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GreenZone Driving for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have a large battery which can be used for electric only powertrain operation. The control system in a PHEV must decide how to spend the energy stored in the battery. In this paper, we will present a prototype implementation of a PHEV control system which saves energy for electric operation in pre-defined geographic areas, so called Green Zones. The approach determines where the driver will be going and then compares the route to a database of predefined Green Zones. The control system then reserves enough energy to be able to drive the Green Zone sections in electric only mode. Finally, the powertrain operation is modified once the vehicle enters the Green Zone to ensure engine operation is limited. Data will be presented from a prototype implementation in a Ford Escape PHEV Presenter Johannes Kristinsson
Technical Paper

Neat Biodiesel Fuel Engine Tests and Preliminary Modelling

Engine performance and emission comparisons were made between the use of 100% soy, Canola and yellow grease derived biodiesel fuels and an ultra-low sulphur diesel fuel in the oxygen deficient regions, i.e. full or high load engine operations. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was extensively applied to initiate low temperature combustion. An intake throttling valve was implemented to increase the differential pressure between the intake and exhaust in order to increase and enhance the EGR. The intake temperature, pressure, and EGR levels were modulated to improve the engine fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions. Furthermore, a preliminary ignition delay correlation under the influence of EGR was developed. Preliminary low temperature combustion modelling of the biodiesel and diesel fuels was also conducted. The research intends to achieve simultaneous reductions of nitrogen oxides and soot emissions in modern production diesel engines when biodiesel is applied.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Effect of E85 vs. Gasoline on Exhaust System Surface Temperatures

With concerns over increasing worldwide demand for gasoline and greenhouse gases, many automotive companies are increasing their product lineup of vehicles to include flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of operating on fuel blends ranging from 100% gasoline up to a blend of 15% gasoline/85% ethanol (E85). For the purpose of this paper, data was obtained that will enable an evaluation relating to the effect the use of E85 fuel has on exhaust system surface temperatures compared to that of regular unleaded gasoline while the vehicle undergoes a typical drive cycle. Three vehicles from three different automotive manufacturers were tested. The surface of the exhaust systems was instrumented with thermocouples at specific locations to monitor temperatures from the manifold to the catalytic converter outlet. The exhaust system surface temperatures were recorded during an operation cycle that included steady vehicle speed operation; cold start and idle and wide open throttle conditions.
Technical Paper

Flow-Acoustic Coupling in Quarter-Wave Resonators Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Quarter-wave resonators are commonly used as acoustic silencers in automotive air induction systems. Similar closed side branches can also be formed in the idle air bypass, exhaust gas recirculation, and positive crankcase ventilation systems of engines. The presence of a mean flow across these side branches can lead to an interaction between the mean flow and the acoustic resonances of the side branch. At discrete flow conditions, this coupling between the flow and acoustic fields may produce high amplitude acoustic pressure pulsations. For the quarter-wave resonator, this interaction can turn the silencer into a noise generator, while for systems where a valve is located at the closed end of the side branch the large pressure pulsations can cause the valve to fail. This phenomenon is not limited to automotive applications, and also occurs in natural gas pipelines, aircraft, and numerous other internal and external flows.
Technical Paper

Engineering the Ford H2 IC Engine Powered E-450 Shuttle Bus

As a part of a continuous research and innovation effort, Ford Motor Company has been evaluating hydrogen since 1997 as an alternative fuel option for vehicles with internal combustion engines. Hydrogen fuel is attractive in that it is the cleanest fuel. Hydrogen, when used in an internal combustion engine, produces an exhaust emission consisting mainly of water vapor, with no carbon dioxide and trace amounts of other regulated pollutants. Hydrogen can be produced from renewable sources which will help reduce the dependence on foreign oil. The implementation of the hydrogen powered IC engine is seen as a strategy to help transition from a petroleum economy to a hydrogen economy and drive development of hydrogen storage, fueling infrastructure and other hydrogen related technologies.
Technical Paper

Emissions Performance of Bi-fuel CNG and Bi-fuel LPG Passenger Cars Using Sequential Multi-point Injection Systems

This paper describes a study into the emissions performance of a passenger car running on natural gas and liquified petroleum gas. The gasoline engine was modified to allow the introduction of the alternative fuels into the engine. The effect of fuel system hardware on emissions was investigated. Modifications were carried out to the gasoline EMS to allow control of the alternative fuel systems. A number of changes were made to the gasoline calibration to allow operation on the alternative fuels. Emissions tests were conducted on commercial grade natural gas and liquid petroleum gas. The results were compared with gasoline emission results of an equivalent vehicle.
Technical Paper

FordS Zero Emission P2000 Fuel Cell Vehicle

The P2000 Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle developed by Ford Motor Company is the first full-performance, full-size passenger fuel cell vehicle in the world. This development process has resulted in a vehicle with performance that matches some of today's vehicles powered by internal combustion engines. The powertrain in Ford's P2000 FCEV lightweight aluminum vehicle consists of an Ecostar electric motor/transaxle and a fuel cell system developed with XCELLSiS-The Fuel Cell Engine Company (formerly dbb Fuel Cell Engines, Inc.). Ballard's Mark 700 series fuel cell stack is a main component in the fuel cell system. To support this new FCEV, Ford has constructed the first North American hydrogen refueling station capable of dispensing gaseous and liquid hydrogen. On-going research and development is progressing to optimize fuel cell vehicle performance and refueling techniques.
Technical Paper

The Use of Low Viscosity Oils to Improve Fuel Economy in Light Duty Diesel Engines

Historically, fuel cost conscious customers have tended to purchase diesel passenger cars. However, with increasing competition from alternative fuels and lean burn and direct injection gasoline fuelled engines, diesel engined vehicles currently face tough challenges from the point of fuel economy and emissions. In gasoline engines, low viscosity friction modified oils have demonstrated their potential for reducing internal engine friction and thus improving fuel economy, without adversely effecting engine durability. These fuel economy improvements have led to the introduction of such a low viscosity friction modified 5W-30 oil as the initial and service fill for the majority of Ford products sold in Europe. The trend towards even lower viscosities continues. To assess the potential benefits and issues of moving to 5W-20 in diesel engines, a short pilot study has been conducted using a Ford 1.8l direct injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Small Hybrid

Auto-manufacturers are under increasing pressure to develop powertrain systems for automotive vehicles, which are more efficient regarding fuel consumption, less polluting and still keep high performance levels. Hybrid electrical vehicles (HEV) are considered the most promising technology in sight, considering a time horizon of more ore less twenty years. HEVs combine benefits of electrical vehicles, such zero emission, low noise and high torques at low velocities and advantages of conventional vehicles, such as large autonomy, great reliability and high levels of performance. This paper is focused on the major elements of an HEV powertrain: electrical motors, internal combustion engine (ICE) and batteries, which are described. The paper also presents a comparison of two possible HEV configurations: series and parallel. The mathematical model of a small hybrid vehicle is developed using software ADVISOR.
Technical Paper

Power Control for the Escape and Mariner Hybrids

Ford Motor Company has developed a full hybrid electric vehicle with a power-split hybrid powertrain. There are constraints imposed by the high voltage system in such an HEV, that do not exist in conventional vehicles. A significant controls problem that was addressed in the Ford Escape and Mercury Mariner Hybrids was the determination of the desired powertrain operating point such that the vehicle attributes of fuel economy, performance and drivability are met, while satisfying these new constraints. This paper describes the control system that addressed this problem and the tests that were designed to verify its operation.
Technical Paper

Aqueous Corrosion of Experimental Creep-Resistant Magnesium Alloys

This paper presents a comparison of aqueous corrosion rates in 5% NaCl solution for eight experimental creep-resistant magnesium alloys considered for automotive powertrain applications, as well as three reference alloys (pure magnesium, AM50B and AZ91D). The corrosion rates were measured using the techniques of titration, weight loss, hydrogen evolution, and DC polarization. The corrosion rates measured by these techniques are compared with each other as well as with those obtained with salt-spray testing using ASTM B117. The advantages and disadvantages of the various corrosion measurement techniques are discussed.
Technical Paper

2005 Fuel Cell Vehicle and its Magnesium Power Distribution Unit

The High Voltage Power Distribution Unit (PDU) is constructed of magnesium in support of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) weight reduction efforts. The PDU distributes and controls a nominal 75 kilowatts of power generated by the Fuel Cell, the primary source of High Voltage power, to all the vehicle loads and accessories. The constraints imposed on the design of the PDU resulted in a component highly susceptible to general and galvanic corrosion. Corrosion abatement was the focus of the PDU redesign. This paper describes the redesign efforts undertaken by Ford personnel to improve the part robustness and corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

Gaseous Hydrogen Station Test Apparatus: Verification of Hydrogen Dispenser Performance Utilizing Vehicle Representative Test Cylinders

The paper includes the development steps used in creating a station test apparatus (STA) and a description of the apparatus design. The purpose of this device is to simulate hydrogen vehicle conditions for the verification of gaseous hydrogen refueling station dispenser performance targets and hydrogen quality. This is done at the refueling station/vehicle interface (i.e. the refueling nozzle.) In addition, the device is to serve as a means for testing and developing future advanced fueling algorithms and protocols. The device is to be outfitted with vehicle representative container cylinders and sensors located inside and outside the apparatus to monitor refueling rate, ambient and internal gas temperature, pressure and weight of fuel transferred. Data is to be recorded during refueling and graphed automatically.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a High Speed, High Resolution Gas Chromatography Instrument for Exhaust Hydrocarbon Speciation

The ozone forming potential (OFP) and specific reactivity (SR) of tailpipe exhaust are among the factors that determine the environmental impact of a motor vehicle. OFP and SR measurements require a lengthy determination of about 190 non-methane hydrocarbon species. A rapid gas chromatography (GC) instrument has been constructed to separate both the light (C2 - C4) and the midrange (C5 - C12) hydrocarbons in less than 10 minutes. The limit of detection is about 0.002 parts per million carbon (ppmC). Thirty exhaust samples from natural gas vehicles (NGV's) were analyzed to compare the rapid GC method with the standard GC method, which required 40-minute analyses on two different instruments. In general, evaluation of the commercial prototype from Separation Systems, Inc., indicates that a high speed, high resolution gas chromatograph can meet the need for fast, efficient exhaust hydrocarbon speciation.
Technical Paper

CAI Combustion with Methanol and Ethanol in an Air-Assisted Direct Injection SI Engine

CAI combustion has the potential to be the most clean combustion technology in internal combustion engines and is being intensively researched. Following the previous research on CAI combustion of gasoline fuel, systematic investigation is being carried out on the application of bio-fuels in CAI combustion. As part of an on-going research project, CAI combustion of methanol and ethanol was studied on a single-cylinder direct gasoline engine with an air-assisted injector. The CAI combustion was achieved by trapping part of burnt gas within the cylinder through using short-duration camshafts and early closure of the exhaust valves. During the experiment the engine speed was varied from 1200rpm to 2100rpm and the air/fuel ratio was altered from the stoichiometry to the misfire limit. Their combustion characteristics were obtained by analysing cylinder pressure trace.
Technical Paper

Modeling of HCCI Combustion and Emissions Using Detailed Chemistry

To help guide the design of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines, single and multi-zone models of the concept are developed by coupling the first law of thermodynamics with detailed chemistry of hydrocarbon fuel oxidation and NOx formation. These models are used in parametric studies to determine the effect of heat loss, crevice volume, temperature stratification, fuel-air equivalence ratio, engine speed, and boosting on HCCI engine operation. In the single-zone model, the cylinder is assumed to be adiabatic and its contents homogeneous. Start of combustion and bottom dead center temperatures required for ignition to occur at top dead center are reported for methane, n-heptane, isooctane, and a mixture of 87% isooctane and 13% n-heptane by volume (simulated gasoline) for a variety of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Some Alternative Diesel Fuels for Low Emissions and Improved Fuel Economy

This paper reports on Ford's participation in the PNGV ‘Ad Hoc’ Diesel Fuel Test program - Phase I. The purpose of this program was to assess the potential benefits of various fuel properties aimed at reducing engine-out emissions of NOx and particulates to meet LEV2 and Tier 2 emission standards. Four alternative fuels were evaluated using a Ford 1.2L DIATA diesel engine: 1) California Certification fuel (CARB), 2) low sulfur hydro-cracked fuel (LSHC), 3) LSHC fuel with a 15% Dimethoxy Methane blend (DMM), and 4) neat Fischer-Tropsch (FT100) fuel. Design of Experiments (DOE) and conventional techniques were used to evaluate the fuels at five speed and load conditions. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), injection rail pressure, and beginning of injection (BOI) timing were controlled during the tests. Steady-state engine performance, emissions, and cylinder pressure (combustion) data were recorded for each fuel.
Technical Paper

Catalyst Performance Evaluation on E0 and E85 Fuels

The differences in hydrocarbons (HCs) emitted by gasoline (E0) and ethanol (EtOH) blend fuels from flex-fuel capable engines can lead to differences in the performance of aftertreatment devices. Vehicle emission results have shown either better performance on E0 compared to E85 or vice versa, dependent on the vehicle calibration. In order to separate the impact of the vehicle and the catalyst, a laboratory study was conducted to evaluate performance on a pulse-flame (pulsator) reactor and compare reactivity towards E0 and E85 (85% EtOH-15% E0) exhaust. The catalysts evaluated were substrate-only, washcoat-only and fully formulated catalysts that had been aged either on a pulsator reactor or dynamometer engine. Catalyst performance was evaluated with light-off tests utilizing both slow and fast temperature ramp rates.
Technical Paper

Design and CFD Simulation of a Battery Module for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Pack

Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis was performed using FLUENT to analyze the fluid thermal performance of a Battery cell container for the Ford Fusion Hybrid Electric Vehicle. The objective of the design was to maintain the cells in their desired operating temperature range with a near uniform temperature among the battery cells in the container, while minimizing energy losses associated with the pressure drop. Groupings of multiple such containers were assembled for bench test confirmation. Excellent agreement was obtained for air side pressure drop between the CFD and hardware physical properties. Multiple design iterations were made to improve the baseline design. Ultimately, the thermal gradient within the physical property was reduced to 1.8°C with a minimal increase in system pressure drop.
Technical Paper

Data Communication Over Power Battery Lines

Network communications are widely being deployed in vehicle electrical architecture due to its low cost for embedded electronic and advance it provides. Nowadays, different types of protocols may be used to allow the communication among the modules (e.g.: CAN, LIN, FLEX RAIL, etc). Modules may receive or send data throughout a physical layer. And they are powered up by using different types of cables, grounds and shields which create a high complexity in terms of wiring harnesses installation, weight and cost. Data and power transmission throughout a unique line is a real and promising available technology.