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Technical Paper

On-Demand Four Wheel-Drive Transfer Case Modeling

This paper describes the development of a Matrixx Model of an electronically controlled on-demand 4 Wheel-Drive (4WD) Transfer Case. The model was partially validated with respect to available vehicle test data and subsequently used for control system design and evaluation.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Control System for Ford 1.8L Sierra Turbo-Diesel to Meet 1997-2003 Particulate Standards

Feasibility of wall-flow diesel exhaust filter trap particulate aftertreatment emission control systems to meet the U.S. Federal, CARB, and EC passenger car standards for 1997/2003 and beyond for the 1360 kg (3000 lb.) EAO (Ford European Automotive Operations) 1.8 liter Sierra Turbo-Diesel passenger car is investigated. Plain and Pd catalyzed monolith wall flow diesel particulate traps are examined using Phillips No. 2 diesel fuel (Reference Standard), low sulfur (0.05% S) diesel fuel and an ultra-low sulfur (0.001% S) diesel fuel. Comparisons are made with baseline FTP75 and Highway exhaust emissions and Federal and CARB mandated particulate standards for 1997 and 2003. Effectiveness of catalyzed traps, plain traps, copper octoate trap regeneration fuel additive, and fuel sulfur content on the particulate emissions is determined.
Technical Paper

Control System Requirements to Support Intelligent Sensor-Based Manufacturing

This paper presents a description of intelligent sensor-based manufacturing, reviews previous research in this area, and identifies control system requirements necessary to support successful application of this technology. Current production control systems inhibit the successful implementation of advanced manufacturing control technologies. It is often difficult, if not impossible, to integrate new sensing technologies and advanced control algorithms with existing control platforms. To address this difficulty, hardware and software needs to support intelligent sensor-based manufacturing are discussed.
Technical Paper

Engine Knock Control Via Optimization of Sensor Location

This paper describes a procedure used to aid in the control of IC engine knock, an autoignition phenomenon that results in customer annoyance, loss of power, and potential engine damage. Since a control system can only function as well as the signal it is provided, input signal optimization is critical to the robustness of the system. Optimization of the input signal starts with a properly located physical transducer on the engine block. The locating process begins with laser holometry to evaluate compliant regions of the block. Holographic data, block vibration spectra and empirical engine data are then used to identify the most promising sensor locations. These locations are then verified with a broadband accelerometer mounted on a dynamometer engine. This process allows the highest available signal to noise locations to be found in a systematic and efficient manner.
Technical Paper

Control Challenges and Methodologies in Fuel Cell Vehicle Development

In recent years, rapid and significant advances in fuel cell technology, together with advances in power electronics and control methodology, has enabled the development of high performance fuel cell powered electric vehicles. A key advance is that the low temperature (80°C) proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell has become mature and robust enough to be used for automotive applications. Apart from the apparent advantage of lower vehicle emission, the overall fuel cell vehicle static and dynamic performance and power and energy efficiency are critically dependent on the intelligent design of the control systems and control methodologies. These include the control of: fuel cell heat and water management, fuel (hydrogen) and air (oxygen) supply and distribution, electric drive, main and auxiliary power management, and overall powertrain and vehicle systems.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Small Fuel Droplets on Cold Engine Emissions Using Ford's Air Forced Injection System

The effect of port injected small fuel droplets was evaluated for several different modes of engine operation. The droplets were generated by an Air Forced Injector (AFI), Figure 1, which uses high velocity air through a nozzle to produce fuel droplets on the order of 10mm Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD). AFI results were compared to those from a standard production pintle injector. Steady state data, “motored cold start” data, and injector cut-out data were collected. All three data sets illustrate functional advantages of AFI over standard Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI). Steady state testing showed that the AFI delivers complete freedom for specifying injection timing with respect to HC emissions. This freedom is highly advantageous for transient conditions because open valve injection with small droplets causes much less port wall wetting. Therefore, less control system compensation is necessary, and more accurate air-fuel ratio control is achievable.
Technical Paper

A New Mechanism for Measuring Exhaust A/F

Exhaust gas air-fuel ratio (A/F) sensors are common devices in powertrain feedback control systems aimed at minimizing emissions. Both resistive (using TiO2) and electrochemical (using ZrO2) mechanisms are used in the high temperature ceramic devices now being employed. In this work a new mechanism for making the measurement is presented based on the change in the workfunction of a Pt film in interaction with the exhaust gas. In particular it is found that the workfunction of Pt increases reversibly by approximately 0.7 V at that point (the stoichiometric ratio) where the exhaust changes from rich to lean conditions. This increase arises from the adsorption of O2 on the Pt surface. On returning to rich conditions, catalytic reaction of the adsorbed oxygen with reducing species returns the workfunction to its original value. Two methods, one capacitive and one thermionic, for electrically sensing this workfunction change and thus providing for a practical device are discussed.
Technical Paper

Ford Three-Way Catalyst and Feedback Fuel Control System

The objective of this paper is to describe the Ford Motor Company (Ford) approach of meeting exhaust emission regulations with a three-way catalyst and feedback control system. A pilot program was initiated to gain production experience with three-way catalyst systems in anticipation of expanded usage to meet future emission standards. The Ford system consists of a three-way catalyst with feedback control monitoring the exhaust oxygen concentration and controlling the fuel flow to produce a stoichiometric exhaust mixture. Mixture control is critical since catalyst NOx conversion efficiency is diminished when the exhaust mixture deviates from stoichiometry. Briefly, the control loop consists of zirconium dioxide exhaust sensor to indicate oxygen concentration, an electronic control unit, a vacuum regulator to proportion a vacuum signal to the carburetor, and a feedback controlled carburetor with vacuum modulated main fuel system.
Technical Paper

The Microcomputer Based Engine Control System for the IIEC-2 Concept Car

The microcomputer based ignition timing, EGR and fuel injection control system for the IIEC-2 concept vehicle is described. The techniques used to compensate the fuel delivery for EGR, to minimize response time and to compensate for engine and injector non-uniformity are emphasized. These measures, in conjunction with limit cycle air/fuel ratio control utilizing feedback from an exhaust gas oxygen sensor, are examined with respect to the effect on three-way catalyst performance.
Technical Paper

Effect of Mileage Accumulation on Particulate Emissions from Vehicles Using Gasoline with Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl

Particulate and manganese mass emissions have been measured as a function of mileage for four Escort and four Explorer vehicles using 1) MMT (Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl) added to the gasoline at 1/32 g Mn/gal and 2) gasoline without MMT. The MMT was used in half of the fleet starting at 5,000 miles. The vehicles were driven on public roads at an average speed of 54 mph to accumulate mileage. This report describes the particulate and manganese emissions, plus emissions of four air toxics at 5,000, 20,000, 55,000, 85,000 and 105,000 miles. Four non-regulated emissions were measured and their average values for vehicles without MMT were 0.6 mg/mi for formaldehyde, 0.7 mg/mi for 1,3-butadiene, 9 mg/mi for benzene and 12 mg/mi for toluene. Corresponding values for MMT-fueled vehicles were between 1.5 and 2.4 times higher.
Technical Paper

Control System Architecture for an Advanced Electric Vehicle Powertrain

Reduced complexity, improved driveability, and increased energy efficiency are among the advantages which can be obtained through Con-board) computer control of powertrains in both conventional and electric vehicles. This paper describes the design and implementation of a control system for an advanced electric vehicle powertrain, incorporating an integrated induction motor and two speed automatic transaxle. The control system employs a distributed computer architecture utilizing a fiber optic communication system for computer coordination. The software architecture utilizes a unique combination of standard multitasking concepts and finite state automata techniques. This approach allows individual tasks to be defined and prioritized and permits data and system resources to be shared effectively. Through the use of torque and gear shift scheduling, internal combustion engine torque characteristics can be duplicated to improve driveability.
Technical Paper

Mimic Control of Multi-Axis Systems

A concept for combining the separate manual controls of a multiaxis system was explored and demonstrated on a Ford backhoe. The four axes of the backhoe system receive their command signal from a single 4 degree-of-freedom controller. The motion of the backhoe then “mimics” that of the controller, generating a followup signal to close the control loop. This control system provides simultaneous, coordinated control of all four axes in response to natural movements of the human operator.
Technical Paper

Automatic Headway Control - An Automatic Vehicle Spacing System

Automatic headway control is an evolutionary step towards an automatic vehicle guidance and control system. This system expands the capability of the currently available production option-speed control. This paper describes the system from a theoretical and hardware viewpoint, with emphasis on the control logic. The electronic and electromechanical hardware design based on the theory presented is fully described. The limitations and advantages of the system are explained, based on test results from actual trial runs on an implemented vehicle. Capacity and safety benefits are made somewhat tangible by direct comparison with test results obtained on a roadway similar to that for which this system is recommended, under test conditions directly analogous to the operating characteristics of the automatic headway control system.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission Control Systems and Vapor Lock - CRC Road Tests

This paper reports the results of a series of vapor lock road tests on 26 cars (1966 models), half of which were equipped with exhaust emission control systems. The objectives of the tests were to determine the effect of emission controls on vapor locking tendencies, to study effects of fuel volatility and operating conditions on fuel system temperatures, and to study correlation of these temperatures with temperature versus vapor/liquid ratio characteristics of fuels. The data obtained show no significant difference in vapor locking tendency between the emission control equipped and nonequipped cars as groups, though significant differences are shown for some individual car pairs. An analysis is presented of the relation between fuel volatility, pump temperature during acceleration, and the onset of vapor lock.
Technical Paper

The “Peter Principle” Applied to Mini-Computers

Hierarchical computer systems are an effective way of combining the features of mini- and maxi-computers in automation projects. By distributing the functions in a multi-computer system, the mini-computers can retain the responsiveness and reliability of simple configurations while the more extensive information handling is performed by the larger host computers. This approach overcomes most of the problems found with independent small control systems on one hand and over-extended, centralized computer systems on the other. This philosophy is illustrated with actual applications at Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

The Ford PROCO Engine Update

The Ford PROCO stratified charge engine combines the desirable characteristics of premixed charge and Diesel engines. The outstanding characteristics of premixed charge engines are their high specific output, wide speed range, light weight and easy startability but they exhibit only modest fuel economy and relatively high exhaust emissions. The desirable characteristic of the Diesel engine is its outstanding fuel economy. However, the disadvantages of the Diesel, which include noisy operation, limited speed range, exhaust odor, smoke, hard startability, and particulate emissions have tended to limit their acceptance. In the gasoline fueled, PROCO stratified charge engine, direct cylinder fuel injection permits operation at overall lean mixture ratios and higher compression ratio. These features enable the PROCO engine to achieve brake specific fuel consumption values in the range of prechamber diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Advanced Control of Engine RPM for a More Intuitive Driving Experience in Power Split Hybrid Electric Vehicles

The Auto Industry is responding to the environment and energy conservation concerns by ramping up production of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). As the initial hurdles of making the powertrain operate are overcome, challenges such as making the powertrain feel more refined and intuitive remain. This paper investigates one of the key parameters for delivering that refinement: engine RPM behavior. Ideal RPM behavior is explored and included in the design of a control system. System implications are examined with regard to the effect of engine RPM scheduling on Battery usage and vehicle responsiveness.
Technical Paper

Control of Electric to Parallel Hybrid Drive Transition in a Dual-Drive Hybrid Powertrain

Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrains have become key to developing environmentally friendly and fuel efficient vehicles. As such, companies are continually investing in developing new hybrid powertrain architectures. Ford Motor Company has developed a new “Dual-Drive” full hybrid electric vehicle that overcomes some attribute deficiencies of existing hybrid powertrain architectures due to the kinematic arrangement of the engine, motors and driveline components. This hybrid powertrain is comprised of conventional powertrain components as its base with an electric motor on the rear axle, and a crank integrated starter generator, engine and transmission on the front axle. It forms a complex configuration which provides fuel economy improvement over a conventional powertrain.
Technical Paper

Modeling & Code Generation for Powertrain Control Monitoring

With the introduction of new technologies ranging from developing new alternative energy vehicles to passive and active safety systems, the automakers are responding to the increased complexity of the control system by embracing Model Based Design (MBD) and Auto-code Generation (ACG) tools for control system design. This translates into lower development costs, higher quality and faster time-to-market. The Ford Motor Company production hybrid group launched a pilot project to study the feasibility of using MBD to speed up the development and testing of the next generation Torque Monitor software. This software uses a custom data storage format, called Double Store Variable (DSV) format, for all the critical signals. Each variable contains two fields, one for storing the actual data and the second for storing a transformed copy (e.g. one's complement) of the data. This allows the software to detect run-time corruption of the data in real-time.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Automotive Test Equipment in the Service Bay

Most people still remember the introduction of the IBM PC in 1981 and the first Microsoft Windows operating system in 1985. These were the pioneering technologies that started a revolution in automotive test equipment in the service bay. What was once a purely mechanical garage environment where information was published annually in large paper manuals has evolved into a highly technical computing environment. Today vehicle networks link onboard vehicle control systems with diagnostic systems and updated service information is published daily over the Internet. A lot has changed over the last twenty years, and manufacturers of diagnostic test equipment are learning to deal with the constantly evolving computing platforms and host operating systems. This paper traces the history of automotive diagnostic equipment at Ford Motor Company and shares some of the hard lessons learned from the early systems.