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Technical Paper

Environmentally Friendly and Low Cost Manufacturing – Implementation of MQL Machining (Minimum Quantity Lubrication)

2007-04-16
2007-01-1338
Near Dry or Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) Machining eliminates conventional flood coolant from the machining processes. In doing so, MQL reduces oil mist generation, biological contamination of coolant, waste water volume, costs for capital equipment and regulatory permitting. MQL also improves recycling and transport of coolant contaminated chips [1]. Although MQL machining technology has several advantages compared to wet machining, widespread implementation will require a paradigm shift among end-users, machine suppliers, and cutting tool suppliers. Successful implementation of MQL machining requires a high technical understanding and a solid infrastructure to support maintenance and on-going continuous improvement [2].
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Real-Time Measurements of NO and NO2 in Medium Duty Diesel Truck Exhaust

2007-04-16
2007-01-1329
The goal of the present work was to investigate the ability of the SEMTECH®-D Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) to provide simultaneous, accurate, real-time (1Hz) measurements of NO and NO2 in vehicle exhaust. Extensive chassis dynamometer laboratory evaluation studies of the SEMTECH® system were conducted. The instantaneous (1Hz) NOx emissions were measured using a conventional chemiluminescence analyzer (CLA) and were compared to the sum of the instantaneous NO and NO2 measurements from the SEMTECH®-D. The sum of the NO and NO2 emissions measured by the SEMTECH® were in excellent agreement (within 95% in most cases) with the total NOx measurements from the conventional CLA. During the laboratory evaluation studies, several Federal Test Procedure (FTP) drive cycles were conducted. Examples of the NO and NO2 concentration and mass emissions measured using the SEMTECH®-D are presented along with the corresponding SEMTECH®-D detection limits.
Technical Paper

General Motors Hydra-Matic & Ford New FWD Six-Speed Automatic Transmission Family

2007-04-16
2007-01-1095
The Hydra-Matic 6T70 is General Motors first model of a new, two-variant front wheel drive (FWD) six speed automatic transmission family. The second variant is a higher capacity model, the 6T75. The transmission was co-developed with Ford Motor Company. The 6F50 is the Ford variant that aligns with the GM 6T70 transmission. Approximately eighty five percent of the hardware is shared or common between the GM and Ford transmission variants. Ford will also have a higher capacity variant the 6F55 to align with the GM 6T75. The first GM application is the Saturn Aura for the 2007 Model Year. The Ford Edge and Lincoln MKX in MY 2007 will be the first applications for the 6F50. While the Hydra-Matic and Ford FWD six-speed family was designed with two variants in mind, the designed in modularity requires only changes to the second and third axis and case housings depending on specific torque requirements. This modular design enables a tremendous amount of part sharing.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of EGR Treatment on the Emission and Operating Characteristics of Modern Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-1083
Tests are conducted to improve the use of exhaust gas recirculation on a single cylinder diesel engine with EGR stream treatment techniques that include intake heating, combustible substance oxidation, catalytic fuel reforming, and partial bypass-flow control. In parallel with the empirical work, theoretical modeling analyses are performed to investigate the effectiveness of the reforming process and the combined effects on the overall system efficiency. The research is aimed at stabilizing and expanding the limits of heavy EGR during steady and transient operations so that the individual limiting conditions of EGR can be better identified. Additionally, the heavy EGR is applied to enable in-cylinder low temperature combustion. The effectiveness of EGR treatment on engine emission and operating characteristics are therefore reported.
Technical Paper

Optimizing R&H and NVH Performances Early in the Design Process via Multi Body Simulation

2009-05-19
2009-01-2087
This paper presents a CAE based approach to accurately simulate and optimize Ride and Handling metrics. Because of the wide range of vehicle phenomena involved, across the variety of frequency ranges, it is essential that the vehicle model includes proper representation of the dynamic properties of the various subsystems (e.g. tires, steering, PT, etc.) Precise correlation between test and simulation for standalone vehicle components and systems is achieved by replicating in the MBS (Multi-body Simulation) the same tests and boundary conditions. This allows the analyst to correctly define those crucial elements and parameters which have the greatest effect on the R&H attribute to be investigated. Setting up the simulation to correctly represent only one single maneuver simulation at a time would not allow the analyst to consider how the dynamic properties of the chassis design variables should be tuned to achieve to best balance and trade-offs.
Technical Paper

Use of SEA to Support Sound Package Design Studies and Vehicle Target Setting

2009-05-19
2009-01-2206
Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) vehicle models are well-accepted tools for predicting the high-frequency interior acoustic effects of a design change to the structure or sound package of the vehicle. [1] SEA models do not strongly depend on geometric details, which allows SEA to be uniquely used as an analysis tool very early in the vehicle design phase to identify potential Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) issues caused by proposed changes to acoustic or vibration source levels, component materials, construction details, or sound package details of the vehicle. SEA models can also be used to suggest alternatives while the vehicle is still in the development stages to compensate for a predicted or known degradation to NVH in a vehicle due to a design or source level change. This paper presents a case study in which validation testing and an SEA model were combined to obtain recommendations for the most effective sound package changes to meet NVH targets.
Technical Paper

Sound Simulation and NVH Tuning of a Multi-Mode Engine

2009-05-19
2009-01-2191
This paper describes the use of an interactive NVH simulator in simulating and designing the sound character of a vehicle with a multi-mode engine and active exhaust valve. When designing a vehicle for sound quality, it is not sufficient to merely record some discreet operating conditions and modify these in a traditional sound quality program. The ability to simulate the sound quality of the vehicle over the full operating envelope is a necessity. Additionally, the ability to break down the sound contributions from intake, exhaust and other key contributors to the driver's ear, and manipulate these independently is also essential. In the case described here, an additional factor makes it mandatory that an accurate vehicle sound simulation is performed. The state of the engine and exhaust contribution, and thus the sound of the vehicle, change based on several parameters - vehicle speed, load demand and gear.
Technical Paper

Effects of MMT® Fuel Additive on Emission System Components: Comparison of Clear- and MMT®-fueled Escort Vehicles from the Alliance Study

2004-03-08
2004-01-1084
Emission studies were carried out on clear-fueled and MMT®-fueled 100,000-mile Escort vehicles from the Alliance study [SAE 2002-01-2894]. Alliance testing had revealed substantially higher emissions from the MMT-fueled vehicle, and the present study involved swapping the engine cylinder heads, spark plugs, oxygen sensors, and catalysts between the two vehicles to identify the specific components responsible for the emissions increase. Within 90% confidence limits, all of the emissions differences between the MMT- and Clear-vehicles could be accounted for by the selected components. NMHC emission increases were primarily attributed to the effects of the MMT cylinder head and spark plugs on both engine-out and tailpipe emissions. CO emission increases were largely traced to the MMT cylinder head and its effect on tailpipe emissions. NOx emission increases were linked to the MMT catalyst.
Technical Paper

An Excel Based Robust Design Tool for Vehicle Structural Optimization

2004-03-08
2004-01-1124
To reduce the cost of prototype and physical test, CAE analysis has been widely used to evaluate the vehicle performance during product development process. Combining CAE analysis and optimization approach, vehicle design process can be implemented more efficiently with affordable cost. Reliability based design optimization (RBDO) formulation considers variations of input variables, such as component gauges and material properties. As a result, the design obtained by using RBDO is more reliable and robust compared to those by deterministic optimization. The RBDO process starts from running simulation at DOE sampling data points, generating surrogate models (response surface) and performing robust and reliability based design optimization on the surrogate models by using Monte Carlo simulation. This paper presents a RBDO framework in Excel enviroment.
Technical Paper

Reliability-Based Design Optimization of a Vehicle Exhaust System

2004-03-08
2004-01-1128
This paper focuses on the methodology development and application of reliability-based design optimization to a vehicle exhaust system under noise, vibration and harshness constraints with uncertainties. Reliability-based design optimization provides a systematic way for considering uncertainties in product development process. As traditional reliability analysis itself is a design optimization problem that requires many function evaluations, it often requires tremendous computational resources and efficient optimization methodologies. Multiple functional response constraints and large number of design variables add further complexity to the problem. This paper investigates an integrated approach by taking advantages of variable screening, design of experiments, response surface model, and reliability-based design optimization for problems with functional responses. A typical vehicle exhaust system is used as an example to demonstrate the methodology.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT Powertrain - Supercharged Supercar

2004-03-08
2004-01-1252
The Ford GT powertrain (see Figure 1) is an integrated system developed to preserve the heritage of the LeMans winning car of the past. A team of co-located engineers set out to establish a system that could achieve this result for today's supercar. Multiple variations of engines, transaxles, cooling systems, component locations and innovations were analyzed to meet the project objectives. This paper covers the results and achievements of that team.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT Electrical & Electronics

2004-03-08
2004-01-1259
The Ford GT Program Team was allocated just 22 months from concept to production to complete the Electrical and Electronics systems of the Ford GT. This reduced vehicle program timing - unlike any other in Ford's history -- demanded that the team streamline the standard development process, which is typically 54 months. This aggressive schedule allowed only 12 weeks to design the entire electrical and electronic system architecture, route the wire harnesses, package the components, and manufacture and/or procure all components necessary for the first three-vehicle prototype build.
Technical Paper

A New Analysis Method for Accurate Accounting of IC Engine Pumping Work and Indicated Work

2004-03-08
2004-01-1262
In order to improve fuel economy, engine manufacturers are investigating various technologies that reduce pumping work in spark ignition engines. Current cylinder pressure analysis methods do not allow valid comparison of pumping work reduction strategies. Existing methods neglect valve timing effects which occur during the expansion and compression strokes, but are actually part of the gas exchange process. These additional pumping work contributions become more significant when evaluating non-standard valve timing concepts. This paper outlines a new analysis method for calculating the pumping work and indicated work of a 4-stroke internal combustion engine. Corrections to PMEP and IMEP are introduced which allow the valid comparison of pumping work and indicated efficiency between engines with different pumping work reduction strategies.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT - Vehicle Aerodynamics - Updating a Legend

2004-03-08
2004-01-1254
This paper documents the processes and methods used by the Ford GT team to meet aerodynamic targets. Methods included Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis, wind tunnel experiments (both full-size and scale model), and on-road experiments and measurements. The goal of the team was to enhance both the high-speed stability and track performance of the GT. As a result of the development process, significant front and rear downforce was achieved while meeting the overall drag target.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Globalization and New Materials on the Transition to a Fully Digital Tool and Die

2009-04-20
2009-01-0979
Until recently, tool & die making was a very traditional industry, relying on extensive know-how accumulated over decades of practice. Essentially, it remained a two stage-process: engineering/manufacture, followed by tryout/productionization. Improvements focused on engineering and production methods, but tryout remained the exclusive domain of the die maker. At last, advances in computer modeling methods and the adoption of aggressive lean management principles have brought transformational changes to the tryout phase. At the same time, new safety and weight imperatives have increased the penetration of advanced materials, whose formability characteristics are quite different from mild steels. This paper will explore how these advanced materials affect this transformation.
Technical Paper

Frontal Impact Rear Seatbelt Load Marks: An In-Depth Analysis

2009-04-20
2009-01-1249
Forensic evidence left behind in the form of markings on the seatbelt system can reveal details of how the belt system was being used and how it performed in a collision. Information about how belt systems are being used and how they perform in the field is useful to the design engineer, but interpreting this forensic evidence can be very difficult. Most studies to date have looked at the evidence left behind after a collision simply to determine if the seat belt was being used. This study undertakes the next step and addresses the question of how the belt system was being used. Test data is also presented to allow investigators to determine if the retractor locked and remained locked during the collision or if it spooled out during the collision. The results of 22 HYGE sled tests were analyzed to investigate the types and patterns of marks left behind.
Technical Paper

Development of Emission Transfer Functions for Predicting the Deterioration of a Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst

2009-04-20
2009-01-1282
Urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts have the capability to deliver the high NOx conversion efficiencies required for future emission standards. However, the potential for the occasional over-temperature can lead to the irreversible deactivation of the SCR catalyst. On-board diagnostics (OBD) compliance requires monitoring of the SCR function to make sure it is operating properly. Initially, SCR catalyst performance metrics such as NOx conversion, NH3 oxidation, NH3 storage capacity, and BET surface area are within normal limits. However, these features degrade with high temperature aging. In this work, a laboratory flow reactor was utilized to determine the impact on these performance metrics as a function of aging condition. Upon the completion of a full time-at-temperature durability study, four performance criteria were established to help determine a likely SCR failure.
Technical Paper

Cu/Zeolite SCR on High Porosity Filters: Laboratory and Engine Performance Evaluations

2009-04-20
2009-01-0897
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is expected to be used extensively in the U.S. for diesel vehicle NOx control. Much progress has been made on improving performance and reducing complexity of SCR systems for vehicles in the past several years. SCR system complexity can be reduced further by implementation of SCR-coated diesel particulate filters (SCRFs). In this system, a high porosity (> 50%) filter substrate is coated with an SCR formulation, ideally in the pores of the filter walls, so that the DPF and SCR functions can be combined into a single catalyst. Two state-of-the-art Cu/zeolite SCR formulations and three types of high porosity filter substrates were included in this study. Laboratory and engine-dynamometer tests were performed to measure NOx conversion under a variety of conditions to assess the impact of ammonia oxidation, inlet NO2/NOx ratio, ammonia/NOx ratio, oxygen level, space velocity, soot loading, and ammonia loading level.
Technical Paper

Driver Workload Effects of Cell Phone, Music Player, and Text Messaging Tasks with the Ford SYNC Voice Interface versus Handheld Visual-Manual Interfaces

2009-04-20
2009-01-0786
A fixed-base driving simulator study was conducted to compare driver performance and eye glance behavior effects of tasks performed using the voice interface in Ford Motor Company’s SYNC® system versus handheld operation of portable music players and cellular phones. Data were analyzed from a sample of 25 test participants. All test participants were regular SYNC users (but not SYNC developers), though they varied in their familiarity with SYNC functions. During a car-following scenario at highway speeds on the simulator, the participants performed 7 tasks using SYNC’s voice interface and those same 7 tasks with their own handheld music player and cellular phone. The seven tasks under test were: dial a 10-digit number; call a specific person from a phonebook; receive a call while driving; play a specific song; play songs from a specific artist; review (listen to or read) a text message; and select a reply from a list or type a reply to a text message.
Technical Paper

Ford's Facility Climate Change Initiatives: Lessons Learned From Early Action

2008-04-14
2008-01-0680
Climate change initiatives such as carbon dioxide (CO2) inventory reporting, emissions trading, and carbon offsets projects are receiving increased public and corporate attention worldwide. Through early, voluntary actions, Ford Motor Company's manufacturing operations have gained first-hand experience with these emerging policy tools and our global, centralized approach has supported our participation in facility CO2 initiatives in a more cost-effective and operationally-efficient manner. Ford's early action has also developed internal expertise which enables us to share our lessons learned with others beginning to investigate climate change initiatives.
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