Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Video

C-Max Energi - Ford's Plug-In Solution

2011-11-07
Evolving the current state of the art Hybrid Technology for vehicles with plug-in capability will yield three significant results, the displacement of petroleum with electricity for transportation, improved efficiency and reduced emissions. As the technology evolves from the Ford Escape Hybrid Plug-In demo fleet, Ford is in the final stages of development of the C-Max Energi, which will be delivered in 2012 as a highly efficient, full purpose vehicle designed to meet customer expectations without compromise. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.
Video

OBD Experiences: A Ford Perspective

2012-01-24
Some the OBD-II regulations have been around for a long time or seem to be intuitively obvious. It is easy to assume to assume that everyone knows how to implement them correctly, that is, until someone actually reads the words and tries to do it. Most often, these issues come up when modifying existing OBD features, not when creating completely new ones. This presentation contains a few examples of features that should have been easy to implement, but turned out not to be easy or simple. Presenter Paul Algis Baltusis, Ford Motor Co.
Video

Future Development of EcoBoost Technology

2012-05-10
Ford's EcoBoost GTDI engine technology (Gasoline Direct Injection, Turbo-charging and Downsizing) is being successfully implemented in the market place with the EcoBoost option accounting for significant volumes in vehicle lines as diverse as the F150 pickup truck, Edge CUV and the Lincoln MKS luxury sedan. A logical question would be what comes after GTDI? This presentation will review some of the technologies that will be required for further improvements in CO2, efficiency and performance building on the EcoBoost foundation as well as some of the challenges inherent in the new technologies and approaches. Presenter Eric W. Curtis, Ford Motor Co.
Video

Monitoring Urea Quantity Delivery for Diesel SCR After-treatment

2012-02-01
While providing significant benefits to vehicle operation and emissions, on board diagnosis comes at a cost. In many cases the additional cost comes in the form of reduced optimal performance. Often the additional cost can be mitigated by considering the OBD requirements early in the development stages. In this presentation we show these trade-offs in a number of case studies. We will point out where the ability to diagnose comes at the cost of suboptimal performance, and where system design decisions can facilate the OBD task. Presenter Michiel Van Nieuwstadt, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

NVH Design and Development of the Duratec35 Engine from Ford Motor Company

2007-05-15
2007-01-2414
Ford Motor Company has developed a new 3.5L V6 engine. The engine, called the Duratec35, represents a new architecture for Ford Motor Co. that will eventually power one in five Ford vehicles. The goals of the engine design were high output, fuel efficient, low emissions, and excellent NVH. This paper will describe the NVH process for the development of the engine, the NVH features included in the design, and the final results relative to the benchmarks.
Technical Paper

Gear Whine Improvements for an Automatic Transmission through Design Retargeting and Manufacturing Variability Reduction

2001-04-30
2001-01-1505
Gear whine in 1st gear for an automatic transmission that has been in production for nearly thirty years was identified as an NVH issue. Due to advances in vehicle level refinement, and reduction of other masking noises, the automatic transmission gear whine became an issue with the customer. Since the transmission was already in production, the improvements had to be within the boundaries of manufacturing feasibility with existing equipment to avoid costly and time consuming investment in new machines. The approach used was one of identifying optimum values of existing gear parameters to provide a reduction in passenger compartment noise. The problem was in a light truck application. Objective noise measurements were recorded for 10 transmissions from more than 50 driven in vehicles. The transmissions were disassembled and the gears inspected.
Technical Paper

Laminate Dash Ford Taurus Noise and Vibration Performance

2001-04-30
2001-01-1535
Mastic material, constrained or non-constrained with doublers, is the traditional method in adding vibrational damping to a steel structure with the goal of reducing panel vibration and radiated sound. With the use of laminated vibration damped steel (LVDS), Ford has been able to reduce the dash panel vibration and optimize sound package design for powertrain noise attenuation. These NVH benefits are presented as the result of a study completed with a laminated dash on a Ford Taurus.
Technical Paper

Analytical and Experimental Techniques in Solving the Plastic Intake Manifold NVH

2001-04-30
2001-01-1544
The intent of this paper is to summarize the work of the V8 power plant intake manifold radiated noise study. In a particular V8 engine application, customer satisfaction feedback provided observations of existing unpleasant noise at the driver's ear. A comprehensive analysis of customer data indicated that a range from 500 to 800 Hz suggests a potential improvement in noise reduction at the driver's ear. In this study the noise source was determined using various accelerometers located throughout the valley of the engine and intake manifold. The overall surface velocity of the engine valley was ranked with respect to the overall surface velocity of the intake manifold. An intensity mapping technique was also used to determine the major component noise contribution. In order to validate the experimental findings, a series of analysis was also conducted. The analysis model included not only the plastic intake manifold, but also the whole powertrain.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Computational Process for Pass-By Noise Simulation

2001-04-30
2001-01-1561
The Indirect Boundary Element Analysis is employed for developing a computational pass-by noise simulation capability. An inverse analysis algorithm is developed in order to generate the definition of the main noise sources in the numerical model. The individual source models are combined for developing a system model for pass-by noise simulation. The developed numerical techniques are validated through comparison between numerical results and test data for component level and system level analyses. Specifically, the source definition capability is validated by comparing the actual and the computationally reconstructed acoustic field for an engine intake manifold. The overall pass-by noise simulation capability is validated by computing the maximum overall sound pressure level for a vehicle under two separate driving conditions.
Technical Paper

A New Method for Calculating Fluctuation Strength in Electric Motors

2001-04-30
2001-01-1588
In assessing the sound quality of electric motors (e.g., seat, mirror, and adjustable pedal motors), the sensation of Fluctuation Strength - a measure of intensity or frequency variation - has become important. For electric motors, it is typically caused by variation in the load, creating frequency modulation in the sound. An existing method for calculating Fluctuation Strength proved useful initially, but more extensive testing identified unacceptable performance. There were unacceptable levels of both false positives and false negatives. A new method is presented, which shows improved correlation with perceived fluctuation in sounds. Comparisons are made to the previous method and improvement is shown through examples of objective-subjective correlation for both seat motor sounds and adjustable pedal motor sounds. The new method is also shown to match subjective data from which the original measure of Fluctuation Strength was derived.
Technical Paper

Engine Excitation Decomposition Methods and V Engine Results

2001-04-30
2001-01-1595
Engine excitation forces have been studied in the past using one of two methods; a lumped sum or a totally distributed approach. The lumped sum approach gives the well-understood engine inherent unbalance and the totally distributed approach is used in engine CAE models to determine the overall engine response. The approach that will be described in this paper identifies an intermediate level of sophistication. The methodology implemented considers single cylinder forces on the engine block, piston side thrust and main bearing forces, and decomposes them into their order content. The forces are then phased and geometrically distributed appropriately for each cylinder and then each order is analyzed relative to know distributions that are NVH concerns, V-block breathing, block side wall breathing, and block lateral and vertical bending.
Technical Paper

Sound Package Design for a Convertible by Statistical Energy Analysis

2001-04-30
2001-01-1623
The application of SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis) to the sound package design for a convertible is presented. SEA modeling was used optimize the soft-top construction and the acoustic insulation in the top-stack area (where the soft-top is stored) which were shown to be important transmission paths for tire noise. Correlation between measurement data and predictions from the SEA model is presented and good agreement shown. It is concluded that SEA can be applied to determine the special sound package requirements for convertible vehicles.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Benefit of Cylinder Deactivation - Sensitivity to Vehicle Application and Operating Constraints

2001-09-24
2001-01-3591
A Variable Displacement Engine (VDE) improves fuel economy by deactivating half the cylinders at light load. The actual fuel economy benefit attained in the vehicle depends on how often cylinders can be deactivated, which is a function of test cycle, engine size, and vehicle weight. In practice, cylinder deactivation will also be constrained by NVH (noise, vibration, and harshness). This paper presents fuel economy projections for VDE in several different engine and vehicle applications. Sensitivity to NVH considerations is quantified by calculating fuel economy with and without cylinder deactivation in various operating modes: idle, low engine speed, 1st and 2nd gear, and warm-up after cold start. The effects of lug limits and calibration hysteresis are also presented.
Technical Paper

Dilution Effects on the Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion of Hydrocarbon and Alcohol Fuels

2001-09-24
2001-01-3606
This paper presents results from an experimental programme researching the in-cylinder conditions necessary to obtain homogenous CAI (or HCCI) combustion in a 4-stroke engine. The fuels under investigation include three blends of Unleaded Gasoline, a 95 RON Primary Reference Fuel, Methanol, and Ethanol. This work concentrates on establishing the CAI operating range with regard to Air/Fuel ratio and Exhaust Gas Re-circulation and their effect on the ignition timing, combustion rate and variability, Indicated thermal efficiency, and engine-out emissions such as NOx. Detailed maps are presented, defining how each of the measured variables changes over the entire CAI region. Results indicate that the alcohols have significantly higher tolerance to dilution than the hydrocarbon fuels tested. Also, variations in Gasoline blend have little effect on any of the combustion parameters measured.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion in a 4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3608
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion has been achieved in a production type 4-stroke multi-cylinder gasoline engine. The engine was based on a Ford 1.7L Zetec-SE 16V engine with a compression ratio of 10.3, using substantially standard components modified only in design dimensions to control the gas exchange process in order to significantly increase the trapped residuals. The engine was also equipped with Variable Cam Timing (VCT) on both the intake and exhaust camshafts. It was found that the largely increased trapped residuals alone were sufficient to achieve CAI in this engine and with VCT, a range of loads between 0.5 and 4 bar BMEP and engine speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm were mapped for CAI fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The measured CAI results were compared with those of Spark Ignition (SI) combustion in the same engine but with standard camshafts at the same speeds and loads.
Technical Paper

A Toxicological Evaluation Of Potential Thermal Degradation Products of Urea

2001-09-24
2001-01-3621
The purpose of this paper is to make a preliminary assessment of the potential toxicity of compounds that might be emitted from diesel vehicles using urea/SCR technology. The use of urea as a reductant in the removal of NOx from the exhaust of diesel-powered vehicles has the potential to emit at least seven thermal decomposition products and unreacted urea from the tail-pipe. These compounds include: urea, ammonia, cyanate ion, biuret, cyanuric acid, ammelide, ammeline, and melamine. The toxicity data base for these compounds, in general, is poor. In addition, there have been few, if any, studies examining the inhalation route of exposure - the most likely route of exposure for people from vehicle exhaust. The measurement and identification of these compounds from the exhaust of urea/SCR- equipped vehicles is needed to prioritize the kinds of health effects studies required to understand the toxicity of these compounds.
Technical Paper

Dimethoxy Methane in Diesel Fuel: Part 1. The Effect of Fuels and Engine Operating Modes on Emissions of Toxic Air Pollutants and Gas/Solid Phase PAH

2001-09-24
2001-01-3627
The objective of this study was to quantify engine-out emissions of potentially toxic compounds from a modern diesel engine operated with different fuels including 15% v/v dimethoxy methane in a low sulfur diesel fuel. Five diesel fuels were examined: a low-sulfur, low-aromatic hydrocracked (∼1 ppm) fuel, the same low sulfur fuel containing 15% v/v dimethoxy methane, a Fischer-Tropsch fuel, a CARB fuel, and an EPA number 2 certification fuel. A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine was controlled with a SwRI Rapid Prototyping Electronic Control system. The engine was operated over 4 speed-load modes. Each operating mode and fuel combination was run in triplicate. Thirty three potentially toxic compounds were measured for each fuel and mode.
Technical Paper

Dimethoxy Methane in Diesel Fuel: Part 2. The Effect of Fuels on Emissions of Toxic Air Pollutants and Gas/Solid Phase PAH Using a Composite Of Engine Operating Modes

2001-09-24
2001-01-3628
A weighted composite of four engine-operating modes, representative of typical operating modes found in the US FTP driving schedule, were used to compare engine-out emissions of toxic compounds using five diesel fuels. The fuels examined were: a low-sulfur low-aromatic hydrocracked diesel fuel, the same low-sulfur fuel containing 15% v/v dimethoxy methane, a Fischer-Tropsch fuel, a CARB fuel, and a EPA number 2 diesel certification fuel. A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine was operated over 4 speed-load modes: mode 5, 2600 RPM, 8.8 BMEP; mode 6, 2300 RPM, 4.2 BMEP; mode 10, 2000 RPM, 2.0 BMEP; mode 11, 1500 RPM, 2.6 BMEP. The four engine operating modes were weighted as follows: mode 5, 25/1200; mode 6, 200/1200; mode 10, 375/1200; and mode 11, 600/1200. Each operating mode and fuel combination was run in triplicate.
X