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Future Development of EcoBoost Technology

2012-05-10
Ford's EcoBoost GTDI engine technology (Gasoline Direct Injection, Turbo-charging and Downsizing) is being successfully implemented in the market place with the EcoBoost option accounting for significant volumes in vehicle lines as diverse as the F150 pickup truck, Edge CUV and the Lincoln MKS luxury sedan. A logical question would be what comes after GTDI? This presentation will review some of the technologies that will be required for further improvements in CO2, efficiency and performance building on the EcoBoost foundation as well as some of the challenges inherent in the new technologies and approaches. Presenter Eric W. Curtis, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

Gear Whine Improvements for an Automatic Transmission through Design Retargeting and Manufacturing Variability Reduction

2001-04-30
2001-01-1505
Gear whine in 1st gear for an automatic transmission that has been in production for nearly thirty years was identified as an NVH issue. Due to advances in vehicle level refinement, and reduction of other masking noises, the automatic transmission gear whine became an issue with the customer. Since the transmission was already in production, the improvements had to be within the boundaries of manufacturing feasibility with existing equipment to avoid costly and time consuming investment in new machines. The approach used was one of identifying optimum values of existing gear parameters to provide a reduction in passenger compartment noise. The problem was in a light truck application. Objective noise measurements were recorded for 10 transmissions from more than 50 driven in vehicles. The transmissions were disassembled and the gears inspected.
Technical Paper

A New FEA Method for the Evaluation of a Body Joint

2001-03-05
2001-01-0758
A finite element analysis method has been developed to assess the design of an automobile body joint. The concept of the coefficient of joint stiffness and the force distribution ratio are proposed accordingly. The coefficient of joint stiffness reveals whether a joint is stiff enough compared to its joining components. In addition, these parameters can be used to estimate the potential and the effectiveness for any further improvement of the joint design. The modeling and analysis of the proposed process are robust. The coefficient of joint stiffness could be further developed to serve as the joint design target.
Technical Paper

Correlating Stressed Environmental Testing of Structural Composites to Service

2001-03-05
2001-01-0094
A compact in-situ tensile stress fixture was designed for the study of the combined effects of stress and automotive environments on structural glass fiber-reinforced composite materials. With this fixture, a standardized 300 hour laboratory screening test was developed to compare the residual property loss of composite materials due to concurrent exposure to stress and environment. It is of great importance that the data gathered in the laboratory have correlation to on-vehicle (in-service) performance, and that both lab and real world data be taken with a test system (in-situ test fixtures) capable of providing accurate and consistent results under either test condition.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Vibration Studies of As-Installed Power Steering Pumps

2003-05-05
2003-01-1671
Pump whine as well as other NVH issues related to power steering system can become customer concerns at the vehicle level. In order to avoid that, proposed treatment of the pump structure and its installation on the engine should be performed. This is particularly important because most vane pumps have a wide range of excitation that can reach 1000 Hz (30th order @ 6000 rpm). This requires maximizing the ‘as installed’ frequencies of the pump to avoid coincidence with the engine and other FEAD harmonics.
Technical Paper

Bending Fatigue Behavior of Carburized Gear Steels: Planetary Gear Test Development and Evaluation

1996-02-01
960978
Little information is available concerning the bending fatigue behavior of helical gears with tall thin teeth and high contact ratios, particularly for planetary pinions which are subjected to fully reversed loading. The most common methods to acquire gear bending fatigue data are either through a four-square recirculating power arrangement or unidirectional single tooth bending experiments on standardized spur gears. There are some advantages to these test methods, but they generally do not represent actual operating conditions of a planetary gear environment. The purpose of this study was to develop a bending fatigue test for planetary pinions in automatic transmissions which would better represent actual operating conditions. The new testing procedure was used to evaluate the bending fatigue behavior of three gear steel/processing combinations. The results from the planetary gear testing is compared with laboratory four-point bending experiments.
Technical Paper

Development of the Ford QVM CNG Bi-Fuel 4.9L F-Series Pickup Truck

1996-02-01
960850
A bi-fuel (Compressed Natural Gas [CNG] and gasoline) pickup truck has been developed using the Ford Alternative Fuel Qualified Vehicle Modifier (QVM) process. The base vehicle's 4.9L engine has been specially modified for improved durability on gaseous fuels. The base vehicle's configuration has been designed for conversion to bi-fuel CNG operation. A complete CNG fuel system has been designed and qualified, including fuel tanks, fuel system, and electrical interface. The completed vehicle has been safety and emission certified, demonstrating CARB Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) emissions in MY95. This paper details the design objectives, development process, CNG components, and integration of the two fuel systems.
Technical Paper

Upfront Durability CAE Analysis for Automotive Sheet Metal Structures

1996-02-01
961053
Automotive product development requires higher degree of quality upfront engineering, faster CAE turn-around, and integration with other functional requirements. Prediction of potential durability concerns using analytical methods for sheet metal structures subjected to road loads and other customer uses has become very important. A process has been developed to provide design direction based upon peak loads, simultaneous peak loads, and vehicle program analytical or measured loads. It identifies critical loads at each input location and load sets for multiple input locations, filters load time histories, selects critical areas and analyzes for fatigue life. Several case studies have been completed. The results show that the variations are consistent with the accuracies in finite element analysis, road load data acquisition, and fatigue calculation methods.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Prediction of Backlite Molding Squeak Noise

1997-02-24
970584
The backlite molding squeak noise is caused by the stick-slip type of friction between the window molding and the body panel. To predict if the molding would squeak a finite element analysis technique which uses the nonlinear explicit code LS-DYNA3D has been developed. The three dimensional finite element simulation technique is based on the threshold displacement velocity spectrum and the relative movement of the window glass with respect to the body panel. Comparisons between FEA analysis and tests are also presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Development of a Door Test Facility for Implementing the Door Component Test Methodology

1997-02-24
970568
This paper describes the development of an automated Door Test Facility for implementing the Door Component Test Methodology for side impact analysis. The automated targeting and loading of the door inner/trim panels with Side Impact Dummy (SID) ribcage, pelvis, and leg rams will greatly improve its test-to-test repeatability and expedite door/trim/armrest development/evaluation for verification with the dynamic side impact test of FMVSS 214 (Occupant Side Impact Protection). This test facility, which is capable of evaluating up to four (4) doors per day, provides a quick evaluation of door systems. The results generated from this test methodology provide accurate input data necessary for a MADYMO Side Impact Simulation Model. The test procedure and simulation results will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Door and Glass Run Seal Systems for Aspiration

1997-05-20
971902
Nonlinear finite element analysis has been applied to determine the conditions conducive to seal system aspiration. Aspiration noise occurs and propagates into the passenger compartment of a vehicle when there exists a gap between the seal and sealing surface due to pressure differential between the vehicle interior and exterior. This pressure differential is created by the vehicle movement which reduces the pressure acting on the exterior surface of the vehicle, and it is on the order of , where ρ and U∞ are the density of air and vehicle speed, respectively. The pressure difference is also created by turning on the climate control system which pressurizes the passenger cavity. Since aspiration increases door seal cavity noise level and creates a direct noise transmission path without any significant transmission loss, the presence of an aspiration noise source can dominate the vehicle interior noise level if it is close to the driver or passenger's ears.
Technical Paper

High Frequency NVH Analysis of Full Size Pickups Using “SEAM”

1997-05-20
971974
The recent surveys of customer satisfaction regarding full size pickup trucks have created new mandates in performance of such vehicles. The customers for this class of vehicles demand new frontiers in attributes such as NVH, ride and handling performance that previously only belonged to the luxury passenger cars. The full size pickup truck in question must retain a tough image and be as durable as the previous generation truck that it replaces. But it also needs to be user friendly in order for one to drive it like an every day passenger car on a daily basis. The challenge is to design for the NVH performance that matches and surpasses many well behaved and “good” NVH passenger cars without any compromise in durability performance. An NVH 7-8 subjective rating performance is targeted for the design of full size pickup truck during vehicle operation.
Technical Paper

Commercial Van Diesel Idle Sound Quality

1997-05-20
971980
The customer's perception of diesel sounds is receiving more attention since diesel engines are being used more frequently in recent years. This paper summarizes the results of a study investigating the sound quality of diesel idle sounds in eight vans and light trucks. Subjective evaluations were conducted both in the US and the UK so that a comparison could be made. Paired comparison of annoyance and semantic differential subjective evaluation techniques were used. Correlation analysis was applied to the subjective evaluation results to determine annoying characteristics. Subjective results indicated that most annoyance rankings were similar for both the US and UK participants, with some specific differences. Correlation of objective measures to annoyance indicated a high correlation to ISO 532B loudness, dBA and kurtosis in the 1.4 kHz to 4 kHz range (aimed at quantifying the impulsiveness perception).
Technical Paper

Development of an Isolated Timing Chain Guide System Utilizing Indirect Force Measurement Techniques

1997-05-20
971963
This paper outlines the development process of a vibration isolation system for the timing chain guides of an internal combustion engine. It was determined through testing that the timing chain guides are a significant path by which the chain/sprocket impacts are transmitted to other powertrain components. These components radiate the energy as chain mesh order narrow band sound as well as wide band energy. It was found that isolation of the chain guides produced a significant reduction in radiated sound levels, reduced mesh frequency amplitudes, and improved sound quality. The development process utilized indirect force measurement techniques for simulation of the chain loading and FEA prediction of the resulting chain guide forces and displacements. The design of the isolation system involved material selection based on dynamic properties, frequency and temperature ranges, the operating environment, FEA geometry optimization, and durability testing.
Technical Paper

Use of FCRASH in a Door Openability Simulation

1997-04-08
971526
During frontal and rear end type collisions, very large forces will be imparted to the passenger compartment by the collapse of either front or rear structures. NCAP tests conducted by NHTSA involve, among other things, a door openability test after barrier impact. This means that the plastic/irreversible deformations of door openings should be kept to a minimum. Thus, the structural members constituting the door opening must operate during frontal and rear impact near the elastic limit of the material. Increasing the size of a structural member, provided the packaging considerations permit it, may prove to be counter productive, since it may lead to premature local buckling and possible collapse of the member. With the current trend towards lighter vehicles, recourse to heavier gages is also counterproductive and therefore a determination of an optimum compartment structure may require a number of design iterations. In this article, FEA is used to simulate front side door behavior.
Technical Paper

An Upfront Analysis Driven Design Process for Product Development

1997-04-08
971539
In the current design process, the designer generates the detailed geometry of the component based on experience. Prototypes of this design are built and tested to verify the performance. This design - build - test iterative process is continued until performance targets/criteria are met. Computer Aided Engineering is often used to verify the design. This paper presents a new product development process to substantially reduce the number of design - analysis - build - test iterations. This Upfront Analysis Driven Design process incorporates several state of the art technologies in finite element structural analysis, optimization, and Computer Aided Design. This process ensures a near optimum design in the first design level itself.
Technical Paper

Requirement for Consistency in the Parallel Implementation of Explicit FEA Crash Simulation Programs

1997-04-08
971520
Failure to provide consistent results in the parallel implementation of a crash simulation can render the simulation code unusable as a design heuristic. This paper describes a parallel implementation of a crash simulation package, FCRASH, which was designed from inception for parallel implementation. An example will be given which illustrates the variation a CAE crash analyst may encounter if the problem of parallel consistency is ignored. Techniques used in FCRASH to deliver consistent results in a parallel environment on a CRAY T90 parallel supercomputer will be discussed. This work has resulted in a robust crash simulation code that delivers consistent results in parallel environments on a variety of shared memory processors. Finally, problems remaining for delivering the same level of robustness in a distributed memory message passing version of an explicit crash simulation program will be examined.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Diesel Vehicles with and without Lean NOx and Oxidation Catalysts and Particulate Traps

1995-10-01
952391
The regulated and non-regulated emissions of a current diesel passenger car and two light-duty diesel trucks with catalysts and particulate traps were measured to better understand the effects of aftertreatment devises on the environment. The passenger car, a 1.8 L IDI TC Sierra, was tested both with and without three different diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) and with two fuel sulfur levels, 0 and 0.05 wt%. One light-duty truck, a 2.5 L DI NA Transit, was tested on one fuel, 0.05 wt% sulfur, with and without three different particulate trap/regeneration systems and with and without a urea lean NOx catalyst (LNC) system. A second similar Transit was tested on the 0.05 wt% sulfur fuel with an electrically regenerated trap system. The results are compared to each other, regulated emission standards, and to emissions from gasoline vehicles.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Different Energy Absorbing Materials for Interior Head Impact

1995-02-01
950332
Various foam models are developed using LS-DYNA3D and validated against experiments. Dynamic and static stress-strain relations are obtained experimentally for crushable and resilient foam materials and used as inputs to the finite element analyses. Comparisons of the results obtained from different foam models with test data show excellent correlations for all the cases studied.
Technical Paper

Underhood Thermal Management by Controlling Air Flow

1995-02-01
951013
A series of tests were conducted to determine the potential for reducing vehicle underhood temperatures by either 1) diverting the radiator fan air flow from the engine compartment or 2) by forced air cooling of the exhaust manifold in conjunction with shielding it or 3) by a combination of the two methods. The test vehicle was a Ford F-250 Light Truck with a 7.5L V-8 engine. The vehicle was tested in a dynamometer cell equipped with cell blowers to simulate road speed conditions. It was found that diverting the outlet air from the radiator will reduce underhood component temperatures when the vehicle is in motion and also at normal idle. However, if the vehicle is to be used for power takeoff applications requiring a “kicked” idle, then forced cooling of the exhaust manifolds is also required to maintain reduced underhood temperatures. A combination of these two techniques maximized the reduction of underhood temperatures for all operating conditions tested.
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