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Technical Paper

Aluminum Rail Rivet and Steel Rail Weld DOE and CAE Studies for NVH

2001-04-30
2001-01-1608
Vehicle body with aluminum riveted construction instead of steel welded one will be a big challenge to NVH. In this paper, aluminum and steel rails with the dimensions similar to the rear rail portion of a typical mid-size sedan were fabricated. Rivets were used to assemble the aluminum rails while welds were used to assemble the steel rails. Adhesive, rivet/weld spacing, and rivet/weld location were the three major factors to be studied and their impact on NVH were investigated. The DOE matrix was developed using these three major factors. Modal tests were performed on those rails according to the DOE matrix. The FEA models corresponding to the hardware were built. CAE modal analysis were performed and compared with test data. The current in-house CAE modeling techniques for spot weld and adhesive were evaluated and validated with test data.
Technical Paper

Laminate Dash Ford Taurus Noise and Vibration Performance

2001-04-30
2001-01-1535
Mastic material, constrained or non-constrained with doublers, is the traditional method in adding vibrational damping to a steel structure with the goal of reducing panel vibration and radiated sound. With the use of laminated vibration damped steel (LVDS), Ford has been able to reduce the dash panel vibration and optimize sound package design for powertrain noise attenuation. These NVH benefits are presented as the result of a study completed with a laminated dash on a Ford Taurus.
Technical Paper

A Vehicle Micro Corrosion Environmental Study of Field and Proving Ground Tests

2001-03-05
2001-01-0646
This paper presents the progress of an ongoing vehicle micro corrosion environment study. The goal of the study is to develop an improved method for estimating vehicle corrosion based on the Total Vehicle Accelerated Corrosion Test at the Arizona Proving Ground (APG). Although the APG test greatly accelerates vehicle corrosion compared to the field, the “acceleration factor” varies considerably from site-to-site around the vehicle. This method accounts for the difference in corrosivity of various local corrosion environments from site-to-site at APG and in the field. Correlations of vehicle microenvironments with the macroenvironment (weather) and the occurrence of various environmental conditions at microenvironments are essential to the study. A comparison of results from APG versus field measurements generated using a cold rolled steel based corrosion sensor is presented.
Technical Paper

Bending Fatigue Behavior of Carburized Gear Steels: Four-Point Bend Test Development and Evaluation

1996-02-01
960977
The ability to evaluate the bending fatigue behavior of carburized low alloy steels in a laboratory and relate these measurements to performance of high contact ratio helical gears is important to the design and development of transmissions. Typical methods of evaluating bending fatigue performance of carburized gear steels do not directly represent helical planetary gears because they lack the geometric and loading conditions of planetary pinions. The purpose of this study is twofold; 1) development of a lab fatigue test to represent the fatigue performance of planetary pinion gears tested in a dynamometer and 2) evaluation of the influence of alloy content on bending fatigue performance of two steel alloys. The steels under evaluation were modified 8620M and 4615M alloys machined into bend bars with a notch representing a gear root and carburized to a case depth of approximately 0.35 mm (using the same carburizing cycle as the planetary pinion gears).
Technical Paper

Scratch and Mar Resistance of Mineral-Filled Polypropylene Materials

1997-02-24
970659
Pigmented & mineral-filled PP (PF-PP) is marketed as a potential alternative to ABS for automotive interior applications. However, PF-PP is easily damaged by scratching its surface, thus limiting its acceptance for interior applications. This study investigates the test methods to quantify the extent of scratch & mar damage, and the effect of different mineral fillers towards improving the scratch & mar resistance of PF-PP.
Technical Paper

Regimes of Premixed Turbulent Combustion and Misfire Modeling in SI Engines

1998-10-19
982611
A review of flame kernel growth in SI engines and the regimes of premixed turbulent combustion showed that a misfire model based on regimes of premixed turbulent combustion was warranted[1]. The present study will further validate the misfire model and show that it has captured the dominating physics and avoided extremely complex, yet inefficient, models. Results showed that regimes of turbulent combustion could, indeed, be used for a concept-simple model to predict misfire limits in SI engines. Just as importantly, the entire regimes of premixed turbulent combustion in SI engines were also mapped out with the model.
Technical Paper

Steel Powders for High Performance Automotive Parts

1994-03-01
940423
Increased use of powder-forged connecting rods in the automotive industry prompted an investigation into the suitability of powders from different suppliers for this application. Specifications developed by North American users call for ultra clean powders to enhance machinability and fatigue life. Powders from four manufacturers were each blended with graphite and lubricant, then pressed, sintered and forged to full density. Metallographic samples were prepared and evaluated for inclusion content. In addition, the powders were mixed to the composition of connecting rods, (C - 0.5%, Cu - 2% and MnS - 0.3%), and were similarly pressed, sintered and forged. Test bars were machined from the forged discs. Uniaxial fatigue tests were performed in the tension-compression mode and strain-life curves were developed. It was determined that all powders examined were very clean and were comparable in their inclusion content.
Technical Paper

A Calibration Study of CFD for Automotive Shapes and CD

1994-03-01
940323
An extensive calibration study has been initiated to assess the predictive ability of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) for the aerodynamic design of automotive shapes. Several codes are being checked against a set of detailed wind tunnel measurements on ten car-like shapes. The objective is to assess the ability of numerical analysis to predict the CD (drag coefficient) influence of the rear end configuration. The study also provides a significant base of information for investigating discrepancies between predicted and measured flow fields and for assessing new numerical techniques. This technical report compares STAR-CD predictions to the wind tunnel measurements. The initial results are quite encouraging. Calculated centerline pressure distributions on the front end, underbody and floor compare well for all ten shapes. Wake flow structures are in reasonable agreement for many of the configurations. Drag, lift, and pitching moment trends follow the experimental measurements.
Technical Paper

Slow Heating Process of a Heated Pintle-Type Gasoline Fuel Injector

1995-02-01
950068
The heated fuel injectors are designed to bring up fuel temperature so as to reduce HC and CO emissions during cold start. The heated injectors are similar to regular injectors except heaters are placed near the injector inlet and outlet. The heaters, which has the ability to regulate temperature at 180 °C, transform the thermal energy to heat up the liquid fuel through the injector body. The heated injectors are required to heat up fuel to the operating temperature (e.g., 120 °F or 48.9 °C) as quickly as possible and to maintain that fuel temperature for about three minutes. However, test results indicate it takes more than two minutes for the fuel temperature to reach the desired operating temperature. Objective of this work is to find out the mechanisms controlling the slow heating process through CFD analysis. The computational domain covers the whole injector, from inlet to exit, since the heaters located near the top and bottom of the injector.
Technical Paper

Stress Durability Testing of Adhesively Bonded Steel

1995-02-01
950128
A stress durability test method that incorporates exposure to a corrosive environment has been used to evaluate the performance of adhesively bonded steel joints. For the systems examined, corrosion exposure is more damaging than exposure to humidity alone. The combination of load and corrosion exposure is substantially more severe than either alone. A method for analysis of the data and comparison of the test results for the evaluation of adhesive bond durability is proposed. The dependence of lifetime on load is defined as , where f is the ratio of applied load to initial, unexposed failure load. The exponent n provides a measure of the degree of acceleration of the interfacial degradation processes by load.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Stress Absorbing Layers on the Wear Behavior of Painted Plastic Substrates

1995-02-01
950801
Erosion damage to automotive car bodies caused by stones and small sand particles and road debris significantly affects the appearance of paint. Painted engineering plastics as well as precoated sheet steel are affected by erosion phenomenon. Erosion of painted plastic substrates results in cosmetic concerns while that on metal substrates results in cosmetic to perforation corrosion. This work describes a laboratory simulation of erosion of painted plastic substrates by small particles on various paint and substrate types. Gloss loss was used to quantitatively evaluate erosion of painted surfaces. Wear behavior of painted plastic substrates to slag sand impact was evaluated as a function of several variables including paint type (one-component melamine crosslinked (1K) vs. two-component isocyanate crosslinked (2K)), thermal history, and coating modulus. The effect of slag sand type (particle size and chemical composition) was studied.
Technical Paper

Friction and Scuffing Resistance Characteristics of Piston Materials as Investigated by a Reciprocating Test Rig

1995-02-01
951042
Friction and scuffing resistance characteristics of two piston alloy materials have been investigated by using a long-stroke reciprocating test rig. Tests were conducted under the same load, speed, and starved changing to dry lubrication conditions until the scuffing failure occurred, as indicated by a sudden change of the frictional force signal which was monitored continuously. Measured friction coefficient and scuffing threshold and life results were obtained, and the piston alloy with the better scuffing resistance capability has been identified. Surface texture of new and scuffed piston and cylinder bore specimen surfaces have been measured and characterized by a combination of amplitude and spacing parameters.
Technical Paper

Master Alloys to Obtain Premixed Hardenable Powder Metal Steels

1996-02-01
960388
Systems of alloys for liquid phase alloying during sintering were investigated. The solidification range of alloys of Mn-Ni-Cr-Mo-Fe and Mn-Cu-Ni was determined. Alloys with the lowest and narrowest melting range were prepared and atomized in nitrogen. Admixtures of master alloys to water-atomized, forging grade, pure iron powder were sintered at 1232°C (2250°F). After hot forging, these P/M steels exhibited hardenabilities which were 75%-90% of theoretical hardenability, as calculated from the factors for conventional steels. Alloying efficiency was further improved to 85%-100% of theoretical hardenability when additions of approximately 2% silicon and 1% rare earth misch-metal were made to the master alloys. The silicon and rare earth misch-metal additions were used to enhance diffusion and sintering.
Technical Paper

Performance of Plasmaspray Coated Bore 4.6L-V8 Aluminum Block Engines in Dynamometer and Fleet Vehicle Durability Tests

1997-02-24
970008
Application process, and performance in engine dynamometer and high mileage vehicle fleet durability tests of Plasmaspray coated bore aluminum block engines are discussed. Fuel economy, oil consumption, power and wear data for Ford 4.6L-V8 aluminum block engines utilizing very low cost iron/iron oxide base coatings, and stainless steel/BN solid film lubricant Plasmasprayed coatings are presented. Test results from Ford's 100 hour Piston & Gasket Engine Dynamometer Durability Tests, and Fleet Vehicle Durability Tests show ring/bore wear reductions of more than 40% relative to production cast iron bore systems with Oil Economy averaging more than 13,600 km/l (8000 mi/qt).
Technical Paper

Friction and Wear Characteristics of Micro-Arc Oxidation Coating for Light Weight, Wear Resistant, Powertrain Component Application

1997-02-24
970022
An extremely tough alumina based ceramic coating produced by a modified anodizing process developed at Moscow Aviation Institute has been evaluated for light weight, wear resistant component applications in automotive powertrain. The process details and test results from comparative evaluation of friction and wear properties for cylinder bore application, referenced to cast iron baseline, are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Material Systems for Cylinder Bore Applications - Plasma Spray Technology

1997-02-24
970023
The development, evaluation, and selection of Plasma spray powder material for the coating of aluminum-alloy engine cylinder block bores was conducted to yield a bore system which provides numerous benefits relative to the present cast iron sleeve system. These include: a reduction in ring/bore wear, friction, and in engine oil consumption as well as a benefit in reduced corrosion. A reduction in engine weight, overall costs, and improvements in machining and honing operations are shown. Alternate thermal spray processes are also described in this investigation. Test evaluation leads to the selection of two plasma powder material spray systems. One system emphasizes low cost relative to the present system. The second system provides significant reduction in friction and ring/bore wear through the introduction of solid lubricant in the material composition.
Technical Paper

Bolt-Load Retention and Creep of Die-Cast Magnesium Alloys

1997-02-24
970325
New high-temperature Mg alloys are being considered to replace 380 Al in transmission cases, wherein bolt-load retention, and creep, is of prime concern. One of these alloys is die cast AE42, which has much better creep properties than does AZ91D but is still not as creep resistant as 380 Al. It is thus important to investigate bolt-load retention and creep of AE42 as an initial step in assessing its suitability as a material for transmission housings. To that end, the bolt-load retention behavior of die-cast AE42, AZ91D and 380 Al have been examined using standard M10 bolts specially instrumented with stable high-temperature strain gages. The bolt-load retention test pieces were die cast in geometries approximating the flange and boss regions in typical bolted joints. Bolt-load retention properties were examined as a function of time (at least 100 hours), temperature (150 and 175 °C) and initial bolt preload (14 to 34 kN).
Technical Paper

Combustion Modeling in SI Engines with a Peninsula-Fractal Combustion Model

1996-02-01
960072
In premixed turbulent combustion models, two mechanisms have been used to explain the increase in the flame speed due to the turbulence. The newer explanation considers the full range of turbulence scales which wrinkle the flame front so as to increase the flame front area and, thus, the flame propagation speed. The fractal combustion model is an example of this concept. The older mechanism assumes that turbulence enables the penetration of unburned mixtures across the flame front via entrainment into the burned mixture zone. The entrainment combustion or eddy burning model is an example of this mechanism. The results of experimental studies of combustion regimes and the flame structures in SI engines has confirmed that most combustion takes place at the wrinkled flame front with additional combustion taking place in the form of flame fingers or peninsulas.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of the Ford Split Port Induction Concept

1996-05-01
961151
The search for fuel efficient engines that also offer good performance and fuel economy at moderate cost prompted the development of the Split Port Induction (SPI) concept at Ford Motor Company. Ford has upgraded two families of 2-valve engines, the 2.0L CVH 14 and the 3.8L and 4.2L Essex V6's, with the Split Port Induction concept. SPI offers an improved WOT torque curve, better part load dilution tolerance for fuel economy and superior idle combustion stability. This is accomplished by dividing the intake port into two passages and inserting an intake manifold runner control (IMRC) valve into the secondary passage. The opening of this valve determines the level of in-cylinder charge turbulence and volumetric efficiency according to engine operating conditions. The development of the concept and the improvements resulting from its application to these engines will be described and discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of the 6.8L V10 Heat Resisting Cast-Steel Exhaust Manifold

1996-10-01
962169
This paper presents the experience of Ford Motor Company and Hitachi Metals Ltd., in the development and design of the exhaust manifolds for the new 1997 Ford 6.8L, Vl0 gasoline truck engine. Due to the high-exhaust temperature 1000 °C (1832 °F), heat-resisting nodular graphite irons, such as high-silicon molybdenum iron and austenitic iron with nickel cannot meet the durability requirements, mainly thermal fatigue evaluation. The joint effort by both companies include initial manifold design, prototype development, engine simulation bench testing, failure analysis, material selections (ferritic or austenitic cast steel), production processes (casting, machining) and final inspection. This experience can well be applied to the design and development of new cast stainless-steel exhaust manifolds in the future. This is valid due to the fact that US EPA is requiring all car manufacturers to meet the new Bag 6-Emission Standards which will result in increased exhaust gas temperature.
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