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Technical Paper

Inclusion of Crashworthiness in Concept Design

A side impact study carried out on a particular vehicle has been described and used as a case study to represent a methodology for incorporating side crashworthiness in a new vehicle concept design. In the automotive design environment, it has proved difficult to include side crashworthiness satisfactorily in the initial stages of the passenger car design. Lack of vehicle data at such a stage does not allow detailed finite element analysis. It is, however, possible to suggest the required collapse properties for individual components within the structure so that, through a coarse finite element idealization, a design for crashworthiness can be carried out. The crash properties of the structure can be arrived at by parametric studies of individual components that are absorbing the major portion of the crash energy.
Technical Paper

Development of a Tunable Stamped Collector to Improve Exhaust System Performance

A tunable stamped collector was developed to improve vehicle performance, drive-by noise and subjective noise quality, and reduced thermal stress concentrations. The stamped collector is located at the junction of the legs of the down pipe/catalytic converter assembly for a transverse mounted V-6 engine and acts to equalize the leg length of the down pipe, as well as provide acoustic tuning volume. This collector differs from most other methods to equalize leg lengths on transverse mounted engines in that it has a tuning chamber incorporated into the design itself, which allows for specific noise frequencies to be reduced. Performance characteristics were measured for a conventional down-pipe and the stamped collector using the following analysis techniques: Frequency analysis of tailpipe noise emissions. Drive-by noise emissions. Horsepower measurements using an engine dynamometer.
Journal Article

Extending Tensile Curves beyond Uniform Elongation Using Digital Image Correlation: Capability Analysis

A uniaxial stress-strain curve obtained from a conventional tensile test is only valid up to the point of uniform elongation, beyond which a diffuse neck begins to develop, followed by localized necking and eventual fracture. However Finite Element Analysis for sheet metal forming requires an effective stress-strain curve that extends well beyond the diffuse necking point. Such an extension is usually accomplished by analytical curve fitting and extrapolation. Recent advancement in Digital Image Correlation (DIC) techniques allows direct measurement of full-range stress-strain curves by continuously analyzing the deformation within the diffuse neck zone until the material ruptures. However the stress-strain curve obtained this way is still approximate in nature. Its accuracy depends on the specimen size, the gage size for analysis, and the material response itself.
Technical Paper

FEA Predictions and Test Results from Magnesium Beams in Bending and Axial Compression

Finite element analysis (FEA) predictions of magnesium beams are compared to load versus displacement test measurements. The beams are made from AM60B die castings, AM30 extrusions and AZ31 sheet. The sheet and die cast beams are built up from two top hat sections joined with toughened epoxy adhesive and structural rivets. LS-DYNA material model MAT_124 predicts the magnesium behavior over a range of strain rates and accommodates different responses in tension and compression. Material test results and FEA experience set the strain to failure limits in the FEA predictions. The boundary conditions in the FEA models closely mimic the loading and constraint conditions in the component testing. Results from quasi-static four-point bend, quasi-static axial compression and high-speed axial compression tests of magnesium beams show the beam's behavior over a range of loadings and test rates. The magnesium beams exhibit significant material cracking and splitting in all the tests.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Vibration Studies of As-Installed Power Steering Pumps

Pump whine as well as other NVH issues related to power steering system can become customer concerns at the vehicle level. In order to avoid that, proposed treatment of the pump structure and its installation on the engine should be performed. This is particularly important because most vane pumps have a wide range of excitation that can reach 1000 Hz (30th order @ 6000 rpm). This requires maximizing the ‘as installed’ frequencies of the pump to avoid coincidence with the engine and other FEAD harmonics.
Technical Paper

Development of a Finite Element Analysis Tool for Fixture Design Integrity Verification and Optimization

Machining fixtures are used to locate and constrain a workpiece during a machining operation. To ensure that the workpiece is manufactured according to specified dimensions and tolerances, it must be appropriately located and clamped. Minimizing workpiece and fixture tooling deflections due to clamping and cutting forces in machining is critical to the machining accuracy. An ideal fixture design maximizes locating accuracy and workpiece stability, while minimizing displacements. The purpose of this research is to develop a method for modeling workpiece boundary conditions and applied loads during a machining process, analyze modular fixture tool contact area deformation and optimize support locations, using finite element analysis (FEA). The workpiece boundary conditions are defined by locators and clamps. The locators are placed in a 3-2-1 fixture configuration, constraining all degrees of freedom of the workpiece and are modeled using linear spring-gap elements.
Technical Paper

Development of an Isolated Timing Chain Guide System Utilizing Indirect Force Measurement Techniques

This paper outlines the development process of a vibration isolation system for the timing chain guides of an internal combustion engine. It was determined through testing that the timing chain guides are a significant path by which the chain/sprocket impacts are transmitted to other powertrain components. These components radiate the energy as chain mesh order narrow band sound as well as wide band energy. It was found that isolation of the chain guides produced a significant reduction in radiated sound levels, reduced mesh frequency amplitudes, and improved sound quality. The development process utilized indirect force measurement techniques for simulation of the chain loading and FEA prediction of the resulting chain guide forces and displacements. The design of the isolation system involved material selection based on dynamic properties, frequency and temperature ranges, the operating environment, FEA geometry optimization, and durability testing.
Technical Paper

Development of Foam Models as Applications to Vehicle Interior

Various foam models are developed using LS-DYNA3D and the model predictions were validated against experiments. Dynamic and static stress-strain relations are obtained experimentally for crushable and resilient foam materials and used as inputs to the finite element analyses. Numerous simulations were carried out for foams subjected to different loading conditions including static compression and indentation, and dynamic impacts with a rigid featureless and a rigid spherical headform. Comparisons of the results obtained from different foam models with test data show appropriate correlations for all the cases studied. Parametric studies of the effects of tensile properties of foam material and the interface parameters on foam performance are also presented.
Technical Paper

Finite element simulation of drive shaft in truck/SUV frontal crash

Drive shaft modelling effects frontal crash finite element simulation. A 35 mph rigid barrier impact of a body on frame SUV with an one piece drive shaft and a unibody SUV with a two piece drive shaft have been studied and simulated using finite element analyses. In the model, the drive shaft can take significant load in frontal impact crash. Assumptions regarding the drive shaft model can change the predicted engine motion in the simulation. This change influences the rocker @ B-pillar deceleration. Two modelling methods have been investigated in this study considering both joint mechanisms and material failure in dynamic impact. Model parameters for joint behavior and failure should be determined from vehicle design information and component testing. A body on frame SUV FEA model has been used to validate the drive shaft modeling technique by comparing the simulation results with crash test data.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the Impact Performance of Instrument Panel Substrate

Nonlinear crash finite element analysis was performed to simulate the dynamic response of the instrument panel substrate in the head impact test. The finite element software used for this study was LS-DYNA3D. This paper describes the modeling strategy such as boundary conditions and loading condition. Energy absorption rate and deflection of the instrument panel substrate were investigated. The impact performance of various substrate designs were also simulated and compared with the baseline design. It was found that thinner substrate in the areas of impact can give substrate additional compliance which results in a greater crash energy absorption.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Frontal Barrier Offset Impacts and Comparison of Intrusions and Decelerations

The European safety regulation plan regarding frontal barrier offset impact calls for 30° angular impact protection in 1995 and a perpendicular 40% offset deformable barrier impact protection in the 1998 time frame. However, various other governmental and private agencies are looking at alternative test conditions. The Auto Motor and Sport Magazine and other insurance agencies have been conducting rigid barrier front impact tests at 40 and 50% offsets. In this study various test conditions were examined analytically. Detailed finite element models were developed to understand the implications of these impact conditions. The models provided insight into energy management mechanism, load transfer and vehicle deformation patterns due to offset impacts on to perpendicular and angular barriers. Several potential offset conditions were simulated using the FEA models.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling of Structural Foam and Head Impact Interaction with Vehicle Upper Interior

This paper first describes an experimental analytical approach and numerical procedures used to establish crushable foam material constants needed in finite element (FE) analysis. Dynamic compressive stress-strain data of a 2 pcf Dytherm foam, provided by ARCO Chemical, is used to determine the material parameters which appears in the foam constitutive equation. A finite element model simulating a 15 mph spherical headform impact with a foam sample 6 in. x 6 in. x 1 in. fixed against a rigid plate is developed. The predicted force-deflection characteristic is validated against test data to characterize the initial loading and final unloading stiffnesses of the foam during impact. Finite element modeling and analysis of 15 mph spherical headform impact with component sections of upper interior structures of a passenger compartment is presented.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Body Structure Durability Analysis

Due to several indeterminate factors, the assessment of the durability performance of a vehicle body is traditionally accomplished using test methods. An analytical fatigue life prediction method (four-step durability process) that relies mainly on numerical techniques is described in this paper. The four steps comprising this process include the identification of high stress regions, recognizing the critical load types, determining the critical road events and calculation of fatigue life. In addition to utilizing a general purpose finite element analysis software for the application of the Inertia Relief technique and a previously developed fatigue analysis program, two customized programs have been developed to streamline the process into an integrated, user-friendly tool. The process is demonstrated using a full body, finite element model.
Technical Paper

Integration of Vehicle Interior Models into Crash Up-Front Process with Optimization

The evolution of computer technology has made CAE ( Computer Aided Engineering ) an integral part of the total vehicle development process. Particularly for crash development, up-front input is crucial in determining vehicle architecture, performing trade off studies and setting design targets. Detailed FEA ( Finite Element Analysis ), although more accurate, is not always suitable at this stage due to (1) the lack of Detailed design information and (2) the large amount of modelling and analysis efforts. Concept/Hybrid models, however, can provide important input to make early design decisions without a detailed design. This paper uses a concept model to illustrate the above mentioned point. The model contains, the interior structure of a pick-up truck, driver occupant, restraints, and a detailed steering column assembly. Correlation with a physical test demonstrates the reliability of the model. Several restraint parameters which influence occupant performance are identified.
Technical Paper

A Time-Domain Fatigue Life Prediction Method for Vehicle Body Structures

Fatigue analysis using finite element models of a full vehicle body structure subjected to proving ground durability loads is a very complex task. The current paper presents an analytical procedure for fatigue life predictions of full body structures based on a time-domain approach. The paper addresses those situations where this kind of analysis is necessary. It also discusses the major factors (e.g., stress equivalencing procedure, cycle counting method, event lumping and load interactions) which affect fatigue life predictions in the procedure. A comparison study is conducted which explores the combination of these factors favorable for realistic fatigue life prediction. The concepts are demonstrated using a body system model of production size.
Technical Paper

Knee Bolster Analysis of a Thermoplastic Instrument Panel with Damage Mechanics Material Law

Thermoplastics and composites are increasingly becoming popular among automotive design engineers because of their high specific stiffness and flexibility in manufacturing. While plastics like composites are orthotropic, unfilled thermoplastics like ABS Cycolac may be considered isotropic as they show little variation in properties between the flow direction and the direction transverse to the flow. However, this assumption is not enough to treat the latter as metals in finite element analysis. Metals like mild steel, offer considerable ductility, while thermoplastics show limited ductility and begin to fracture with several cracks appearing on the surface. Therefore, in the case of such plastics, it is important to consider the degradation of material properties in nonlinear finite element analysis using Damage Mechanics material law.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Different Energy Absorbing Materials for Interior Head Impact

Various foam models are developed using LS-DYNA3D and validated against experiments. Dynamic and static stress-strain relations are obtained experimentally for crushable and resilient foam materials and used as inputs to the finite element analyses. Comparisons of the results obtained from different foam models with test data show excellent correlations for all the cases studied.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Prediction of Backlite Molding Squeak Noise

The backlite molding squeak noise is caused by the stick-slip type of friction between the window molding and the body panel. To predict if the molding would squeak a finite element analysis technique which uses the nonlinear explicit code LS-DYNA3D has been developed. The three dimensional finite element simulation technique is based on the threshold displacement velocity spectrum and the relative movement of the window glass with respect to the body panel. Comparisons between FEA analysis and tests are also presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Design of a Plastic Instrument Panel Push-Nut Opening Using Finite Element Analysis

One of the methods used to mechanically fasten a component such as a radio, cluster or finish panel to a plastic instrument panel substrate involves driving a screw through a metal push-nut which has been inserted into an opening in the plastic instrument panel substrate. A primary failure mode which has been observed for this type of joint is cracking of the plastic substrate surrounding the metal push-nut. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been employed to optimize the design of the push-nut opening in a polycarbonate substrate and minimize the potential for cracking of the plastic. For the FEA, the implicit version of the ABAQUS program was used. It was determined that the induced stress in the plastic instrument panel substrate from the fastening process can be minimized by controlling the dimensions of the push-nut opening such that push-nut recess is minimized and the thickness of the substrate in the region whether the push-nut engages is optimized.
Technical Paper

Effectiveness of Countermeasures in Upper Interior Head Impact

Trim covers made of impact resistant polymers on vehicle interior sheet metal can contribute to reduction of HIC(d) (Head Injury Criterion, dummy) during headform impact. Air-gap between trim and interior sheet metal can also induce deceleration of striking headform before it forces trim to contact sheet metal surface. As evidenced from laboratory component testing, situations may arise where additional protective measures may need to be incorporated between trim and sheet metal in order to attain acceptable levels of HIC(d). Two such alternatives in the form of energy-absorbing foam, and trim with molded collapsible stiffeners are discussed in this paper. The effectiveness of these countermeasures is evaluated through nonlinear finite element analysis, and favorable comparison with laboratory results is reported.