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Future Development of EcoBoost Technology

2012-05-10
Ford's EcoBoost GTDI engine technology (Gasoline Direct Injection, Turbo-charging and Downsizing) is being successfully implemented in the market place with the EcoBoost option accounting for significant volumes in vehicle lines as diverse as the F150 pickup truck, Edge CUV and the Lincoln MKS luxury sedan. A logical question would be what comes after GTDI? This presentation will review some of the technologies that will be required for further improvements in CO2, efficiency and performance building on the EcoBoost foundation as well as some of the challenges inherent in the new technologies and approaches. Presenter Eric W. Curtis, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

Gear Whine Improvements for an Automatic Transmission through Design Retargeting and Manufacturing Variability Reduction

2001-04-30
2001-01-1505
Gear whine in 1st gear for an automatic transmission that has been in production for nearly thirty years was identified as an NVH issue. Due to advances in vehicle level refinement, and reduction of other masking noises, the automatic transmission gear whine became an issue with the customer. Since the transmission was already in production, the improvements had to be within the boundaries of manufacturing feasibility with existing equipment to avoid costly and time consuming investment in new machines. The approach used was one of identifying optimum values of existing gear parameters to provide a reduction in passenger compartment noise. The problem was in a light truck application. Objective noise measurements were recorded for 10 transmissions from more than 50 driven in vehicles. The transmissions were disassembled and the gears inspected.
Technical Paper

Development of a Desulfurization Strategy for a NOx Adsorber Catalyst System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0510
The aggressive reduction of future diesel engine NOx emission limits forces the heavy- and light-duty diesel engine manufacturers to develop means to comply with stringent legislation. As a result, different exhaust emission control technologies applicable to NOx have been the subject of many investigations. One of these systems is the NOx adsorber catalyst, which has shown high NOx conversion rates during previous investigations with acceptable fuel consumption penalties. In addition, the NOx adsorber catalyst does not require a secondary on-board reductant. However, the NOx adsorber catalyst also represents the most sulfur sensitive emissions control device currently under investigation for advanced NOx control. To remove the sulfur introduced into the system through the diesel fuel and stored on the catalyst sites during operation, specific regeneration strategies and boundary conditions were investigated and developed.
Technical Paper

Correlating Stressed Environmental Testing of Structural Composites to Service

2001-03-05
2001-01-0094
A compact in-situ tensile stress fixture was designed for the study of the combined effects of stress and automotive environments on structural glass fiber-reinforced composite materials. With this fixture, a standardized 300 hour laboratory screening test was developed to compare the residual property loss of composite materials due to concurrent exposure to stress and environment. It is of great importance that the data gathered in the laboratory have correlation to on-vehicle (in-service) performance, and that both lab and real world data be taken with a test system (in-situ test fixtures) capable of providing accurate and consistent results under either test condition.
Technical Paper

On-line Oxygen Storage Capacity Estimation of a Catalyst

2003-03-03
2003-01-1000
Presented in this paper is an on-line method for estimating the oxygen storage capacity contained within a catalyst. The oxygen storage capacity of a catalyst changes over time due to catalyst brick temperatures, poisoned catalyst sites, and thermal aging. Information regarding the current oxygen storage capacity of a catalyst is advantageous in the development of robust emission control strategies and on-board diagnostics. The method of collecting the oxygen storage capacity information is extremely important for measurement accuracy and repeatability. Furthermore, the information must be obtained in such a way that it is transparent to the operator and may be implemented on-line during normal drive cycles. This on-line method for estimation of oxygen storage capacity of a catalyst has been demonstrated on a Ford F150 platform with an underbody catalyst.
Technical Paper

Development of the Ford QVM CNG Bi-Fuel 4.9L F-Series Pickup Truck

1996-02-01
960850
A bi-fuel (Compressed Natural Gas [CNG] and gasoline) pickup truck has been developed using the Ford Alternative Fuel Qualified Vehicle Modifier (QVM) process. The base vehicle's 4.9L engine has been specially modified for improved durability on gaseous fuels. The base vehicle's configuration has been designed for conversion to bi-fuel CNG operation. A complete CNG fuel system has been designed and qualified, including fuel tanks, fuel system, and electrical interface. The completed vehicle has been safety and emission certified, demonstrating CARB Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) emissions in MY95. This paper details the design objectives, development process, CNG components, and integration of the two fuel systems.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Emissions from a Vehicle in Both Normal and Selected Malfunctioning Operation Modes

1996-10-01
961903
A 1990 Ford Taurus operated on reformulated gasoline was tested under three modes of malfunction: disabled heated exhaust gas oxygen (HEGO) sensor, inactive catalytic converter, and controlled misfire. The vehicle was run for four U.S. EPA UDDS driving schedule (FTP-75) tests at each of the malfunction conditions, as well as under normal operating conditions. An extensive set of emissions data were collected. In addition to the regulated emissions (HC, CO, and NOx), a detailed chemical analysis was carried out to determine the gas- and particle-phase non-regulated emissions. The effect of vehicle malfunction on gas phase emissions was significantly greater than it was on particle phase emissions. For example, CO emissions ranged from 2.57 g/mi (normal operation) to 34.77 g/mi (disable HEGO). Total HCs varied from 0.22 g/mi (normal operation) to 2.21 g/mi (blank catalyst). Emissions of air toxics (1,3-butadiene, benzene, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde) were also significantly effected.
Technical Paper

Development of a Door Test Facility for Implementing the Door Component Test Methodology

1997-02-24
970568
This paper describes the development of an automated Door Test Facility for implementing the Door Component Test Methodology for side impact analysis. The automated targeting and loading of the door inner/trim panels with Side Impact Dummy (SID) ribcage, pelvis, and leg rams will greatly improve its test-to-test repeatability and expedite door/trim/armrest development/evaluation for verification with the dynamic side impact test of FMVSS 214 (Occupant Side Impact Protection). This test facility, which is capable of evaluating up to four (4) doors per day, provides a quick evaluation of door systems. The results generated from this test methodology provide accurate input data necessary for a MADYMO Side Impact Simulation Model. The test procedure and simulation results will be discussed.
Technical Paper

High Frequency NVH Analysis of Full Size Pickups Using “SEAM”

1997-05-20
971974
The recent surveys of customer satisfaction regarding full size pickup trucks have created new mandates in performance of such vehicles. The customers for this class of vehicles demand new frontiers in attributes such as NVH, ride and handling performance that previously only belonged to the luxury passenger cars. The full size pickup truck in question must retain a tough image and be as durable as the previous generation truck that it replaces. But it also needs to be user friendly in order for one to drive it like an every day passenger car on a daily basis. The challenge is to design for the NVH performance that matches and surpasses many well behaved and “good” NVH passenger cars without any compromise in durability performance. An NVH 7-8 subjective rating performance is targeted for the design of full size pickup truck during vehicle operation.
Technical Paper

Commercial Van Diesel Idle Sound Quality

1997-05-20
971980
The customer's perception of diesel sounds is receiving more attention since diesel engines are being used more frequently in recent years. This paper summarizes the results of a study investigating the sound quality of diesel idle sounds in eight vans and light trucks. Subjective evaluations were conducted both in the US and the UK so that a comparison could be made. Paired comparison of annoyance and semantic differential subjective evaluation techniques were used. Correlation analysis was applied to the subjective evaluation results to determine annoying characteristics. Subjective results indicated that most annoyance rankings were similar for both the US and UK participants, with some specific differences. Correlation of objective measures to annoyance indicated a high correlation to ISO 532B loudness, dBA and kurtosis in the 1.4 kHz to 4 kHz range (aimed at quantifying the impulsiveness perception).
Technical Paper

Calculating the Rate of Exothermic Energy Release for Catalytic Converter Efficiency Monitoring

1995-10-01
952423
This paper reports on the development of a new methodology for OBD-II catalyst efficiency monitoring. Temperature measurements taken from the center of the catalyst substrate or near the exterior surface of the catalyst brick were used in conjunction with macroscopic energy balances to calculate the instantaneous rate of exothermic energy generation within the catalyst. The total calculated rate of exothermic energy release over the FTP test cycle was within 10% of the actual or theoretical value and provided a good indicator of catalyst light-off for a variety of aged catalytic converters. Normalization of the rate of exothermic energy release in the front section of the converter by the mass flow rate of air inducted through the engine was found to provide a simple yet practical means of monitoring the converter under both FTP and varying types of road driving.
Technical Paper

Close Coupled Catalyst System Design and ULEV Performance After 1050° C Aging

1995-10-01
952415
Close coupled catalysts represent a solution being pursued by automotive engineers to meet stringent LEV and ULEV emission standards. Close coupled systems provide fast light-off by utilizing the energy in the exhaust gas rather than energy supplied by an auxiliary source such as an electrically heated catalyst or a burner in the exhaust. Previous close coupled catalyst designs were limited by the temperature capability of the catalyst coatings. A successful close coupled catalyst technology has been developed 'that is resistant to higher temperature deactivation. This technology is able to function well at low temperature during the vehicle cold start when light-off is critical. The close coupled catalyst technology has approached ULEV emission levels after aging at 1050°C for 24 hours. This study will present experimental results for a close coupled catalyst including the selection of catalyst volume, cross sectional area and combination of catalyst technologies.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Diesel Vehicles with and without Lean NOx and Oxidation Catalysts and Particulate Traps

1995-10-01
952391
The regulated and non-regulated emissions of a current diesel passenger car and two light-duty diesel trucks with catalysts and particulate traps were measured to better understand the effects of aftertreatment devises on the environment. The passenger car, a 1.8 L IDI TC Sierra, was tested both with and without three different diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) and with two fuel sulfur levels, 0 and 0.05 wt%. One light-duty truck, a 2.5 L DI NA Transit, was tested on one fuel, 0.05 wt% sulfur, with and without three different particulate trap/regeneration systems and with and without a urea lean NOx catalyst (LNC) system. A second similar Transit was tested on the 0.05 wt% sulfur fuel with an electrically regenerated trap system. The results are compared to each other, regulated emission standards, and to emissions from gasoline vehicles.
Technical Paper

Scavenging of a Firing Two-Stroke Spark-Ignition Engine

1994-03-01
940393
Current demands for high fuel efficiency and low emissions in automotive powerplants have drawn attention to the two-stroke engine configuration. The present study measured trapping and scavenging efficiencies of a firing two-stroke spark-ignition engine by in-cylinder gas composition analysis. Intermediate results of the procedure included the trapped air-fuel ratio and residual exhaust gas fraction. Samples, acquired with a fast-acting electromagnetic valve installed in the cylinder head, were taken of the unburned mixture without fuel injection and of the burned gases prior to exhaust port opening, at engine speeds of 1000 to 3000 rpm and at 10 to 100% of full load. A semi-empirical, zero-dimensional scavenging model was developed based on modification of the non-isothermal, perfect-mixing model. Comparison to the experimental data shows good agreement.
Technical Paper

Underhood Thermal Management by Controlling Air Flow

1995-02-01
951013
A series of tests were conducted to determine the potential for reducing vehicle underhood temperatures by either 1) diverting the radiator fan air flow from the engine compartment or 2) by forced air cooling of the exhaust manifold in conjunction with shielding it or 3) by a combination of the two methods. The test vehicle was a Ford F-250 Light Truck with a 7.5L V-8 engine. The vehicle was tested in a dynamometer cell equipped with cell blowers to simulate road speed conditions. It was found that diverting the outlet air from the radiator will reduce underhood component temperatures when the vehicle is in motion and also at normal idle. However, if the vehicle is to be used for power takeoff applications requiring a “kicked” idle, then forced cooling of the exhaust manifolds is also required to maintain reduced underhood temperatures. A combination of these two techniques maximized the reduction of underhood temperatures for all operating conditions tested.
Technical Paper

A Study on Ride-Down Efficiency and Occupant Responses in High Speed Crash Tests

1995-02-01
950656
In vehicle crash tests, an unbelted occupant's kinetic energy is absorbed by the restraints such as an air bag and/or knee bolster and by the vehicle structure during occupant ride-down with the deforming structure. Both the restraint energy absorbed by the restraints and the ride-down energy absorbed by the structure through restraint coupling were studied in time and displacement domains using crash test data and a simple vehicle-occupant model. Using the vehicle and occupant accelerometers and/or load cell data from the 31 mph barrier crash tests, the restraint and ride-down energy components were computed for the lower extremity, such as the femur, for the light truck and passenger car respectively.
Technical Paper

The New Ford Aeromax and Louisville Heavy Trucks: A Case Study in Applying Polar Plot Techniques to Vehicle Design

1995-11-01
952658
One of the major goals in the design of the new Ford Aeromax and Louisville heavy truck product line was to achieve competitive leadership in visibility. Market research found that visibility was an important issue to the heavy truck driver. Visibility is defined as both direct and indirect (i.e., the driver's ability to see with and without the use of supplemental vision devices such as mirrors) and both interior and exterior. The scope of this paper includes the work which was accomplished in evaluating direct and indirect exterior visibility and the resulting vehicle design which achieved Ford's leadership goals. Poor weather visibility and interior vision are beyond the scope of this paper. Polar Plots were the method of choice in the Aeromax/Louisville visibility studies. Industry acceptance of these techniques has been established in the recent approval of SAE J1750, “Evaluating the Truck Driver's Viewing Environment”.
Technical Paper

The Pulse Flame Combustor Revisited

1996-10-01
962118
The pulse flame combustor was adapted by researchers at Ford Motor Company in the early 1970s in order to produce exhaust gas simulating the combustion products of the internal combustion engine for the evaluation of automotive catalysts. Over the years, the pulse flame combustor has found application in a wide variety of research oriented tasks associated with automotive catalysts and emissions. More recent research and development efforts which have resulted due to elevated demands toward lower vehicle emission levels have prompted continuing refinements of the apparatus and effected innovative approaches to the study of emerging automotive catalyst and emission control issues with the pulse flame combustor. This report provides an overview of the operation and design evolution of the pulse flame combustor. In addition, recent applications of this laboratory device for studying automotive catalysts, alternative fuels, and other automotive emission control topics are reviewed.
Technical Paper

Durability Analysis of Pickup Trucks Using Non-Linear FEA

1996-10-01
962223
One of the difficulties in predicting the structural behavior of vehicles such as the full size pickup trucks is the non-linearities involved during the course of the durability events. The current practice in durability and fatigue life prediction of vehicles is to conduct fatigue analysis on the structure using the measured road loads and estimate the fatigue incurred using the in-house and commercially available programs. In this paper the authors attempt to seek a different solution to the durability problem by conducting an upfront non-linear analysis. The results are then compared with the prediction by the fatigue life program in addition to the durability test results obtained on the early prototypes. To conduct the non-linear analysis ABAQUS FEA program is chosen for this investigation and for the linear analysis MSC/NASTRAN is utilized. Subsequently in-house fatigue program is used to predict the fatigue incurred.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Vehicle Exhaust System Components on Flow Losses and Noise in Firing Spark-Ignition Engines

1995-05-01
951260
Sound attenuation and flow loss reduction are often two competing demands in vehicle breathing systems. The present study considers a full vehicle exhaust system and investigates both the sound attenuation and the flow performance of production configurations including the catalyst, the resonator, and the muffler. Dynamometer experiments have been conducted with a firing Ford 3.0L, V-6 engine at wide-open throttle with speeds ranging from 1000 to 5000 rpm. Measurements including the flow rates, the temperatures and the absolute dynamic pressures of the hot exhaust gases at key locations (upstream and downstream of every component) with fast-response, water-cooled piezo-resistive pressure transducers facilitate the calculation of acoustic performance of each component, as well as the determination of flow losses caused by these elements and their influence on the engine performance.
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