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Technical Paper

Mexico City Traffic and Los Angeles City Traffic Testing: An Approach to Test Route Development for Results Homologation

2012-09-17
2012-01-1808
Vehicle testing on public roads is used by the automotive community in different locations to evaluate the noise characteristics of brake systems under typical customer usage conditions. These tests are generally carried out on different locations and show results with questionable compatibility as has been concluded on several investigations over the last years [1]. Global projects on the other hand mandate to have tests that can represent vehicle usage in several types of environments in order to have reliable indicators of performance on different conditions. This paper suggests a method to characterize roads on different sites and modify the route to match a specific target.
Technical Paper

Effect of Road Excitations on Driveline Output Torque Measurements

2011-05-17
2011-01-1538
This paper presents the characterization of the random noise in driveline output shaft torque measurements that is commonly induced by road disturbances. To investigate the interaction between the shaft torque and road side excitation, torque signals are measured using a magnetoelastic torque sensor, as well as a conventional strain gauge sensor, under various types of road surfaces and conditions such as unevenness. A generalized de-trending method for producing a stationary random signal is first conducted. Statistical methods, in particular the probability density function and transform technique, are utilized to provide an evident signature for identifying the road excitation effect on the vehicle output shaft torque. Analysis results show how the road surface can act as a disturbance input to the vehicle shaft torque.
Journal Article

Modeling and Experimental Investigation of Tire Cavity Noise Generation Mechanisms for a Rolling Tire

2009-05-19
2009-01-2104
Tire cavity noise refers to the excitation of the acoustic mode of a tire cavity. The noise exhibits itself as sharp resonance-like peaks with frequencies typically in the range of 190-250Hz. For a rolling tire, the tire contact with the road moves relative to the tire. Furthermore, the load on the tire breaks the circular symmetry of the tire. Consequently, the peak frequency of the cavity noise shows dependence on the tire load and the vehicle speed. There are no models that simultaneously take these two factors into consideration. In this paper, we propose an analytical model and present experimental verifications of predictions on the noise peak frequency and its dependence on the tire load and vehicle speed. A wireless experimental measurement system is also presented which enables the measurement of tire cavity frequency for both non-rolling and rolling conditions.
Technical Paper

FEA-Based Simulation of Exhaust Hanger Forces

2018-04-03
2018-01-1288
Exhaust systems can be a source of vibrations that transmit inside the vehicle through the exhaust hangers. These vibrations are caused by engine excitations under acceleration. During the upfront development stage, it is important to predict accurately the forces of the exhaust hangers in order to drive a robust exhaust system design and prevent objectionable noise and vibrations inside the vehicle. This paper describes an FEA-based simulation method to predict the exhaust hanger forces. It demonstrates the effect of temperature on the exhaust dynamic behavior and its importance for an accurate prediction of the exhaust hanger forces.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study Using FE Model for Tire Load Estimation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0175
For virtual simulation of the vehicle attributes such as handling, durability, and ride, an accurate representation of pneumatic tire behavior is very crucial. With the advancement in autonomous vehicles as well as the development of Driver Assisted Systems (DAS), the need for an Intelligent Tire Model is even more on the increase. Integrating sensors into the inner liner of a tire has proved to be the most promising way in extracting the real-time tire patch-road interface data which serves as a crucial zone in developing control algorithms for an automobile. The model under development in Kettering University (KU-iTire), can predict the subsequent braking-traction requirement to avoid slip condition at the interface by implementing new algorithms to process the acceleration signals perceived from an accelerometer installed in the inner liner on the tire.
Technical Paper

An Indirect Occupancy Detection and Occupant Counting System Using Motion Sensors

2017-03-28
2017-01-1442
This paper proposes a low-cost but indirect method for occupancy detection and occupant counting purpose in current and future automotive systems. It can serve as either a way to determine the number of occupants riding inside a car or a way to complement the other devices in determining the occupancy. The proposed method is useful for various mobility applications including car rental, fleet management, taxi, car sharing, occupancy in autonomous vehicles, etc. It utilizes existing on-board motion sensor measurements, such as those used in the vehicle stability control function, together with door open and closed status. The vehicle’s motion signature in response to an occupant’s boarding and alighting is first extracted from the motion sensors that measure the responses of the vehicle body. Then the weights of the occupants are estimated by fitting the vehicle responses with a transient vehicle dynamics model.
Technical Paper

Self-Certification Requirements for Adaptive Driving Beam Headlamps

2017-03-28
2017-01-1365
Vehicle certification requirements generally fall into 2 categories: self-certification and various forms of type approval. Self-certification requirements used in the United States under Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) regulations must be objective and measurable with clear pass / fail criteria. On the other hand, Type Approval requirements used in Europe under United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) regulations can be more open ended, relying on the mandated 3rd party certification agency to appropriately interpret and apply the requirements based on the design and configuration of a vehicle. The use of 3rd party certification is especially helpful when applying regulatory requirements for complex vehicle systems that operate dynamically, changing based on inputs from the surrounding environment. One such system is Adaptive Driving Beam (ADB).
Technical Paper

A System of Systems Approach to Automotive Challenges

2018-04-03
2018-01-0752
The automotive industry is facing many significant challenges that go far beyond the design and manufacturing of automobile products. Connected, autonomous and electric vehicles, smart cities, urbanization and the car sharing economy all present challenges in a fast-changing environment which the automotive industry must adapt to. Cars no longer are just standalone systems, but have become constituent systems (CS) in larger System of Systems (SoS) context. This is reflected in the emergence of several acronyms such as vehicle-to-everything (V2X), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) expressions. System of Systems are defined systems of interest whose elements (constituent systems) are managerially and operationally independent systems. This interoperating and/or integrated collection of constituent systems usually produce results unachievable by the individual systems alone, for example the use of car batteries as virtual power plants.
Technical Paper

“Taguchi Customer Loss Function” Based Functional Requirements

2018-04-03
2018-01-0586
Understanding customer expectations is critical to satisfying customers. Holding customer clinics is one approach to set winning targets for the engineering functional measures to drive customer satisfaction. In these clinics, customers are asked to operate and interact with vehicle systems or subsystems such as doors, lift gates, shifters, and seat adjusters, and then rate their experience. From this customer evaluation data, engineers can create customer loss or preference functions. These functions let engineers set appropriate targets by balancing risks and benefits. Statistical methods such as cumulative customer loss function are regularly applied for such analyses. In this paper, a new approach based on the Taguchi method is proposed and developed. It is referred to as Taguchi Customer Loss Function (TCLF).
Technical Paper

A Methodology of Real-World Fuel Consumption Estimation: Part 1. Drive Cycles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0644
To assess the fuel consumption of vehicles, three sets of input data are required; drive cycles, vehicle parameters, and environmental conditions. As the first part of a series of studies on real-world fuel consumption, this study focuses on the drive cycles. In principle, drive cycles should represent real-world usage. Some of them aim at a specific usage such as a city driving condition or an aggressive driving style. However, the definition of city or aggressive driving is very subjective and difficult to quantitatively correlate with the real-world usage. This study proposes a methodology to quantify the speed and dynamics of drive cycles, or vehicle speed traces in general, against the real-world usage. After reviewing parameter sets found in other studies, relative cubic speed (RCS) and positive kinetic energy (PKE) are selected to represent the speed and dynamics through energy flow balance at the wheels.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Trivial Principal Component Regression (TPCR)

2019-04-02
2019-01-0515
Understanding a system behavior involves developing an accurate relationship between the explanatory (predictive) variables and the output response. When the observed data is ill-conditioned with potential collinear correlations among the measured variables, some of the statistical methods such as least squared method (LSM) fail to generate good predictive models. In those situations, other methods like Principal Component Regression (PCR) are generally applicable. Additionally, the PCR reduces the dimensionality of the system by making use of covariance relationship among the variables. In this paper, an improved regression method over PCR is proposed, which is based on the Trivial Principal Components (TPC). The TPC regression (TPCR) makes use of the covariance of the output response and predictive variables while extracting principal components. A new method of selecting potential principal components for variable reduction in TPCR is also proposed and validated.
Technical Paper

Virtual Traffic Simulator for Connected and Automated Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0676
Connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies promise a substantial decrease in traffic accidents and traffic jams, and bring new opportunities for improving vehicle’s fuel economy. However, testing autonomous vehicles in a real world traffic environment is costly, and covering all corner cases is nearly impossible. Furthermore, it is very challenging to create a controlled real traffic environment that vehicle tests can be conducted repeatedly and compared fairly. With the capability of allowing testing more scenarios than those that would be possible with real world testing, simulations are deemed safer, more efficient, and more cost-effective. In this work, a full-scale simulation platform was developed to simulate the infrastructure, traffic, vehicle, powertrain, and their interactions. It is used as an effective tool to facilitate control algorithm development for improving CAV’s fuel economy in real world driving scenarios.
Technical Paper

Initial Comparisons of Friction Stir Spot Welding and Self Piercing Riveting of Ultra-Thin Steel Sheet

2018-04-03
2018-01-1236
Due to the limitations on resistance spot welding of ultra-thin steel sheet (thicknesses below 0.5 mm) in high-volume automotive manufacturing, a comparison of friction stir spot welding and self-piercing riveting was performed to determine which process may be more amenable to enabling assembly of ultra-thin steel sheet. Statistical comparisons between mechanical properties of lap-shear tensile and T-peel were made in sheet thickness below 0.5 mm and for dissimilar thickness combinations. An evaluation of energy to fracture, fracture mechanisms, and joint consistency is presented.
Journal Article

Decoupling Vehicle Work from Powertrain Properties in Vehicle Fuel Consumption

2018-04-03
2018-01-0322
The fuel consumption of a vehicle is shown to be linearly proportional to (1) total vehicle work required to drive the cycle due to mass and acceleration, tire friction, and aerodynamic drag and (2) the powertrain (PT) mechanical losses, which are approximately proportional to the engine displaced volume per unit distance travelled (displacement time gearing). The fuel usage increases linearly with work and displacement over a wide range of applications, and the rate of increase is inversely proportional to the marginal efficiency of the engine. The theoretical basis for these predictions is reviewed. Examples from current applications are discussed, where a single PT is used across several vehicles. A full vehicle cycle simulation model also predicts a linear relationship between fuel consumption, vehicle work, and displacement time gearing and agrees well with the application data.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study of Door Slam

2004-03-08
2004-01-0161
As part of an ongoing technical collaboration between Ford and Rouge Steel Company, a comprehensive study of door slam event was undertaken. The experimental phase of the project involved measurements of accelerations at eight locations on the outer panel and strains on six locations of the inner panel. Although slam tests were conducted with window up and window down, results of only one test is presented in this paper. The CAE phase of the project involved the development of suitable “math” model of the door assembly and analysis methodology to capture the dynamics of the event. The predictability of the CAE method is examined through detailed comparison of accelerations and strains. While excellent agreement between CAE and test results of accelerations on the outer panel is obtained, the analysis predicts higher strains on the inner panel than the test. In addition, the tendency of outer panel to elastically buckle is examined.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Analysis of Engine Torque Modulation for Shift Quality Improvement

2006-04-03
2006-01-1073
An engine torque modulation methodology is developed for use in engines equipped with electronic throttle control, ETC. It is shown through simulation that an engine with ETC is capable of following a transmission torque modulation command that includes a linearly increasing torque during the torque phase, a torque reduction during the inertia phase and a post-shift torque increase. It is also shown that such a strategy can be used to minimize the transmission output torque variation during a shift. The impact of engine indicated mean effective pressure, IMEP, variation on vehicle longitudinal acceleration is analyzed using Monte-Carlo simulation. It is shown that the IMEP induced variation in the vehicle acceleration is largely due to end of shift engine torque output timing errors. It is then recommended that during a shift the engine IMEP variation be held to a one-sigma variation of three percent or less.
Technical Paper

Lower-Body Injury Rates in Full-Engagement Frontal Impacts: Field Data and Logistic Models

2006-04-03
2006-01-1666
Lower-body injury data for adults in real-world frontal impacts in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) were collected, analyzed, and modeled via statistical methods. Two levels of lower-body injury were considered: maximum serious-to-fatal (MAIS3+) and moderate-to-fatal (MAIS2+). In the analysis, we observed that a substantial fraction of all lower-body injured occupants had no recorded floor/toe pan intrusion: 47% of all MAIS3+ injured occupants; 69% of all MAIS2+ injured occupants. In the statistical modeling, we developed binary logistic regression models to fit the MAIS3+ and MAIS 2+ injury data. The statistically significant variables (p ≤ 0.05) were the speed change of the crash, postcrash floor/toe pan intrusion, level of restraint, occupant age, and occupant gender.
Technical Paper

Comparative Dynamic Analysis of Tire Tread Belt Detachments and Stepped Diameter (“Lumpy”) Tires

2007-04-16
2007-01-0846
In this study, tests were performed with modified tires at the right rear location on a solid axle sport utility vehicle to compare vehicle inputs and responses from both: (1) staged tire tread belt detachments, and (2) stepped diameter (“lumpy”) tires. Lumpy tires consist of equal size sections of tread that are vulcanized at equidistant locations around the outer circumference of the tire casing. Some have used lumpy tires in attempt to model the force and displacement inputs created by a tire tread belt separation. Four configurations were evaluated for the lumpy tires: 1-Lump, 2-Lump (2 lengths), and 3-Lump.
Technical Paper

Analytical Life Prediction Modelling of an Automotive Timing Belt

2008-04-14
2008-01-1207
This paper presents a methodology that makes use of computer based analytical simulation methods combined with statistical tools to predict timing belt life. This allows timing belt life to be estimated with no requirement for running test engines and associated test equipment, which is both very time and expense exhaustive. A case study on a belt driven primary drive for a V6 Diesel engine was used to illustrate the methodology. A computer based dynamic model for the belt drive system was developed and validated, and a belt life prediction model was developed, which uses tooth load predictions from the analytical model. Statistical modeling of predicted damage accumulated to failure was used to estimate the model parameters given a limited set of belt life results from a motored rig test. The practical use of the model is illustrated by predicting belt life under customer usage.
Technical Paper

Accuracy of Powertrain Control Module (PCM) Event Data Recorders

2008-04-14
2008-01-0162
The primary purpose of this paper is to evaluate the accuracy of speed data recorded in the Ford PCM under steady state conditions. The authors drove 3 different test vehicles at 5 different steady state speeds from 48 to 113 kph (30 to 70 mph), making 6 runs at each speed. The authors collected PCM data after each run. For the first vehicle a GPS based Racelogic VBOX III was used to measure speed. For the second and third vehicle a purpose built speed trap with .0001 second resolution was used. The authors compare the readings and calculated differences and statistical limits. The secondary purpose is to deliberately create conditions that could result in errors of speed measured, document the conditions, and to quantify the error.
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