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Ford: Driving Hybrid Efficiency

2012-03-23
Hybrid vehicles in the modern era were developed with a strong primary goal to increase fuel efficiency in the North American market. Over the last 15 years, this market has expanded from zero sales to as high as 3% of total US sales. Most recently, the portfolio of competitive offerings with HEV propulsion systems has grown even more to about 30 models on sale today. Some interesting features and attributes have evolved thru this wider array of products giving the customer much more choice of which characteristics to select to match their needs. Ford�s 3rd generation HEV system will be offered for sale this fall. With it, we have continued our focus on the Fuel Efficiency as the driving force for our efforts. The overall process for the system engineering and some of the relevant subsystem and component contributors to the Fuel Efficiency improvement reflected in the 2013 Model Year Fusion and CMAX Hybrids will be presented. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

Passenger-Car Suspension Analysis

1956-01-01
560025
A DESCRIPTION of ride analysis by experimental and mathematical methods is presented. Test facilities and instrumentation employed in experimental analysis are described, followed by presentation of actual test results. The application of electronic analog computers o t mathematical analysis is explained, and experimental results are correlated with mathematical analysis. Results of experimental and mathematical analyses are interpreted in terms of passenger comfort limits. The authors cite the need for more extensive information regarding response of the human body to motion in passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Can All Engine Wear Be Trapped in a Can?

1953-01-01
530218
THE study of engine life, carried out by investigating engine wear in typical service, and by then striving to find the most effective ways of controlling it, forms the basis of this paper on contaminants in lubricants. The investigation involved a study of engine wear in 20,000 miles of operation typical of the average driver. The average driver was selected by using test cars from an employee transportation car pool. At the conclusion of the tests it was found that the use of the full-flow oil filter proved to be the best method for restricting engine wear caused by contaminants that get inside the engine. It was also shown that after successfully eliminating large, solid particles, further restriction of engine wear would depend upon the ability of the oil to lubricate, and upon the engine design to provide the oil supply in a manner suitable for lubrication of each part of the engine.
Technical Paper

The Continental Mark II —A Design Story—

1957-01-01
570027
STYLING the Continental Mark II with a very low silhouette without sacrificing leg room, seating comfort, and driver visibility was accomplished by using a specially designed frame and a 3-joint driveline. These two features are the basic engineering innovations which make possible the Continental's distinctive classic styling. As a result of this structural analysis, Ford has produced an automobile that, according to the author, has technical advancements that are of value to the consumer.
Technical Paper

DESIGN FACTORS IN AUTOMOTIVE SAFETY

1956-01-01
560057
TWENTY-FIVE-YEAR statistics, detailed in this paper, show declining accident and fatality rates despite radical increase in vehicle registrations and annual vehicle miles. The author shows how the passenger-car industry has built safety into vehicles to the point where-as an example-only 14% of accidents on the Pennsylvania Turnpike over its 13-year history were attributed to vehicle failures. Paralleling these efforts and the increasing emphasis on safer highways, better traffic management and driver education, are extensive studies aimed at bypassing the human factor and increasing human safety in automotive vehicles. Among those described here are crash investigations, laboratory tests of safety devices, and establishment through various other means of design criteria for human impact tolerance.
Technical Paper

The Future of the FREE-PISTON ENGINE in Commercial Vehicles

1958-01-01
580032
THIS paper describes the development and utilization of a new Ford free-piston power-plant, the model 519. Mr. Noren traces the development of the engine from the initial idea to the point where commercial utilization could be considered. Mr. Erwin describes one commercial use: in the Typhoon tractor. The ratio of size and weight to horsepower is favorable for farm tractors, being smaller and lighter than equivalent diesel engines. The performance of the tractor has been satisfactory thus far, operating smoothly and being practically vibration-free, with little noise. The advantages of the free-piston gasifier, as reported by the authors, are: flexibility, fuel economy, no need for auxiliary starting engine, economical manufacture of a wide range of engine sizes, adaptability to a wide range of fuels, and good torque characteristics.
Technical Paper

The Ford Approach to AIR SUSPENSION

1958-01-01
580048
FORD'S answer to the air suspension problem is a system of the “open” type in which the air is exhausted from the springs to the atmosphere. It features a 2-speed automatic height and leveling control to handle differing load conditions. In adapting the air springs to the suspension arms, the front suspension was modified only slightly, while the rear was completely redesigned. The author reports that a significant improvement in passenger comfort has been achieved with the new suspension, especially for the rear seat passenger. Also, the car height remains constant under all loadings—a contribution to the car's appearance.
Technical Paper

Human Head and Knee Tolerance to Localized Impacts

1969-02-01
690477
The results of recent dynamic load measurements on human skull and patella bone, conducted with less-than-1-sq-in. penetrators, are discussed in relation to previously reported skull impact data from larger contact areas. These medical data are compared to the dynamic response of a large variety of natural and synthetic plastic materials, for use in trauma-indicating headform and kneeform design. Several bodyform designs are proposed as research tools.
Technical Paper

Front suspension LCA bushing optimization

2010-10-06
2010-36-0248
When considering ride comfort and precision there are lots of components in the vehicle suspensions that have influence in this behavior and some ride occurrences (mainly higher frequencies) are rubber bushing responsibility but due their compliance, other vehicle attributes, steering and handling, can be affected. So the correct components tuning can maintain or improve vehicle attributes to address desired brand DNA and vehicle its specific needs. These studies were done considering the elastokinematics of front axle only due need of improve its comfort concerning higher frequencies (impacts and harshness). In addiction, correlation between subjective evaluation and objective data acquisition/post processing is desirable to optimize development time. Based in subjective directional, the activities time was reduced and final configuration reached faster.
Technical Paper

Influence of ride frequency balance in sub limit vehicle stability

2010-10-06
2010-36-0250
Current road vehicles have tendency of use softer suspension springs to improve ride comfort, but as a moving device with suspension system, vehicles have other parts that can affect attributes for comfort perception, and is necessary the correct definition of which one should be modified to address the comfort issue and avoid impact in attributes for stability. Usually springs are not the main responsible for bad comfort behavior, but shock absorbers and bushings are. A typical passenger car shows a wide possibility of loads carriage and how to set up correctly the suspensions considering its tradeoffs and brand DNA is the main issue.
Technical Paper

Engine Reliability Through Infant Mortality Mitigation: Literature Review

2010-10-06
2010-36-0049
Internal combustion engines are designed to meet the high power, low fuel consumption and also, low exhaust emissions. The engine running conditions is valid the concept that, the expectative is very high because of the variety of operating conditions like cold start, frequent start and stop, time high speed and load, traditional gasoline, mix of gasoline and alcohol and finally, alcohol fuel only. Considering such demand, this paper explains the relationship between the reliability bathtub curve, specifically the "Infant Mortality" portion. The bathtub curve describes failure rate as a function of time. The "Infant Mortality" portion of the curve is the initial section for which the failure (death) rate decreases with time (age). In general, these problems are related to manufacturing aspects or poor design definitions. With development of technology, hard failures, the ones that cause dependability, are becoming rare.
Technical Paper

Ford 2011 6.7L Power Stroke® Diesel Engine Combustion System Development

2011-04-12
2011-01-0415
A new diesel engine, called the 6.7L Power Stroke® V-8 Turbo Diesel, and code named "Scorpion," was designed and developed by Ford Motor Company for the full-size pickup truck and light commercial vehicle markets. The combustion system includes the piston bowl, swirl level, number of nozzle holes, fuel spray angle, nozzle tip protrusion, nozzle hydraulic flow, and nozzle-hole taper. While all of these parameters could be explored through extensive hardware testing, 3-D CFD studies were utilized to quickly screen two bowl concepts and assess their sensitivities to a few of the other parameters. The two most promising bowl concepts were built into single-cylinder engines for optimization of the rest of the combustion system parameters. 1-D CFD models were used to set boundary conditions at intake valve closure for 3-D CFD which was used for the closed-cycle portion of the simulation.
Technical Paper

Vehicle System Control for Start-Stop Powertrains with Automatic Transmissions

2013-04-08
2013-01-0347
The 2013 Ford Fusion will be launched with an optional automatic engine start-stop feature. To realize engine start-stop on a vehicle equipped with a conventional powertrain, there are two major challenges in the vehicle system controls. First, the propulsive torque delivery from a stopped engine has to be fast. The vehicle launch delay has to be minimized such that the corporate vehicle attributes can be met. Second, the fuel economy improvement offered by this technology has to justify the cost associated with it. In pursuing fuel economy, the driver's comfort and convenience should be minimally impacted. To tackle these challenges, a vehicle system control strategy has been developed to accurately interpret the driver's intent, monitor the vehicle subsystem's power demands, schedule engine automatic stop and re-start, and coordinate the fast and smooth torque delivery to the wheels.
Technical Paper

How to Make Your Fleet More Sustainable and Save Money: The Ford Fleet Purchase Planner

2013-04-08
2013-01-0506
Ford's portfolio approach to sustainable mobility offers a large range of fuel-efficient engines and alternative-fuel vehicles - including EcoBoost®, hybrid, plug-in hybrid, flexible fuel, battery-electric, B20 biodiesel and compressed natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (CNG/LPG) vehicles. The Ford Fleet Purchase Planner has been developed to assist fleet customers in comparing these alternatives and understanding which vehicles offer the optimal mix to achieve CO₂ emission reductions while balancing corporate financial goals. Vehicle fleets for large corporations can have thousands of vehicles that are replaced on a timescale of months to years. We present the three main components of the Fleet Purchase Planner (patent pending) that provide fleet customers the lowest cost solution to achieving their sustainability goals: the Vehicle Emissions & Fuel Cost Calculator, the Fleet CO₂ Emissions Footprint Status Calculator, and the Purchase Recommender.
Technical Paper

Internal Pressure Measurement for Sealed Electrical Connectors on Automotive Wire Harnesses: A method to improve Seal Plug Design

2013-04-08
2013-01-0398
Real-time pressure measurement inside sealed electrical connectors has been achieved using a new experimental approach. This approach has significant benefits to designers of connectors and the seals used to waterproof the connectors. The seal designer needs to know what pressure is in the connector but until now, pressure measurements were inaccurate due to the slow response time of the equipment. The result was that a peak in pressure of less than 1 second duration would be not recorded. This lack of accurate pressure data has resulted in overdesigned seal plugs - to compensate for the unknowns in testing - and potentially connectors that do not seal as well as required. With the new experimental technique described in this paper, data sampling rates have been increased to 100 samples per second with high accuracy. The new technique uses a portable micro pressure transducer that has been repackaged to fit where a connector wire normally fits.
Technical Paper

System Simulation and Analysis of EPA 5-Cycle Fuel Economy for Powersplit Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1456
To better reflect real world driving conditions, the EPA 5-Cycle Fuel Economy method encompasses high vehicle speeds, aggressive vehicle accelerations, climate control system use and cold temperature conditions in addition to the previously used standard City and Highway drive cycles in the estimation of vehicle fuel economy. A standard Powersplit Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) system simulation environment has long been established and widely used within Ford to project fuel economy for the standard EPA City and Highway cycles. Direct modeling and simulation of the complete 5-Cycle fuel economy test set for HEV's presents significant new challenges especially with respect to modeling vehicle thermal management system and interactions with HEV features and system controls. It also requires a structured, systematic approach to validate the key elements of the system models and complete vehicle system simulations.
Technical Paper

Engine Control Unit Modeling with Engine Feature C Code for HEV Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-1451
Engine control unit (ECU) modeling using engine feature C code is an increasingly important part of new vehicle analysis and development tools. The application areas of feature based ECU models are numerous: a) cold vehicle fuel economy (FE) prediction required for recently introduced 5-cycle certification; b) vehicle thermal modeling; c) evaporative (purge) systems design; d) model-in-the-loop/software-in-the-loop (MIL/SIL) vehicle control development and calibration. The modeling method presented in the paper embeds production C-code directly into Simulink at a feature level using an S-Function wrapper. A collection of features critical to accurate engine behavior prediction are compiled individually and integrated according to the newly developed Engine Control Model Architecture (ECMA). Custom MATLAB script based tools enable efficient model construction.
Journal Article

Considerations in HMI Design of a Reverse Braking Assist (RBA) System

2013-04-08
2013-01-0720
The Reverse Braking Assist (RBA) feature is designed to automatically activate full braking in a backing vehicle. When this feature activates, a backing vehicle is suddenly stopped or may slide to a stop. During this process, an understanding of the driver's behavior may be useful in the design of an appropriate human-machine-interface (HMI) for the RBA. Several experimental studies were done to examine driver behavior in response to an unexpected and automatic braking event while backing [1]. Two of these studies are reported in this paper. A 7-passenger Crossover Utility Vehicle was fitted with a rear-view camera, a center-stack mounted LCD screen, and ancillary recording devices. In the first study, an object was suddenly placed in the path of a backing vehicle. The backing vehicle came to a sudden and complete stop. The visual image of the backing path on the LCD prominently showed that an obstacle was present in the backing path of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Boosted HCCI - Experimental Observations in a Single Cylinder Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1277
Naturally aspirated Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) operational window is very limited due to inherent issues with combustion harshness. Load range can be extended for HCCI operation using a combination of intake boosting and cooled EGR. Significant range extension, up to 8bar NMEP at 1000RPM, was shown to be possible using these approaches in a single cylinder engine running residual trapping HCCI with 91RON fuel with a 12:1 compression ratio. Experimental results over the feasible speed / load range are presented in this paper for a negative valve overlap HCCI engine. Fuel efficiency advantage of HCCI was found to be around 15% at 2.62bar / 1500RPM over a comparable SI engine operating at the same compression ratio, and the benefit was reduced to about 5% (best scenario) as the load increased to 5bar at the same speed.
Journal Article

Thermophysical Properties Measurement of Interior Car Materials vs. Temperature and Mechanical Compression

2014-04-01
2014-01-1024
Thermophysical properties of materials used in the design of automotive interiors are needed for computer simulation of climate conditions inside the vehicle. These properties are required for assessment of the vehicle occupants' thermal sensation as they come in contact with the vehicle interior components, such as steering wheels, arm rests, instruments panel and seats. This paper presents the results of an investigation into the thermophysical properties of materials which are required for solving the non-linear Fourier equations with any boundary conditions and taking into account materials' specific heat, volume density, thermal conductivity, and thermal optical properties (spectral and total emissivity and absorptivity). The model and results of the computer simulation will be published in a separate paper.
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