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Technical Paper

Use of a Novel Non-Phosphorus Antiwear Additive for Engine Oils

A novel non-phosphorus antiwear additive, NP-1, was evaluated as a partial substitute for zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDTP). ZDTP, an antiwear/antioxidant engine oil additive may under certain conditions cause three way catalyst (TWC) deactivation due to formation of an amorphous zinc pyrophosphate, Zn2P2O7, glaze. Antiwear and antioxidant properties of NP-1 alone and in combination with ZDTP were compared with ZDTP only containing formulations. The effects of NP-1 on TWC activity during pulsator modulation and steady-state conditions showed that the TWC maintained good overall activity during 24,000 simulated miles.
Technical Paper

Techniques for Analyzing Thermal Deactivation of Automotive Catalysts

Automotive three-way catalysts (TWC) were characterized using temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, chemisorption measurements and laboratory activity measurements. Capabilities and limitations of these standard analytical techniques for the characterization of production-type automotive catalysts are pointed out. With the exception of chemisorption techniques, all appear to have general utility for analyzing exhaust catalysts. The techniques were used to show that the noble metals and ceria in fresh Pt/Rh and Pd/Rh catalysts are initially highly dispersed and contain a mixture of interacting and non-interacting species. Thermal aging of these catalysts (in the reactor or vehicle) caused both precious metal and ceria particles to sinter, thereby decreasing the interaction between the two.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Mileage on Emissions and Emission Component Durability by the Fuel Additive Methylcyclopentadiencyl Manganese Tricarbonyl (MMT)

Vehicle emissions have been measured and the results statistically evaluated for a vehicle test fleet consisting of four Escorts and four Explorers using both a fully formulated durability fuel doped with methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) at 1/32 gram Mn/gallon and the same fully formulated durability fuel without the MMT. The fleet was divided in half -- half with MMT and half without MMT doped fuel. This report covers emission measurement results at 5,000; 15,000; 50,000 and 100,000 miles of exposure to MMT doped fuel. A modified paired t-test is used to analyze the emission data obtained from all the fleet vehicles. The statistical evaluation of both feedgas and tailpipe emissions indicate that the use of MMT is detrimental to emissions of HC at the 15,000 mile; 50,000 mile and 100,000 mile levels of MMT exposure. As mileage is accumulated, the pronounced the effect on HC by the fuel additive MMT.