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Journal Article

An Advanced and Comprehensive CAE Approach of Piston Dynamics Studies for Piston Optimal and Robust Design

2011-04-12
2011-01-1404
A successful piston design requires eliminate the following failure modes: structure failure, skirt scuffing and piston unusual noise. It also needs to deliver least friction to improve engine fuel economy and performance. Traditional approach of using hardware tests to validate piston design is technically difficult, costly and time consuming. This paper presents an up-front CAE tool and an analytical process that can systematically address these issues in a timely and cost-effectively way. This paper first describes this newly developed CAE process, the 3D virtual modeling and simulation tools used in Ford Motor Company, as well as the piston design factors and boundary conditions. Furthermore, following the definition of the piston design assessment criteria, several piston design studies and applications are discussed, which were used to eliminate skirt scuffing, reduce piston structure dynamic stresses, minimize skirt friction and piston slapping noise.
Journal Article

Motor Vehicle PM Emissions Measurement at LEV III Levels

2011-04-12
2011-01-0623
This paper examines the issues concerning particulate matter (PM) emissions measurement at the 3 mg/mi level proposed as the future LEV III standard. These issues are general in nature, but are exacerbated at the low levels contemplated for upcoming emissions standards. They are discussed in the context of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, where they can have an important impact on the continued development of this technology for improved fuel economy. GDI particulate emissions, just as engine-out diesel PM, contain a high fraction of soot. But the total PM mass is significantly lower than from diesel engines, and there can be significant variations in emissions rate and apparent PM composition between cold-start and running emissions. PM emissions levels depend on sampling method and location. As a result, there can be substantial differences in PM sampled and diluted directly at the exhaust pipe, as opposed to measurements from a dilution tunnel.
Journal Article

Legibility: Back to the Basics

2011-04-12
2011-01-0597
The objective for this study was to revisit some of the known factors that affect legibility including font characteristics, as well as, contrast polarity, luminance contrast, and color contrast under high ambient conditions as specified in SAE J1757. The study focused on older drivers due to their increased visual needs and limitations. The study was conducted in 2 phases: 1) a study of font characteristics; character height, character width, and stroke width using a central composite design. Subjects read a group of letters and numerals displayed on a laptop display using occlusion goggles. The reading time (Total Shutter Open Time or TSOT), reading errors, and a subjective Readability Rating (using a 4 point scale "Very Easy," "Easy," "Difficult," "Very Difficult") were recorded. Licensed drivers in three age groups, 25 to 44 yrs, 45 to 59 yrs, and 61 to 91 yrs participated. The response surfaces were generated and compared to the character sizes recommended in ISO 15008.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Error Assessment of Response Time Histories (EEARTH) Metric and Calibration Process

2011-04-12
2011-01-0245
Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) has become a vital tool for product development in automotive industry. Increasing computer models are developed to simulate vehicle crashworthiness, dynamic, and fuel efficiency. Before applying these models for product development, model validation needs to be conducted to assess the validity of the models. However, one of the key difficulties for model validation of dynamic systems is that most of the responses are functional responses, such as time history curves. This calls for the development of an objective metric which can evaluate the differences of both the time history and the key features, such as phase shift, magnitude, and slope between test and CAE curves. One of the promising metrics is Error Assessment of Response Time Histories (EARTH), which was recently developed. Three independent error measures that associated with physically meaningful characteristics (phase, magnitude, and slope) were proposed.
Technical Paper

Rear Impact Tests of Starcraft-Type Seats with Out-of-Position and In-Position Dummies

2011-04-12
2011-01-0272
Objective: This study analyzed available rear impact sled tests with Starcraft-type seats that use a diagonal belt behind the seatback. The study focused on neck responses for out-of-position (OOP) and in-position seated dummies. Methods: Thirteen rear sled tests were identified with out-of-position and in-position 5 th , 50 th and 95 th Hybrid III dummies in up to 47.6 mph rear delta Vs involving Starcraft-type seats. The tests were conducted at Ford, Exponent and CSE. Seven KARCO rear sled tests were found with in-position 5 th and 50 th Hybrid III dummies in 21.1-29.5 mph rear delta Vs involving Starcraft-type seats. In all of the in-position and one of the out-of-position series, comparable tests were run with production seats. Biomechanical responses of the dummies and test videos were analyzed.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of Squeeze Film Flow in Wet Clutch

2011-04-12
2011-01-1236
An oil-lubricated wet clutch has a direct impact on the drivability and fuel economy of a vehicle equipped with an automatic transmission system. However, a reliable analysis of clutch behavior still remains a challenge. The purpose of this study is to advance the state-of the-art in CFD methodology for modeling transient clutch behavior. First, a new iterative scheme is developed, in combination with commercial CFD software, which is capable of simulating the squeeze film process in a wet clutch. The numerical results are then validated using analytical solutions of the Reynolds equation for simplified clutch geometry and various boundary conditions. It is found that the choice of boundary conditions has a strong influence on squeeze film simulation. The iterative scheme is further validated by comparison to clutch engagement experiments.
Journal Article

Test Correlation Framework for Hybrid Electric Vehicle System Model

2011-04-12
2011-01-0881
A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system model, which directly simulates vehicle drive cycles with interactions among driver, environment, vehicle hardware and vehicle controls, is a critical CAE tool used through out the product development process to project HEV fuel economy (FE) capabilities. The accuracy of the model is essential and directly influences the HEV hardware designs and technology decisions. This ultimately impacts HEV product content and cost. Therefore, improving HEV system model accuracy and establishing high-level model-test correlation are imperative. This paper presents a Parameter Diagram (P-Diagram) based model-test correlation framework which covers all areas contributing to potential model simulation vs. vehicle test differences. The paper describes each area in detail and the methods of characterizing the influences as well as the correlation metrics.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach to Assess the Impact of Road Events on PHEV Performance using Real World Data

2011-04-12
2011-01-0875
Plug in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have gained interest over last decade due to their increased fuel economy and ability to displace some petroleum fuel with electricity from power grid. Given the complexity of this vehicle powertrain, the energy management plays a key role in providing higher fuel economy. The energy management algorithm on PHEVs performs the same task as a hybrid vehicle energy management but it has more freedom in utilizing the battery energy due to the larger battery capacity and ability to be recharged from the power grid. The state of charge (SOC) profile of the battery during the entire driving trip determines the electric energy usage, thus determining overall fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Vehicle System Controls for a Series Hybrid Powertrain

2011-04-12
2011-01-0860
Ford Motor Company has investigated a series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) configuration to move further toward powertrain electrification. This paper first provides a brief overview of the Vehicle System Controls (VSC) architecture and its development process. The paper then presents the energy management strategies that select operating modes and desired powertrain operating points to improve fuel efficiency. The focus will be on the controls design and optimization in a Model-in-the-Loop environment and in the vehicle. Various methods to improve powertrain operation efficiency will also be presented, followed by simulation results and vehicle test data. Finally, opportunities for further improvements are summarized.
Journal Article

A Component Test Methodology for Simulation of Full-Vehicle Side Impact Dummy Abdomen Responses for Door Trim Evaluation

2011-04-12
2011-01-1097
Described in this paper is a component test methodology to evaluate the door trim armrest performance in an Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) side impact test and to predict the SID-IIs abdomen injury metrics (rib deflection, deflection rate and V*C). The test methodology consisted of a sub-assembly of two SID-IIs abdomen ribs with spine box, mounted on a linear bearing and allowed to translate in the direction of impact. The spine box with the assembly of two abdominal ribs was rigidly attached to the sliding test fixture, and is stationary at the start of the test. The door trim armrest was mounted on the impactor, which was prescribed the door velocity profile obtained from full-vehicle test. The location and orientation of the armrest relative to the dummy abdomen ribs was maintained the same as in the full-vehicle test.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Integrated Non-Intrusive Monitoring of Driver Biological Signals

2011-04-12
2011-01-1095
A vehicle integrated sensing and analysis system has been designed, implemented, and demonstrated to nonintrusively monitor several biological signals of the driver. The biological driver signals measured by the system are the heart electrical signals or pseudo Lead-I electrocardiography (pLI-ECG), the galvanic skin response (GSR) or electrical conductance measured from the driver's fingers to palm, the palm skin temperature, the face skin temperature, and the respiration rate. The pLI-ECG and GSR measurements are made through direct contact of the driver hands with stainless steel electrodes integrated in the steering wheel rim. The temperature measurements are made with non-contacting infrared temperature sensors, also located on the steering wheel. The respiration rate was measured using a flexible thin film piezoelectric sensor affixed to the seatbelt.
Technical Paper

Using Virtual Seat Prototyping to Understand the Influence of Craftsmanship on Safety, and Seating Comfort

2011-04-12
2011-01-0805
Traditional automotive seat development has relied on a series of physical prototypes that are evaluated and refined in an iterative fashion. Costs are managed by sharing prototypes across multiple attributes. To further manage costs, many OEMs and Tier 1s have, over the past decade, started to investigate various levels of virtual prototyping. The change, which represents a dramatic paradigm shift, has been slow to materialize since virtual prototyping has not significantly reduced the required number of physical prototypes. This is related to the fact virtual seat prototyping efforts have been focused on only selected seat attributes - safety / occupant positioning and mechanical comfort are two examples. This requires that physical prototypes still be built for seat attributes like craftsmanship, durability, and thermal comfort.
Technical Paper

Derivation and Theoretical Assessment of a Set of Biomechanics-based, AIS2+ Risk Equations for the Knee-Thigh-Hip Complex

2006-11-06
2006-22-0005
A set of risk equations was derived to estimate the probability of sustaining a moderate-to-serious injury to the knee-thigh-hip complex (KTH) in a frontal crash. The study consisted of four parts. First, data pertaining to knee-loaded, whole-body, post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) were collected from the literature, and the attendant response data (e.g., axial compressive load applied to the knee) were normalized to those of a mid-sized male. Second, numerous statistical analyses and mathematical constructs were used to derive the set of risk equations for adults of various ages and genders. Third, field data from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) were analyzed for subsequent comparison purposes.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Response of the Pediatric Abdomen, Part 1: Development of an Experimental Model and Quantification of Structural Response to Dynamic Belt Loading

2006-11-06
2006-22-0001
The abdomen is the second most commonly injured region in children using adult seat belts, but engineers are limited in their efforts to design systems that mitigate these injuries since no current pediatric dummy has the capability to quantify injury risk from loading to the abdomen. This paper develops a porcine (sus scrofa domestica) model of the 6-year-old human's abdomen, and then defines the biomechanical response of this abdominal model. First, a detailed abdominal necropsy study was undertaken, which involved collecting a series of anthropometric measurements and organ masses on 25 swine, ranging in age from 14 to 429 days (4-101 kg mass). These were then compared to the corresponding human quantities to identify the best porcine representation of a 6-year-old human's abdomen. This was determined to be a pig of age 77 days, and whole-body mass of 21.4 kg.
Technical Paper

FMVSS 226 Ejection Mitigation: A Review

2013-04-08
2013-01-0469
In January 2011, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published a final rule establishing Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 226 Ejection Mitigation, with the intent of reducing the occurrence of complete and partial ejections of vehicle occupants during crashes, especially rollover events. FMVSS 226 requires component-level tests to be conducted on ejection mitigation countermeasures (e.g., rollover-activated side curtain airbags). A guided, linear impactor is used to propel a headform into a rollover-activated countermeasure at up to four locations for each side daylight opening in the vehicle, for up to three seating rows. The impact tests are conducted at two energy levels (speeds) and associated impact times: 278 J (20 km/h) at 1.5 s after curtain activation and 178 J (16 km/h) at 6 s. The FMVSSS 226 compliance criterion is that the headform cannot travel more than 100 mm past the inside surface of the side window plane.
Journal Article

An Overview of the Effects of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends on SI Engine Performance, Fuel Efficiency, and Emissions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1635
This paper provides an overview of the effects of blending ethanol with gasoline for use in spark ignition engines. The overview is written from the perspective of considering a future ethanol-gasoline blend for use in vehicles that have been designed to accommodate such a fuel. Therefore discussion of the effects of ethanol-gasoline blends on older legacy vehicles is not included. As background, highlights of future emissions regulations are discussed. The effects on fuel properties of blending ethanol and gasoline are described. The substantial increase in knock resistance and full load performance associated with the addition of ethanol to gasoline is illustrated with example data. Aspects of fuel efficiency enabled by increased ethanol content are reviewed, including downsizing and downspeeding opportunities, increased compression ratio, fundamental effects associated with ethanol combustion, and reduced enrichment requirement at high speed/high load conditions.
Journal Article

Experimental Evaluation of Advanced Turbocharger Performance on a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0920
For diesel engines to meet current and future emissions levels, the amount of EGR required to reach these levels has increased dramatically. This increased EGR has posed big challenges for conventional turbocharger technology to meet the higher emissions requirements while maintaining or improving other vehicle attributes, to the extent that some OEMs resort to multiple turbocharger configurations. These configurations can include parallel, series sequential, or parallel - series turbocharger systems, which would inevitably run into other issues, such as cost, packaging, and thermal loss, etc. This study, as part of a U.S. Department of Energy (USDoE) sponsored research program, is focused on the experimental evaluation of the emission and performance of a modern diesel engine with an advanced single stage turbocharger.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Considerations for Assessing Interactions of Children and Small Occupants with Inflatable Seat Belts

2013-11-11
2013-22-0004
NHTSA estimates that more than half of the lives saved (168,524) in car crashes between 1960 and 2002 were due to the use of seat belts. Nevertheless, while seat belts are vital to occupant crash protection, safety researchers continue efforts to further enhance the capability of seat belts in reducing injury and fatality risk in automotive crashes. Examples of seat belt design concepts that have been investigated by researchers include inflatable, 4-point, and reverse geometry seat belts. In 2011, Ford Motor Company introduced the first rear seat inflatable seat belts into production vehicles. A series of tests with child and small female-sized Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and small, elderly female Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) was performed to evaluate interactions of prototype inflatable seat belts with the chest, upper torso, head and neck of children and small occupants, from infants to young adolescents.
Technical Paper

Development of Universal Brake Test Data Exchange Format and Evaluation Standard

2010-10-10
2010-01-1698
Brake system development and testing is spread over vehicle manufacturers, system and component suppliers. Test equipment from different sources, even resulting from different technology generations, different data analysis and report tools - comprising different and sometimes undocumented algorithms - lead to a difficult exchange and analysis of test results and, at the same time, contributes to unwanted test variability. Other studies regarding the test variability brought up that only a unified and unambiguous data format will allow a meaningful and comparative evaluation of these data and only standardization will reveal the actual reasons of test variability. The text at hand illustrates that a substantial part of test variability is caused by a misinterpretation of data and/or by the application of different algorithms.
Technical Paper

Autonomous Driving - A Practical Roadmap

2010-10-19
2010-01-2335
Successful demonstrations of fully autonomous vehicle operation in controlled situations are leading to increased research investment and activity. This has already resulted in significant advancements in the underlying technologies necessary to make it a practical reality someday. Not only are these idealized events sparking imaginations with the potential benefits for safety, convenience, fuel economy and emissions, they also embolden some to make somewhat surprising and sometimes astonishing projections for their appearance on public roads in the near future. Are we now ready for a giant leap forward to the self-driving car with all its complexity and inter-dependencies? Humans will need to grow with and adapt to the technological advancements of the machine and we'll deeply challenge our social and political paradigms before we're done. Even if we as engineers are ready, is the driving public ready?
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