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Technical Paper

The Advantages of Using Standard Vehicle Dynamics Procedures and Analysis Programs

1998-02-23
981077
Globalization in the automotive industry has resulted in a tremendous competitive advantage to those companies who can internally communicate ideas and information effectively and in a timely manner. This paper discusses one such effort related to objectively testing vehicles for steering and handling characteristics by implementing standard test procedures, data acquisition hardware and analysis methods. Ford Motor Company's Vehicle Dynamics Test Section has refined a number of test procedures to the point that, with proper training, all design and development engineers can quickly acquire, analyze and share test results. Four of these procedures and output are discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

Design for People - Improving the Workplace

1998-02-23
981009
Successful simultaneous engineering requires a team with a high degree of engineering skill and experience, knowledge of the latest materials, processes, and methodologies; and it also requires finely honed people skills. Designing the workplace for people (DFP) can facilitate collaboration, increase quality and other significant metrics, and lead to an enhanced product greatly appreciated by the customer. Design for People applies the principles of performance technology to select and retain outstanding engineers, systematically train and educate for future competency needs, and reward and motivate through traditional and non-traditional approaches. Examples of best practice enable other organizations to apply the concepts of DFP.
Technical Paper

Investigation of a Ford 2.0 L Duratec for Touring Car Racing

1998-11-16
983038
This paper summarizes an investigative study done to evaluate the feasibility of a Ford Duratec engine in 2.0 L Touring Car Racing. The investigative study began in early 1996 due to an interest by British Touring Car Championship and North American Touring Car Championship sanctioning bodies to modify rules & demand the engine be production based in the vehicle entered for competition. The current Ford Touring Car entry uses a Mazda based V-6. This Study was intended to determine initial feasibility of using a 2.0 L Duratec V-6 based on the production 2.5L Mondeo engine. Other benefits expected from this study included; learning more about the Duratec engine at high speeds, technology exchange between a production and racing application, and gaining high performance engineering experience for production engineering personnel. In order to begin the Duratec feasibility study, an initial analytical study was done using Ford CAE tools.
Technical Paper

Driver Understanding and Recognition of Automotive ISO Symbols

1988-02-01
880056
This study assesses the understanding and recognition, by U.S. drivers, of the 25 automotive ISO symbols specified in SAE Standard J1048. A two-part survey was administered to 505 volunteers at a Secretary of State's office located in a Detroit suburb. Percentage results for symbol understanding indicated low levels of understanding for many symbols; percentage results for symbol recognition were generally much higher for all symbols. The effects of gender, age, and education level on the percentage results are summarized.
Technical Paper

Pedestrian Head Impact Time Estimate based on Vehicle Geometric Parameters

2017-03-28
2017-01-1453
Pedestrian protection assessment methods require multiple head impact tests on a vehicle’s hood and other front end parts. Hood surfaces are often lifted up by using pyrotechnic devices to create more deformation space prior to pedestrian head impact. Assessment methods for vehicles equipped with pyrotechnic devices must also validate that the hood deployment occurs prior to head impact event. Estimation of pedestrian head impact time, thus, becomes a critical requirement for performance validation of deployable hood systems. In absence of standardized physical pedestrian models, Euro NCAP recommends a list of virtual pedestrian models that could be used by vehicle manufacturers, with vehicle FEA (Finite Element Analysis) models, to predict the potential head impact time along the vehicle front end profile. FEA simulated contact time is used as target for performance validation of sensor and pyrotechnic deployable systems.
Technical Paper

Folded Pelvis-Thorax Side Airbag Modeling with CFD Approach and Implementation in Full Vehicle Crash Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-1460
The Pelvis-Thorax Side Air Bag (PTSAB) is a typical restraint countermeasure offered for protection of occupants in the vehicle during side impact tests. Currently, the dynamic performance of PTSAB for occupant injury assessment in side impact is limited to full-vehicle evaluation and sled testing, with limited capability in computer aided engineering (CAE). The widely used CAE method for PTSAB is a flat bag with uniform pressure. The flat PTSAB model with uniform pressure has limitations because of its inability to capture airbag deployment during gap closure which results in reduced accuracy while predicting occupant responses. Hence there is a need to develop CAE capability to enhance the accuracy of prediction of occupant responses to meet performance targets in regulatory and public domain side impact tests. This paper describes a new CAE methodology for assessment of PTSAB in side impact.
Technical Paper

The Application of a One-Way Coupled Aerodynamic and Multi-Body Dynamics Simulation Process to Predict Vehicle Response during a Severe Crosswind Event

2017-03-28
2017-01-1515
Industry trends towards lighter, more aerodynamically efficient road vehicles have the potential to degrade a vehicle’s response to crosswinds. In this paper, a methodology is outlined that indirectly couples a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the vehicle’s aerodynamic characteristics with a multi-body dynamics simulation (MBD) to determine yaw, roll and pitch response characteristics during a severe crosswind event. This one-way coupling approach mimics physical test conditions outlined in open loop test procedure ISO 12021:2010 that forms part of the vehicle sign-off criterion at Ford Motor Company. The methodology uses an overset mesh CFD method to drive the vehicle through a prescribed crosswind event, providing unfiltered predictions of vehicle force and moment responses that are used as applied forces in the MBD model. The method does not account for changes in vehicle attitude due to applied aerodynamic forces and moments.
Technical Paper

Machine Health Prediction Enhancement Using Machine Learning

2017-03-28
2017-01-1625
Use of sensors to monitor dynamic performance of machine tools at Ford’s powertrain machining plants has proven to be effective. The traditional approach to convert sensor data to actionable intelligence consists of identifying single features from cycle based signatures and setting thresholds above acceptable performance limits based on trials. The thresholds are used to discriminate between acceptable and unacceptable performance during each cycle and raise alarms if necessary. This approach requires a significant amount of resource & time intensive set up work up-front and considerable trial and error adjustments. The current state does not leverage patterns that might be discernible using multiple features simultaneously. This paper describes enhanced methods for processing the data using supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods. The objective of using these methods is to improve the prediction accuracy and reduce up-front set up.
Technical Paper

From the Napkin to Autocode, a Body Control Module Software Development Journey

2017-03-28
2017-01-1622
The Body Control Module (BCM) is a very large integration site for vehicle features and functions (e.g., Locking, Alarms, interior lighting, exterior lighting, etc…). Every few years the demand to add more feature/functions and integrate more vehicle content increases. The expectation of the 2013 MY (model year) BCM, was to double the feature content and use it globally. The growth in 3 years of feature/function content was huge number that grew from 150 to over 300. This posed a major challenge to the software development team based on the methods and process that were deployed at the time. This paper cites the cultural and technology changes that were overcome when Ford Motor Company partnered with Tata Consultancy Services to help manage and define this new software engineering development methodology. The process of getting from a vague description of a new body module feature to a saleable product, presents several very challenging problems.
Technical Paper

Driver Identification Using Vehicle Telematics Data

2017-03-28
2017-01-1372
Increasing number of vehicles are equipped with telematics devices and are able to transmit vehicle CAN bus information remotely. This paper examines the possibility of identifying individual drivers from their driving signatures embedded in these telematics data. The vehicle telematics data used in this study were collected from a small fleet of 30 Ford Fiesta vehicles driven by 30 volunteer drivers over 15 days of real-world driving in London, UK. The collected CAN signals included vehicle speed, accelerator pedal position, brake pedal pressure, steering wheel angle, gear position, and engine RPM. These signals were collected at approximately 5Hz frequency and transmitted to the cloud for offline driver identification modeling. A list of driving metrics was developed to quantify driver behaviors, such as mean brake pedal pressure and longitudinal jerk. Random Forest (RF) was used to predict driver IDs based on the developed driving metrics.
Technical Paper

Fan Shroud Design for Low Speed Damageability

2017-03-28
2017-01-1300
An engine cooling system in an automotive vehicle comprises of heat exchangers such as a radiator, charge air cooler and oil coolers along with engine cooling fan. Typical automotive engine-cooling fan assembly includes an electric motor mounted on a shroud that encloses the radiator core. One of main drivers of fan shroud design is Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) requirements without compromising the main function of airflow for cooling requirements. In addition, there is also a minimum stiffness requirement of fan shroud which is often overlooked in arriving at optimal design of it. Low Speed Damageability (LSD) assessment of an automotive vehicle is about minimizing the cost of repair of vehicle damages in low speed crashes. In low speed accidents, these fan motors are subjected to sudden decelerations which cause fan motors to swing forward thereby damaging the radiator core. So designing fan shroud for low speed damageability is of importance today.
Technical Paper

Modular Design and Methods to Optimize Seat Complete Assemblies

2017-03-28
2017-01-1309
Modularity in product architecture and its significance in product development have become an important product design topics in the last few decades. Several Product Modularity definitions and methodologies were developed by many researchers; however, most of the definitions and concepts have proliferated to the extent that it is difficult to apply one universal definition for modular product architecture and in product development. Automotive seat modular strategy and key factors for consideration towards modular seat design and assemblies are the main focus of this work. The primary objectives are focused on the most “natural segmentation” of the seat elements (i.e., cushions, backs, trims, plastics, head restraints, etc.) to enable the greatest ease of final assembly and greatest flexibility for scalable feature offerings around common assembly “hard-points.”
Technical Paper

Real-Time Implementation and Validation for Automated Path Following Lateral Control Using Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) Simulation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1683
Software for autonomous vehicles is highly complex and requires vast amount of vehicle testing to achieve a certain level of confidence in safety, quality and reliability. According to the RAND Corporation, a 100 vehicle fleet running 24 hours a day 365 days a year at a speed of 40 km/hr, would require 17 billion driven kilometers of testing and take 518 years to fully validate the software with 95% confidence such that its failure rate would be 20% better than the current human driver fatality rate [1]. In order to reduce cost and time to accelerate autonomous software development, Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation is used to supplement vehicle testing. For autonomous vehicles, path following controls are an integral part for achieving lateral control. Combining the aforementioned concepts, this paper focuses on a real-time implementation of a path-following lateral controller, developed by Freund and Mayr [2].
Technical Paper

Policies to Maximize Fuel Economy of Plug-In Hybrids in a Rental Fleet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0670
Plug-in hybrid (PHEV) technology offers the ability to achieve zero tailpipe emissions coupled with convenient refueling. Fleet adoption of PHEVs, often motivated by organizational and regulatory sustainability targets, may not always align with optimal use cases. In a car rental application, barriers to improving fuel economy over a conventional hybrid include: diminished benefits of additional battery capacity on long-distance trips, sparse electric charging infrastructure at the fleet location, lack of renter understanding of electric charging options, and a principle-agent problem where the driver accrues fewer benefits than costs for actions that improve fuel economy, like charging and eco-driving. This study uses high-resolution driving data collected from twelve Ford Fusion Energi sedans owned by University of California, Davis (UC Davis), where the vehicles are rented out for university-related activities.
Technical Paper

Magnetic Tape and Servo-Hydraulics Applied to Truck Frame Testing

1964-01-01
640119
This paper discusses the possible impact of the FM tape recorder and servo-hydraulic actuators on the testing of automotive structures. The use of tape recorders and automatic data reduction systems will permit more accurate definition of service conditions and properly “set-the-stage” for laboratory testing. Servo-hydraulic strokers should encourage better laboratory simulation because of their great flexibility. Test set-up time is reduced, fixtures can be simplified and load control is more precise. Simultaneous multiple inputs can be controlled as to amplitude and phase relationships.
Technical Paper

Acquisition of Transient Tire Force and Moment Data for Dynamic Vehicle Handling Simulations

1983-11-07
831790
This paper describes the issues encountered in using conventionally acquired tire test data for dynamic total vehicle handling simulations and the need for improved methodology. It describes the new test procedure that was used to acquire all three forces and three moments in a transient mode for a matrix of loads, slip and camber angles. A study of the test data supports the premises that the overturning moment, Mx, should not be neglected in dynamic simulations, and that the effects of camber should not be treated as only an independent, linearly additive, camber thrust. Instead of the conventional application of a bi-cubic regression fit to a six region data division, a new algorithm is applied. The data is divided differently into five regions in the α - Fz plane, and a variable format regression equation is applied as appropriate. The resulting regression coefficients matrix is readily usable in dynamic simulations, and is shown to have a superior curve fit to the test data.
Technical Paper

Application of Advanced High Strength Stainless Steel for Mass Reduction in Automotive Structures - A Front Bumper Beam Case Study

2011-04-12
2011-01-1054
The front bumper of a current production vehicle, which is made of hot-stamped 15B21 aluminized steel, was studied for mass and cost reductions using the Advanced High Strength Stainless Steel product NITRONIC® 30 (UNS Designation S20400) manufactured by AK Steel Corporation. This grade of stainless steel offers a combination of high ductility and strength, which was utilized to significantly modify the design of the bumper beam to incorporate geometry changes that improved its stiffness and strength. The structural performance of the bumper assembly was evaluated using LS-Dyna-based CAE simulations of the IIHS 40% Offset Full-Vehicle Impact at 40 mph with a deformable barrier, and the IIHS Full Width Centerline 6 mph Low-Speed Impact. Optimization of the bumper beam shape and gauge was performed using a combination of manual design iterations and a multi-objective optimization methodology using LS-Opt.
Technical Paper

Driver Workload Effects of Cell Phone, Music Player, and Text Messaging Tasks with the Ford SYNC Voice Interface versus Handheld Visual-Manual Interfaces

2009-04-20
2009-01-0786
A fixed-base driving simulator study was conducted to compare driver performance and eye glance behavior effects of tasks performed using the voice interface in Ford Motor Company’s SYNC® system versus handheld operation of portable music players and cellular phones. Data were analyzed from a sample of 25 test participants. All test participants were regular SYNC users (but not SYNC developers), though they varied in their familiarity with SYNC functions. During a car-following scenario at highway speeds on the simulator, the participants performed 7 tasks using SYNC’s voice interface and those same 7 tasks with their own handheld music player and cellular phone. The seven tasks under test were: dial a 10-digit number; call a specific person from a phonebook; receive a call while driving; play a specific song; play songs from a specific artist; review (listen to or read) a text message; and select a reply from a list or type a reply to a text message.
Technical Paper

Potential for Commonization of Brake Testing for Globally Marketed Vehicles

2009-10-11
2009-01-3031
From the brake system point of view the world can be split into comfort and performance markets. This market split evolved historically and reflects local legal requirements, driving style and the customer expectations. Noise, cold judder and brake dust play the dominant role in the perception of the customer on the comfort market. The performance markets call for high friction level and good fade performance. Currently these customer needs can only be satisfied by usage of different pad materials: NAO and Semi Met materials for comfort markets and generally Low Met materials for performance markets. Due to the differences mentioned above, additional brake system development and testing is done (different testing locations for the same brake attribute). Harmonizing testing, usage of the same test location and same test method could save not only the human resources but also decrease the number of prototypes used in the development phases.
Technical Paper

Vehicle System Controls for a Series Hybrid Powertrain

2011-04-12
2011-01-0860
Ford Motor Company has investigated a series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) configuration to move further toward powertrain electrification. This paper first provides a brief overview of the Vehicle System Controls (VSC) architecture and its development process. The paper then presents the energy management strategies that select operating modes and desired powertrain operating points to improve fuel efficiency. The focus will be on the controls design and optimization in a Model-in-the-Loop environment and in the vehicle. Various methods to improve powertrain operation efficiency will also be presented, followed by simulation results and vehicle test data. Finally, opportunities for further improvements are summarized.
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