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GreenZone Driving for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-05-29
Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have a large battery which can be used for electric only powertrain operation. The control system in a PHEV must decide how to spend the energy stored in the battery. In this paper, we will present a prototype implementation of a PHEV control system which saves energy for electric operation in pre-defined geographic areas, so called Green Zones. The approach determines where the driver will be going and then compares the route to a database of predefined Green Zones. The control system then reserves enough energy to be able to drive the Green Zone sections in electric only mode. Finally, the powertrain operation is modified once the vehicle enters the Green Zone to ensure engine operation is limited. Data will be presented from a prototype implementation in a Ford Escape PHEV Presenter Johannes Kristinsson
Technical Paper

Event-Based Mean-Value Modeling of DI Diesel Engines for Controller Design

2001-03-05
2001-01-1242
Models often use time rather than strokes (crank-angle) as the independent variable to describe engine dynamics despite the fact that the dynamics of an internal combustion engine are intrinsically linked to the combustion events. In this paper, two models are developed in parallel in which not only the independent variable is changed but the notion of mass flows as well: flows are in [g/s] for the time-based model and in [g/st] for the event-based model. Both models are of the same computational complexity and show the same accuracy in validation. The investigation of the model properties shows that variations in the flow-related parameters are reduced by a factor of two to five for the event-based model. However, those of the crankshaft dynamics are increased. It is concluded that the model should be chosen in context of the control system to be designed.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Different Methods for Battery and Supercapacitor Modeling

2003-06-23
2003-01-2290
In future vehicles (e.g. fuel cell vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles), the electrical system will have an important impact on the mechanical systems in the car (e.g. powertrain, steering). Furthermore, this coupling will become increasingly important over time. In order to develop effective designs and appropriate control systems for these systems, it is important that the plant models capture the detailed physical behavior in the system. This paper will describe models of two electrical components, a battery and a supercapacitor, which have been modeled in two ways: (i) modeling the plant and controller using block diagrams in Simulink and (ii) modeling the plant and controller in Dymola followed by compiling this model to an S-function for simulation in Simulink. Both the battery and supercapacitor model are based on impedance spectroscopy measurements and can be used for highly dynamic simulations.
Technical Paper

Pump/Motor Displacement Control Using High-Speed On/Off Valves

1998-09-14
981968
A four valve controller and electronic control circuits were developed to control the displacement of hydrostatic pump/motors (P/M's) utilized in an automobile with a hydrostatic transmission and hydropneumatic accumulator energy storage. Performance of the control system was evaluated. The controller uses four high-speed, two-way, single-stage poppet valves, functioning in the same manner as a 4-way, 3-position spool valve. Two such systems were used to control the displacement of two P/Ms, each system driving a front wheel of the vehicle. The valves were controlled electronically by a distributed-control dead-band circuit and valve driver boards. Testing showed that the control system's time response satisified driving demand needs, but that the control system's error was slightly larger than desired. This may lead to complications in some of the vehicle's operating modes.
Technical Paper

Development of Diagnostic Tools in Automotive Electronics

1987-08-01
871582
Throughout the evolution of transportation technology the automotive industry has continually devised methods of diagnosing and servicing vehicle electrical and electronic concerns. Methodologies have always included special test equipment accompanied by volumes of printed manual procedures. Today's vehicle technology, with its highly interactive/integrated systems control capability, has brought on a new level of complexity and confusion to the service technician. In order to assist the technician in the diagnosis of microprocessor based control systems, the service industry has developed highly sophisticated on-board vehicle diagnostics as well as off-board computer based equipment. This paper describes the progression of service test equipment provided by Ford Motor Company to assist in vehicle electrical/electronic diagnostics. Similar to all industry manufacturers Ford Motor has devised both on-board and off-board systems which are required to fix the car right the first time.
Technical Paper

Control of Gear Ratio and Slip in Continuously Variable Transmissions: A Model Predictive Control Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-1104
The efficiency of power transmission through a Van Doorne type Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) can be improved by allowing a small amount of relative slip between the engine and driveline side pulleys. However, excessive slip must be avoided to prevent transmission wear and damage. To enable fuel economy improvements without compromising drivability, a CVT control system must ensure accurate tracking of the gear ratio set-point while satisfying pointwise-in-time constraints on the slip, enforcing limits on the pulley forces, and counteracting driveline side and engine side disturbances. In this paper, the CVT control problem is approached from the perspective of Model Predictive Control (MPC). To develop an MPC controller, a low order nonlinear model of the CVT is established. This model is linearized at a selected operating point, and the resulting linear model is extended with extra states to ensure zero steady-state error when tracking constant set-points.
Technical Paper

An Advanced Yaw Stability Control System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1556
This paper presents an advanced yaw stability control system that uses a sensor set including an inertial measurement unit to sense the 6 degrees-of-freedom motions of a vehicle. The full degree of the inertial measurement unit improves and enhances the vehicle motion state estimation over the one in the traditional electronic stability controls. The addition of vehicle state estimation leads to the performance refinement of vehicle stability control that can improve performance in certain situations. The paper provides both detailed system description and test results showing the effectiveness of the system.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Flare Component Specifications on the Sealing of Double Inverted Flare Brake Tube Joints

2009-04-20
2009-01-1029
While SAE double inverted flares have been in use for decades, leaking joints continue to be a problem for OEMs in production settings consuming time and energy to detect and correct them before releasing vehicles from the assembly plant. It should be noted that this issue is limited to first-time vehicle assembly; once a flared brake tube joint is sealed at the assembly plant it remains sealed during normal customer usage. From their inception through the late 1980s most brake tubes have been 3/16″ nominal diameter. With the advent of higher flow requirements of Traction Control and Yaw/Stability control systems, larger tubes of 1/4″ and 5/16″ size have also been introduced. While it was known that the first-time sealing capability of the 3/16″ joint was not 100%, leakers were generally containable in the production environment and the joint was regarded as robust.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of the Dual Drive Hybrid Electric Propulsion System

2009-04-20
2009-01-0147
The desire for improved vehicle fuel economy, driven by high gas prices and concerns over energy independence, have sparked interest and demand for hybrid electric vehicles. Hybrid electric vehicle propulsion systems exhibit complex interactions which need to be understood in order to maximize fuel economy over the range of operating modes. Model-based development processes which use vehicle system models capable of representing the functional behaviors with embedded controls are needed for fast, efficient design of vehicle control systems which manage overall energy usage. Model-based vehicle system development processes have been employed for a Dual Drive HEV system. The process for creating these vehicle system models is described along with an approach for using these models to develop HEV systems. Details of key subsystem models and the process for integration of full vehicle implementation level controls are discussed.
Technical Paper

Control of Powertrain Noise Using a Frequency Domain Filtered-x LMS Algorithm

2009-05-19
2009-01-2145
An enhanced, frequency domain filtered-x least mean square (LMS) algorithm is proposed as the basis for an active control system for treating powertrain noise. There are primarily three advantages of this approach: (i) saving of computing time especially for long controller’s filter length; (ii) more accurate estimation of the gradient due to the sample averaging of the whole data block; and (iii) capacity for rapid convergence when the adaptation parameter is correctly adjusted for each frequency bin. Unlike traditional active noise control techniques for suppressing response, the proposed frequency domain FXLMS algorithm is targeted at tuning vehicle interior response in order to achieve a desirable sound quality. The proposed control algorithm is studied numerically by applying the analysis to treat vehicle interior noise represented by either measured or predicted cavity acoustic transfer functions.
Technical Paper

GreenZone Driving for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-04-16
2012-01-1004
Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have a large battery which can be used for electric only powertrain operation. The control system in a PHEV must decide how to spend the energy stored in the battery. In this paper, we will present a prototype implementation of a PHEV control system which saves energy for electric operation in pre-defined geographic areas, so called Green Zones. The approach determines where the driver will be going and then compares the route to a database of predefined Green Zones. The control system then reserves enough energy to be able to drive the Green Zone sections in electric only mode. Finally, the powertrain operation is modified once the vehicle enters the Green Zone to ensure engine operation is limited. Data will be presented from a prototype implementation in a Ford Escape PHEV
Technical Paper

Towards Standardized Performance Evaluation of Camera-Based Driver State Sensing Technologies

2016-04-05
2016-01-1500
Driver state sensing technologies start to be widely used in vehicular systems developed from different manufacturers. To optimize the cost and minimize the intrusiveness towards driving, majority of these systems rely on in-cabin camera(s) and other optical sensors. With their great capabilities of detecting and intervening driver distraction and inattention, these technologies might become key components in future vehicle safety and control systems. However, currently there are no common standards available to compare the performance of these technologies, thus it is necessary to develop one standardized process for the evaluation purpose.
Technical Paper

Control for Automated Trailer Backup

2017-03-28
2017-01-0040
We propose a steering controller for automated trailer backup, which can be used on tractor-trailer configurations including fifth wheel campers and gooseneck style trailers. The controller steers the trailer based on real-time driver issued trailer curvature commands. We give a stability proof for the hierarchical control system, and demonstrate robustness under a specific set of modeling errors. Simulation results are provided along with experimental data from a full-size pickup truck and 5th wheel trailer.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Cruise Controller: Trailer Tow Use Case

2017-03-28
2017-01-0090
Conventional cruise control systems in automotive applications are usually designed to maintain the constant speed of the vehicle based on the desired set-point. It has been shown that fuel economy while in cruise control can be improved using advanced control methods namely adopting the Model Predictive Control (MPC) technology utilizing the road grade preview information and allowance of the vehicle speed variation. This paper is focused on the extension of the Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) reported earlier by application to the trailer tow use-case. As the connected trailer changes the aerodynamic drag and the overall vehicle mass, it may lead to the undesired downshifts for the conventional cruise controller introducing the fuel economy losses. In this work, the ANLMPC concept is extended to avoid downshifts by translating the downshift conditions to the constraints of the underlying optimization problem to be solved.
Technical Paper

Open Source Dynamometer with Closed-Loop Control

2017-03-28
2017-01-0382
The development of an automatic control system for a towing dynamometer used for testing is described in this paper. The process involved the deployment of new power electronics circuit boards, a TELMA retarder, instrumentation and a human machine interface (HMI) achieved through an open source platform. The purpose of this platform is to have a low cost system that allows further function development, data acquisition and communication with other devices. This system is intended as a novel solution that will allow closed loop and automated tests integrated with PCM data for engine calibration. It is projected to be part of a flexible calibration system with direct communication to the interfaces used during development (ATI, ETAS), which will be used to achieve lean test and development schedules.
Technical Paper

Integrated Modeling Environment for Detailed Algorithm Design, Simulation and Code Generation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0274
Ford Motor Company has developed an Integrated Modeling Environment (IME) for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) control system development. This paper presents the Integrated Modeling Environment which facilitates the design and development methodology for the production control algorithms to seamlessly move from simulation to the embedded microcontroller environment. The IME encompasses requirement management, system analysis and verification testing at multiple levels of the Systems Engineering V. In addition, the application of this environment for developing HEV control system (production algorithms and code) is also presented.
Technical Paper

Power Control for the Escape and Mariner Hybrids

2007-04-16
2007-01-0282
Ford Motor Company has developed a full hybrid electric vehicle with a power-split hybrid powertrain. There are constraints imposed by the high voltage system in such an HEV, that do not exist in conventional vehicles. A significant controls problem that was addressed in the Ford Escape and Mercury Mariner Hybrids was the determination of the desired powertrain operating point such that the vehicle attributes of fuel economy, performance and drivability are met, while satisfying these new constraints. This paper describes the control system that addressed this problem and the tests that were designed to verify its operation.
Technical Paper

Automation of Hardware-in-the-Loop and In-the-Vehicle Testing and Validation for Hybrid Electric Vehicles at Ford

2006-04-03
2006-01-1448
Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) test system-based development has been used throughout Ford Motor Company for some time. The development of control strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Electronic Control Units (ECU) has benefited from HIL-based testing. It has proven to be an efficient tool for HEV software strategy development, implementation and validation. The Ford HEV HIL system is a very flexible tool able to simulate the whole HEV control system. Ford's HEV HIL system is based on the capabilities of MathWorks tools, dSPACE ControlDesk1, and ATI Vision2 tools and has demonstrated excellent performance. Comprehensive strategy validation is probably the most time consuming and the most routine task for mature vehicle programs. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate how this task is automated for HEV programs at Ford Motor Company.
Technical Paper

Model Based Control System Design and Verification for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2003-06-23
2003-01-2308
A hybrid electric vehicle requires a complex control system to effectively manage vehicle level attributes while maximizing fuel efficiency. The control system interactions necessitate a hierarchical control structure in which one controller, the vehicle system controller, directs the functions of the lower level controllers. This paper outlines a model-based method that allows a controls team to design and validate a vehicle system controller for use in a hybrid electric vehicle.
Technical Paper

Drivability Improvements on Electronic Diesel Engines

2003-11-18
2003-01-3656
The new 2005 Brazilian emissions legislation for diesel vehicles, based on EURO III, requires more complex emission control systems, like electronic engine management systems. The introduction of an electronic engine management system allows improvement in important aspects to the customer perception, such as drivability and vehicle noise levels. The objective of this paper is to compare the gains in terms of drivability of vehicles with electronic engine management system and conventional mechanical system, based on acceleration curves, driving behavior and vehicle speed
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