-03-29
The Focus Electric is Ford�s first full-featured 5 passenger battery electric vehicle. The engineering team set our sights on achieving best-in-class function and efficiency and was successful with an EPA certified 1XX MPGe and range XXX then the facing competition allowing for a slightly lower capacity battery pack and larger vehicle without customer trade-off. We briefly overview the engineering method and technologies employed to deliver the results as well as sharing some of the functional challenges unique to this type of vehicle. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.
Video

Hybrid Vehicle Battery OBD: Why, Wherefore, and How

2012-02-01
The introduction of hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles has resulted in the introduction of battery systems into the realm of OBD II diagnostics. After a high-level overview of battery systems, general battery system fault responses are discussed, as well as which of these might be OBD faults. The alignment of the OBD regulations and DTC assignment in systems with large numbers of similar/identical components is discussed, along with apparent conflicts between existing OBD regulations and the physical realities of battery systems in HEVs and PHEVs. Presenter Dyche Anderson, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

Control Challenges and Methodologies in Fuel Cell Vehicle Development

1998-10-19
98C054
In recent years, rapid and significant advances in fuel cell technology, together with advances in power electronics and control methodology, has enabled the development of high performance fuel cell powered electric vehicles. A key advance is that the low temperature (80°C) proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell has become mature and robust enough to be used for automotive applications. Apart from the apparent advantage of lower vehicle emission, the overall fuel cell vehicle static and dynamic performance and power and energy efficiency are critically dependent on the intelligent design of the control systems and control methodologies. These include the control of: fuel cell heat and water management, fuel (hydrogen) and air (oxygen) supply and distribution, electric drive, main and auxiliary power management, and overall powertrain and vehicle systems.
Technical Paper

Making the Case for a Next Generation Automotive Electrical System

1998-10-19
98C006
Introduction of an array of new electrical and electronic features into future vehicles is generating vehicle electrical power requirements that exceed the capabilities of today's 14 volt electrical systems. In the near term (5 to 10 years), the existing 14V system will be marginally capable of supporting the expected additional loads with escalating costs for the associated charging system. However, significant increases in vehicle functional content are expected as future requirements to meet longer-term (beyond 10 years) needs in the areas of emission control, fuel economy, safety, and passenger comfort. A higher voltage electrical system will be required to meet these future requirements. This paper explores the functional needs that will mandate a higher voltage system and the benefits derivable from its implementation.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT- Maintaining Your Cool at 200 MPH

2004-03-08
2004-01-1257
An integrated engineering approach using computer modeling, laboratory and vehicle testing enabled the Ford GT engineering team to achieve supercar thermal management performance within the aggressive program timing. Theoretical and empirical test data was used during the design and development of the engine cooling system. The information was used to verify design assumptions and validate engineering efforts. This design approach allowed the team to define a system solution quickly and minimized the need for extensive vehicle level testing. The result of this approach was the development of an engine cooling system that adequately controls air, oil and coolant temperatures during all driving and environmental conditions.
Technical Paper

Advanced Control of Engine RPM for a More Intuitive Driving Experience in Power Split Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2010-10-25
2010-01-2194
The Auto Industry is responding to the environment and energy conservation concerns by ramping up production of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). As the initial hurdles of making the powertrain operate are overcome, challenges such as making the powertrain feel more refined and intuitive remain. This paper investigates one of the key parameters for delivering that refinement: engine RPM behavior. Ideal RPM behavior is explored and included in the design of a control system. System implications are examined with regard to the effect of engine RPM scheduling on Battery usage and vehicle responsiveness.
Journal Article

An Adaptive Proportional Integral Control of a Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction System based on System Identification Models

2010-04-12
2010-01-1174
For urea Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems, adaptive control is of interest to provide a capability of maintaining high NOx conversion efficiency and low ammonia slip in the presence of uncertainties in the system. In this paper, the dynamics of the urea SCR system are represented by a control-oriented model which is based on a linear transfer function, with parameters dependent on engine operating conditions. The parameters are identified from input-output data generated by a high fidelity full chemistry model of the urea SCR system. The use of the full chemistry model facilitated the representation of the dynamics of stored ammonia (not a directly measurable parameter) as well as post SCR NOx and ammonia slip. A closed-loop Proportional-plus-Integral (PI) controller was first designed using the estimate of stored ammonia as a feedback signal.
Technical Paper

Sustainable Control System Development in Tomorrow's Vehicles: Technology Leadership Brief

2012-10-08
2012-01-9004
The tremendous growth of complexity in automotive control system electronics in the past 30 years has driven the industry to employ ever more advanced development techniques, ranging from formally managing functional architecture to employing more sophisticated functional safety development processes. The industry now finds itself facing emerging trends that will include more vehicle electrification, connectivity, personalization, and automation. Contextual and location awareness will also play larger roles. In light of these trends, vehicle control development processes will need to continue to evolve. This paper will explore some of the challenges that automakers will face as they move to incorporate these new technologies.
Technical Paper

1.8L Sierra-Mondeo Turbo-Diesel Valvetrain Friction Reduction Using a Solid Film Lubricant

1994-10-01
941986
A 1.8L turbocharged diesel engine valvetrain friction was investigated, and the effectiveness of using a solid film lubricant (SFL) coating in reducing friction was determined throughout the operable speed range. This valvetrain design features direct acting mechanical bucket valve lifters. Camshaft journal bearing surfaces and all camshaft rubbing surfaces except lobe tips were coated. The direct acting bucket shims were etched with a cross hatch pattern to a depth sufficient to sustain a SFL film coating on the shim rubbing surfaces subjected to high surface loads. The SFL coated valvetrain torque was evaluated and compared with uncoated baseline torque. Coating the cam bearing journal surfaces alone with II-25D SFL reduced valvetrain friction losses 8 to 17% for 250 to 2000 rpm cam speed range (i.e. 500 - 4000 rpm engine speed). When bucket tappet and shims were also coated with the SFL, further significant reductions in coated valvetrain friction were observed.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Total and Speciated Hydrocarbon Removal from Engine Exhaust Using Activated Carbon

1994-10-01
941999
A hydrocarbon trapping system for cold start emissions was constructed and tested using two types of carbonaceous adsorbents provided by Corning, Inc. One was made by combining activated carbon with an organic binder and extruding it into a honeycomb, and the other by depositing a carbon coating on a ceramic monolith. The tests were carried out on an engine in a dynamometer laboratory to characterize the performance of the carbon elements under transient cold start conditions. Performance was evaluated by continuously measuring exhaust gas hydrocarbon concentrations upstream and downstream of the trap, using conventional emissions consoles. Samples were also collected for off-line analysis of individual hydrocarbon species using gas chromatography to examine differences in adsorption of individual species. The speciated hydrocarbon data were used to distinguish between the mass trapping efficiency and a reactivity-based trapping efficiency of the adsorbant traps.
Technical Paper

Impact of Computer Aided Engineering on Ford Motor Company Light Truck Cooling Design and Development Processes

1993-11-01
932977
This paper presents the benefits of following a disciplined thermal management process during the design and development of Ford Light Truck engine cooling systems. The thermal management process described has evolved through the increased use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools. The primary CAE tool used is a numerical simulation technique within the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The paper discusses the need to establish a heat management team, develop a heat management model, construct a three dimensional CFD model to simulate the thermal environment of the engine cooling system, and presents CFD modeling examples of Ford Light Trucks with engine driven cooling fans.
Technical Paper

A New Mechanism for Measuring Exhaust A/F

1993-11-01
932957
Exhaust gas air-fuel ratio (A/F) sensors are common devices in powertrain feedback control systems aimed at minimizing emissions. Both resistive (using TiO2) and electrochemical (using ZrO2) mechanisms are used in the high temperature ceramic devices now being employed. In this work a new mechanism for making the measurement is presented based on the change in the workfunction of a Pt film in interaction with the exhaust gas. In particular it is found that the workfunction of Pt increases reversibly by approximately 0.7 V at that point (the stoichiometric ratio) where the exhaust changes from rich to lean conditions. This increase arises from the adsorption of O2 on the Pt surface. On returning to rich conditions, catalytic reaction of the adsorbed oxygen with reducing species returns the workfunction to its original value. Two methods, one capacitive and one thermionic, for electrically sensing this workfunction change and thus providing for a practical device are discussed.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Valve Overlap on Idle Operation: Comparison of Model and Experiment

1993-10-01
932751
Validation of the Ford General Engine SIMulation program (GESIM) with measured firing data from a modified single cylinder Ricardo HYDRA research engine is described. GESIM predictions for peak cylinder pressure and burn duration are compared to test results at idle operating conditions over a wide range of valve overlap. The calibration of GESIM was determined using data from only one representative world-wide operating point and left unchanged for the remainder of the study. Valve overlap was varied by as much as 36° from its base setting. In most cases, agreement between model and data was within the accuracy of the measurements. A cycle simulation computer model provides the researcher with an invaluable tool for acquiring insight into the thermodynamic and fluid mechanical processes occurring in the cylinder of an internal combustion engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Operating Parameters on Hydrocarbon Oxidation in the Exhaust Port and Runner of a Spark-Ignited Engine

1995-02-01
950159
The effect of engine operating parameters (speed, spark timing, and fuel-air equivalence ratio [Φ]) on hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation within the cylinder and exhaust system is examined using propane or isooctane fuel. Quench gas (CO2) is introduced at two locations in the exhaust system (exhaust valve or port exit) to stop the oxidation process. Increasing the speed from 1500 to 2500 RPM at MBT spark timing decreases the total, cylinder-exit HC emissions by ∼50% while oxidation in the exhaust system remains at 40% for both fuels. For propane fuel at 1500 rpm, increasing Φ from 0.9 (fuel lean) to 1.1 (fuel rich) reduces oxidation in the exhaust system from 42% to 26%; at 2500 RPM, exhaust system oxidation decreases from 40% to approximately 0% for Φ = 0.9 and 1.1, respectively. Retarded spark increases oxidation in the cylinder and exhaust system for both fuels. Decreases in total HC emissions are accompanied by increased olefinic content and atmospheric reactivity.
Technical Paper

Compression Ratio and Coolant Temperature Effects on HC Emissions from a Spark- Ignition Engine

1995-02-01
950163
Modern four-valve engines are running at ever higher compression ratios in order to improve fuel efficiency. Hotter cylinder bores also can produce increased fuel economy by decreasing friction due to less viscous oil layers. In this study changes in compression ratio and coolant temperature were investigated to quantify their effect on exhaust emissions. Tests were run on a single cylinder research engine with a port-deactivated 4-valve combustion chamber. Two compression ratios (9.15:1 and 10.0:1) were studied at three air/fuel ratios (12.5, 14.6 and 16.5) at a part load condition (1500 rpm, 3.8 bar IMEP). The effect of coolant temperature (66 °C and 108°C) was studied at the higher compression ratio. The exhaust was sampled and analyzed for both total and speciated hydrocarbons. The speciation analysis provided concentration data for hydrocarbons present in the exhaust containing twelve or fewer carbon atoms.
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