Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 3 of 3
Technical Paper

Piecewise 1st Order Hydraulic Actuator Model for Transient Transmission Simulations

A transmission system model is developed at various complexities in order to capture the transient behaviors in drivability and fuel economy simulations. A large number of model parameters bring more degree of freedom to correlate with vehicular test data. However, in practice, it requires extensive time and effort to tune the parameters to satisfy the model performance requirements. Among the transmission model, a hydraulic clutch actuator plays a critical role in transient shift simulations. It is particularly difficult to tune the actuator model when it is over-parameterized. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop a hydraulic actuator model that is easy to adjust while retaining sufficient complexity for replicating realistic transient behaviors. This paper describes a systematic approach for reducing the hydraulic actuator model into a piecewise 1st order representation based on piston movement.
Technical Paper

Use of Raman Spectroscopy to Identify Automotive Polymers in Recycling Operations

To support its recycling efforts, Ford Motor Company is using a Raman based instrument, the RP-1, co-developed with SpectraCode Inc. to identify unknown polymeric parts. Our recycling initiative involves detailed dismantling of our vehicles into individual parts, calculating the percentage recyclability and making recommendations for the future use of recycled polymers. While Ford has voluntarily adopted the SAE J1344 marking protocol for identifying part material composition, a large number of unmarked parts still exist and require identification. This identification is being done with the help of RP-1. To facilitate this identification, we have generated an accurate reference library of Raman spectra for comparison to those of unknown materials. This paper will describe the techniques that were used to develop and refine the RP-1 reference library to identify automotive polymers, especially black/dark plastics.
Technical Paper

Experience With Response Surface Methods for Occupant Restraint System Design

Response surface methodologies (RSMs) have been proposed as surrogate models in vehicle design processes to gain insight and improve turnaround time for optimization and robust design. However, when studying the vehicle occupants during crash events, nonlinearities in responses, coupled with the relatively high dimensionality of vehicle design, can yield misleading results with little or no warning from the response surface algorithms. To ensure the accuracy and reliability of RSMs, fast and dependable error estimation procedures are essential for enlightening how well a response surface predicts highly nonlinear phenomena, given a limited number of model simulations. Such error estimation methods are also useful for providing guidance on how many simulation runs are needed for reliable RSM construction. In this paper, a fast cross validation error estimate procedure is first presented, applied to the multivariable adaptive regression spline (MARS) response surface method.