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Technical Paper

Environmentally Friendly and Low Cost Manufacturing – Implementation of MQL Machining (Minimum Quantity Lubrication)

Near Dry or Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) Machining eliminates conventional flood coolant from the machining processes. In doing so, MQL reduces oil mist generation, biological contamination of coolant, waste water volume, costs for capital equipment and regulatory permitting. MQL also improves recycling and transport of coolant contaminated chips [1]. Although MQL machining technology has several advantages compared to wet machining, widespread implementation will require a paradigm shift among end-users, machine suppliers, and cutting tool suppliers. Successful implementation of MQL machining requires a high technical understanding and a solid infrastructure to support maintenance and on-going continuous improvement [2].
Technical Paper

Quantifying the Visual Motion of an Automotive Seat Back

Visual movement of automotive components can induce a sense of poor quality and/or reliability to the customer. Many times this motion is likely to induce squeaks and rattles that further degrade customer opinion. For both of these reasons, it may be necessary to quantify the visual motion of certain components. This paper deals with a study in which the angular displacement from the observer to a passenger-side seat back was correlated to the subjective impression of seat back motion. Minutes Of Arc (MOAs) were found to correlate well to the perception of 17 subjects who evaluated the seat back motion of a seat mounted to a TEAM Cube in which road vibrations were played into a passenger seat and subjects were instructed that the evaluation surface was a “rough road” surface. This was confirmed for both the driver observing the unoccupied passenger seat from the side and a rear seat passenger viewing the unoccupied front seat from behind.
Technical Paper

Use of SEA to Support Sound Package Design Studies and Vehicle Target Setting

Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) vehicle models are well-accepted tools for predicting the high-frequency interior acoustic effects of a design change to the structure or sound package of the vehicle. [1] SEA models do not strongly depend on geometric details, which allows SEA to be uniquely used as an analysis tool very early in the vehicle design phase to identify potential Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) issues caused by proposed changes to acoustic or vibration source levels, component materials, construction details, or sound package details of the vehicle. SEA models can also be used to suggest alternatives while the vehicle is still in the development stages to compensate for a predicted or known degradation to NVH in a vehicle due to a design or source level change. This paper presents a case study in which validation testing and an SEA model were combined to obtain recommendations for the most effective sound package changes to meet NVH targets.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT Electrical & Electronics

The Ford GT Program Team was allocated just 22 months from concept to production to complete the Electrical and Electronics systems of the Ford GT. This reduced vehicle program timing - unlike any other in Ford's history -- demanded that the team streamline the standard development process, which is typically 54 months. This aggressive schedule allowed only 12 weeks to design the entire electrical and electronic system architecture, route the wire harnesses, package the components, and manufacture and/or procure all components necessary for the first three-vehicle prototype build.
Technical Paper

Frontal Impact Rear Seatbelt Load Marks: An In-Depth Analysis

Forensic evidence left behind in the form of markings on the seatbelt system can reveal details of how the belt system was being used and how it performed in a collision. Information about how belt systems are being used and how they perform in the field is useful to the design engineer, but interpreting this forensic evidence can be very difficult. Most studies to date have looked at the evidence left behind after a collision simply to determine if the seat belt was being used. This study undertakes the next step and addresses the question of how the belt system was being used. Test data is also presented to allow investigators to determine if the retractor locked and remained locked during the collision or if it spooled out during the collision. The results of 22 HYGE sled tests were analyzed to investigate the types and patterns of marks left behind.
Technical Paper

Development of Shear Fracture Criterion for Dual-Phase Steel Stamping

Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) have been widely and successfully used in sheet metal stamping as a failure criterion to detect localized necking, which is the most common failure mechanism for conventional steels during forming. However, recent experience from stamping Dual-Phase steels found that, under certain circumstances such as stretching-bend over a small die radius, the sheet metal fails earlier than that predicted by the FLD based on the initiation of a localized neck. It appears that a different failure mechanism and mode are in effect, commonly referred to as “shear fracture” in the sheet metal stamping community. In this paper, experimental and numerical analysis is used to investigate the shear fracture mechanism. Numerical models are established for a stretch-bend test on DP780 steel with a wide range of bend radii for various failure modes. The occurrences of shear fracture are identified by correlating numerical simulation results with test data.
Technical Paper

Resistance Spot Welding Evaluation of Transformation Induced Plasticity 780 (TRIP780) Steel for Automotive Body Structural Applications

There has been a substantial increase in the use of advanced high strength steel (AHSS) in automotive structures in the last few years. The usage of these materials is projected to grow significantly in the next 5–10 years with the introduction of new safety and fuel economy regulations. AHSS are gaining popularity due to their superior mechanical properties and use in parts for weight savings potential, as compared to mild steels. These new materials pose significant manufacturing challenges, particularly for welding and stamping. Proper understanding of the weldability of these materials is critical for successful application on future vehicle programs. Due to the high strength nature of AHSS materials, higher weld forces and longer weld times are often needed to weld these advanced steels.
Technical Paper

Driver Workload Effects of Cell Phone, Music Player, and Text Messaging Tasks with the Ford SYNC Voice Interface versus Handheld Visual-Manual Interfaces

A fixed-base driving simulator study was conducted to compare driver performance and eye glance behavior effects of tasks performed using the voice interface in Ford Motor Company’s SYNC® system versus handheld operation of portable music players and cellular phones. Data were analyzed from a sample of 25 test participants. All test participants were regular SYNC users (but not SYNC developers), though they varied in their familiarity with SYNC functions. During a car-following scenario at highway speeds on the simulator, the participants performed 7 tasks using SYNC’s voice interface and those same 7 tasks with their own handheld music player and cellular phone. The seven tasks under test were: dial a 10-digit number; call a specific person from a phonebook; receive a call while driving; play a specific song; play songs from a specific artist; review (listen to or read) a text message; and select a reply from a list or type a reply to a text message.
Technical Paper

DP590 GI Mechanical Property Variability and Structural Response CAE Studies

Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) such as DP590 HDGI are helping automakers meet increasingly higher structural performance requirements while maintaining or reducing weight of the vehicle body structure [7]. One of the issues facing design engineers implementing new materials such as AHSS is the lack of understanding the expected material variability within a steel supplier and also from one steel supplier to another; and how the variability affects product attribute performances. In this paper, we present an analysis of the aggregated mechanical property variability data obtained from several steel suppliers for a popular AHSS grade and also present studies related to the effect of material variability on structural responses.
Technical Paper

Ford's Facility Climate Change Initiatives: Lessons Learned From Early Action

Climate change initiatives such as carbon dioxide (CO2) inventory reporting, emissions trading, and carbon offsets projects are receiving increased public and corporate attention worldwide. Through early, voluntary actions, Ford Motor Company's manufacturing operations have gained first-hand experience with these emerging policy tools and our global, centralized approach has supported our participation in facility CO2 initiatives in a more cost-effective and operationally-efficient manner. Ford's early action has also developed internal expertise which enables us to share our lessons learned with others beginning to investigate climate change initiatives.
Technical Paper

Non-Invasive Differential Thermocouple Method for the Evaluation of Catalyst Performance

A simple non-invasive thermocouple method is described and demonstrated that provides catalyst performance information. The thermocouple circuit consists of a Chromel wire attached to the stainless steel exhaust system before the catalyst and another Chromel wire after the catalyst. The exhaust system stainless steel functions as the other dissimilar metal component of a differential thermocouple. Measured electromotive force (EMF) between the thermocouple leads is proportional to the temperature difference across the catalyst and allows assessment of the performance of the catalyst between the thermocouple junctions. By measuring the difference directly, rather than measuring at two locations and using the difference between high temperatures at the two locations, one obtains a relatively accurate measurement even without calibration. A series of experiments were carried out to demonstrate the catalyst monitoring capabilities of this methodology.
Technical Paper

The Handling of Non-Uniform Parts and Peak Hand Forces

Due to the challenges in quantifying hand loads in manufacturing environments it is often assumed that the load is evenly distributed between the hands, even when handling parts with non-uniform mass distribution. This study estimated hand loads for six female subjects, when handling a custom part in 8 different configurations (2 weights, 4 CofM locations). The calculated hand loads varied from 20 to 50% of the weight being handled. The magnitude of asymmetrical hand loading depended on both the part orientation and the location of the CoM. Based on this study the knowledge of part weight, CofM location and hand positioning will allow the users of digital human models to perform more realistic and reliable task analysis assessments as the force distributions will be more representative of the actual loading rather than simply assuming the load is evenly distributed between the hands.
Journal Article

A New Responsive Model for Educational Programs for Industry: The University of Detroit Mercy Advanced Electric Vehicle Graduate Certificate Program

Today's automotive and electronics technologies are evolving so rapidly that educators and industry are both challenged to re-educate the technological workforce in the new area before they are replaced with yet another generation. In early November 2009 Ford's Product Development senior management formally approved a proposal by the University of Detroit Mercy to transform 125 of Ford's “IC Engine Automotive Engineers” into “Advanced Electric Vehicle Automotive Engineers.” Two months later, the first course of the Advanced Electric Vehicle Program began in Dearborn. UDM's response to Ford's needs (and those of other OEM's and suppliers) was not only at the rate of “academic light speed,” but it involved direct collaboration of Ford's electric vehicle leaders and subject matter experts and the UDM AEV Program faculty.
Journal Article

Fracture Modeling of AHSS in Component Crush Tests

Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) have been implemented in the automotive industry to balance the requirements for vehicle crash safety, emissions, and fuel economy. With lower ductility compared to conventional steels, the fracture behavior of AHSS components has to be considered in vehicle crash simulations to achieve a reliable crashworthiness prediction. Without considering the fracture behavior, component fracture cannot be predicted and subsequently the crash energy absorbed by the fractured component can be over-estimated. In full vehicle simulations, failure to predict component fracture sometimes leads to less predicted intrusion. In this paper, the feasibility of using computer simulations in predicting fracture during crash deformation is studied.
Journal Article

Model-Based Design Case Study: Low Cost Audio Head Unit

The use of model-based software development in automotive applications has increased in recent years. Current vehicles contain millions of lines of code, and millions of dollars are spent each year fixing software issues. Most new features are software controlled and many times include distributed functionality, resulting in increased vehicle software content and accelerated complexity. To handle rapid change, OEMs and suppliers must work together to accelerate software development and testing. As development processes adapt to meet this challenge, model-based design can provide a solution. Model-based design is a broad development approach that is applied to a variety of applications in various industries. This paper reviews a project using the MATLAB/Simulink/Stateflow environment to complete a functional model of a low cost radio.
Technical Paper

Bending Process Optimization of Dual Phase 780 (DP780) Tubes for Body Structural and Chassis Applications

To reach safety, emissions, and cost objectives, manufacturers of automotive body structural and chassis components shape thin gauge, high strength steel tube with a bending, pre-forming and hydroforming process. Challenging grades and bend severity require a careful optimization of the bending procedure. A joint project between Ford and ArcelorMittal Tubular Products investigated suitable bending parameters for severe bends using commercially available thin-walled DP780 and HSLA350 tubes. This paper summarizes the measurement methods found to be capable of capturing small differences in bending formability and details the influence of bender variables such as boost, pressure die, center-line bend radius and bend angle on the wrinkling, thinning and springback of these tubes. As a result of this work, recommendations were made as to effective bender set-ups for these tubes.
Technical Paper

Oil Migration on Sheet Steels and the Effect on Performance in Metal Stamping

Mill oils and prelubes are applied by the steel producer to prevent corrosion and to enhance formability. During coiling, shipping, and storage the lubricant migrates due to pressure and gravity. The redistribution of the lubricant results in widely varying lubricant weights. The move to reduce and eliminate press-applied lubricants has lead to concerns that the variation in lubricant weight as a result of this migration would adversely affect press performance. The Drawbead Simulator (DBS) and Twist Compression Test (TCT) were used to evaluate friction response of electrogalvanized and galvanneal sheet to varying lubricant weight. Results showed the electrogalvanized sheet was sensitive to lubricant type while the galvanneal sheet was sensitive to the amount of lubricant.
Technical Paper

The 1970 Ford Dual Circuit Air Brake System

The braking system presented in this article represents a new and forward thinking philosophy regarding commercial vehicle air brake systems. A concept that provides responsive service and emergency brake applications with optimum vehicle control, by the same driver action on the brake pedal. The uniqueness of the total system, and each circuit's function thereof, is explained in basic detail. In addition, the engineering, quality control, and assembly techniques to manufacture the vehicle with assurance that design intent is achieved, are discussed.
Technical Paper

Stress Analysis on the Single-Lap SPR- Adhesive Hybrid Joint

Self-pierced rivet (SPR) and adhesive are two important joining technologies widely used in automobile industry, and they are often used together to form a hybrid joint. SPR and adhesives can often be used in close proximity in a component, leading to an interaction of the two joints. This interaction can influence the corrosion and noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) characteristics of the structure, as well as its strength and durability. In this paper, the stress distribution in an SPR-adhesive hybrid joint is evaluated by using the finite element method, and then compared with that in an adhesive joint. Results indicate that the stress concentrates at the edge of adhesive layer in hybrid joint and adhesive joint and around the rivet in an SPR joint. The effect of rivet is numerically investigated by either removing the rivet from the hybrid joint or changing the position of the rivet on the overlapping area.