Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Transmission Mount Assembly Modelling for Load Simulation and Analysis

2007-04-16
2007-01-1348
Transmission mounts are usually tested as an assembly and typically only translational stiffnesses are provided. The torsional stiffness of the assembly is traditionally estimated based on experience in load simulation and analysis. This paper presents a procedure to estimate the torsional stiffness of the transmission mount assembly by using the test data. The effects of the torsional stiffness on the simulation results are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Validation and Dynamic Analysis of Diesel Pushrod Overhead Bridged Valve Train

2007-04-16
2007-01-1256
A bridged valve train configuration exhibits complex dynamic behavior due to the uniqueness of the special elephant foot/bridge/valve structure. Consequently, this system arrangement presents significant design challenges in system stability at high speed, high load, wear, no-follow and valve seating velocity, etc. An efficient way to gain a thorough understanding of the behavior of this type of valve train system and to drive the valve train design improvement is through the use of an effective dynamic simulation tool. In this paper, an advanced CAE tool developed by Ford Motor Company for the bridged type valve train simulations has been described. This automated CAE tool provides a complete virtual ADAMS-based simulation environment for the pushrod bridged valve train system analysis. This paper also presents the correlation and validation between the simulations and the measurements. The design analysis for the bridged valve train has been discussed briefly in this paper.
Technical Paper

Design of Vehicle Air Conditioning Systems Using Heat Load Analysis

2007-04-16
2007-01-1196
The objective of this paper is to describe a Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) model and its applications for A/C system development at early design stages. This CAE tool calculates the heat load of the vehicle passenger compartment with considerations of solar radiation, conductive/convective heat transfer through the body shell, and any passengers present in the vehicle. A data bank of 6 glass types, 9 surface finishes and 15 material properties are available to increase simulation flexibility. This heat load model can be used as a stand alone tool to calculate the steady-state thermal load of the passenger compartment under users' pre-defined conditions. When interfaced with an A/C refrigerant subsystem model, this integrated CAE tool is capable of evaluating the impacts on A/C system performance when body structures and/or operating conditions are changed.
Technical Paper

Failure Loads of Spot Friction Welds in Aluminum 6111-T4 Sheets under Quasi-Static and Dynamic Loading Conditions

2007-04-16
2007-01-0983
In this investigation, spot friction welds in aluminum 6111-T4 lap-shear specimens were tested under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. Micrographs of the spot friction welds after testing were examined to understand the failure modes of spot friction welds in lap-shear specimens under different loading conditions. The micrographs indicate that the spot friction welds produced by this particular set of welding parameters failed in interfacial failure mode under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. The load and displacement histories for lap-shear specimens were obtained under quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions at three different impact velocities. The failure loads of spot friction welds in lap-shear specimens under dynamic loading conditions are about 7% larger than those under quasi-static loading conditions.
Technical Paper

A CAE Methodology to Simulate Testing a Rearward Facing Infant Seat during FMVSS 208 Low Risk Deployment

2007-04-16
2007-01-1770
The Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard or FMVSS 208 requires passenger cars, multi-purpose vehicles, trucks with less than unloaded vehicle weight of 2,495 kg either to have an automatic suppression feature or to pass the injury criteria specified under low risk deployment test requirement for a 1 year old dummy in rearward and forward facing restraints as well as a forward facing 3 and 6 year old dummy. A convertible child seat was installed in a sub-system test buck representing a passenger car environment with a one-year- old dummy in it at the passenger side seat and a passenger side airbag was deployed toward the convertible child seat. A MADYMO model was built to represent the test scenario and the model was correlated and validated to the results from the experiment.
Technical Paper

Optimizing R&H and NVH Performances Early in the Design Process via Multi Body Simulation

2009-05-19
2009-01-2087
This paper presents a CAE based approach to accurately simulate and optimize Ride and Handling metrics. Because of the wide range of vehicle phenomena involved, across the variety of frequency ranges, it is essential that the vehicle model includes proper representation of the dynamic properties of the various subsystems (e.g. tires, steering, PT, etc.) Precise correlation between test and simulation for standalone vehicle components and systems is achieved by replicating in the MBS (Multi-body Simulation) the same tests and boundary conditions. This allows the analyst to correctly define those crucial elements and parameters which have the greatest effect on the R&H attribute to be investigated. Setting up the simulation to correctly represent only one single maneuver simulation at a time would not allow the analyst to consider how the dynamic properties of the chassis design variables should be tuned to achieve to best balance and trade-offs.
Technical Paper

A Test-Based Procedure for the Identification of Rack and Pinion Steering System Parameters for Use In CAE Ride-Comfort Simulations

2009-05-19
2009-01-2090
Current CAE modeling and simulation techniques in the time domain allow, by now, very accurate prediction of many ride-comfort performances of the cars. Nevertheless, the prediction of the steering wheel rotation vibration excited by, for instance, wheel unbalance or asymmetric obstacle impact, often runs into the difficulty of modeling the steering line with sufficient accuracy. For a classic rack and pinion, hydraulic assisted steering line, one of the challenges is to model the complex and non linear properties - stiffness, friction and damping - of the rack-rack case system. This paper proposes a rack model, thought for easy implementation in complex multi-body models, and an identification procedure of its parameters, based on measurements, in the operational range of the wheel unbalance excitation. The measurements have been gathered by specific tests on the components and the test set-up is also shown here.
Technical Paper

Steering Grunt Noise Robustness Improvement

2009-05-19
2009-01-2095
Grunt is a structure-born noise caused by resonance of the steering gear torsion bar (T-bar) in an HPAS (Hydraulic Power Assist Steering) system. The goal of this work was to develop techniques to quantify and predict grunt in a RV (rotary valve) steering gear system. First, vehicle testing was used to identify an objective metric for grunt: y = dynamic pressure in the return line. Then, a computer simulation was developed to predict y as a function of two known control factors. The simulation results were correlated to measurements on a test vehicle. Finally, the simulation was expanded to include two additional control factors, and grunt predictions were demonstrated on a different test vehicle.
Technical Paper

Control of Powertrain Noise Using a Frequency Domain Filtered-x LMS Algorithm

2009-05-19
2009-01-2145
An enhanced, frequency domain filtered-x least mean square (LMS) algorithm is proposed as the basis for an active control system for treating powertrain noise. There are primarily three advantages of this approach: (i) saving of computing time especially for long controller’s filter length; (ii) more accurate estimation of the gradient due to the sample averaging of the whole data block; and (iii) capacity for rapid convergence when the adaptation parameter is correctly adjusted for each frequency bin. Unlike traditional active noise control techniques for suppressing response, the proposed frequency domain FXLMS algorithm is targeted at tuning vehicle interior response in order to achieve a desirable sound quality. The proposed control algorithm is studied numerically by applying the analysis to treat vehicle interior noise represented by either measured or predicted cavity acoustic transfer functions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Estimation of On-Vehicle Wheel-End Force and Application to Tire Flat-Spotting Effect

2009-05-19
2009-01-2160
Nibble is torsional vibration at the steering wheel of a vehicle. Typically it occurs at a resonant frequency of the steering and suspension system excited by the 1st harmonic tire/wheel force. A nibble target is established to be consistent with customer satisfaction target and then cascaded down to the targets for vehicle nibble sensitivity and tire/wheel inputs. Hence accuracy of the sensitivity and the tire/wheel force is important for a Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) nibble simulation. On-vehicle wheel-end forces are fore/aft and vertical tire/wheel forces acting on a vehicle spindle in an operating condition. This paper presents a methodology to estimate the wheel-end forces. The methodology was applied to investigate the effect of the tire flat-spot on the wheel-end forces. Tires were flat-spotted for one week and two months to simulate customer usage profiles. They were tested to measure the growth of the wheel-end forces.
Technical Paper

Sound Simulation and NVH Tuning of a Multi-Mode Engine

2009-05-19
2009-01-2191
This paper describes the use of an interactive NVH simulator in simulating and designing the sound character of a vehicle with a multi-mode engine and active exhaust valve. When designing a vehicle for sound quality, it is not sufficient to merely record some discreet operating conditions and modify these in a traditional sound quality program. The ability to simulate the sound quality of the vehicle over the full operating envelope is a necessity. Additionally, the ability to break down the sound contributions from intake, exhaust and other key contributors to the driver's ear, and manipulate these independently is also essential. In the case described here, an additional factor makes it mandatory that an accurate vehicle sound simulation is performed. The state of the engine and exhaust contribution, and thus the sound of the vehicle, change based on several parameters - vehicle speed, load demand and gear.
Technical Paper

Diagnostics for Diesel Particulate Filters

2004-03-08
2004-01-1422
This paper presents some of the challenges involved in diagnosing leaks in diesel particulate filters (DPFs). It concentrates on diagnosis with a pressure sensor. It is argued that not all failure modes can be detected by such a sensor, and that this method of diagnosis has far-reaching implications on the monitor completion frequency. Via an error analysis of commercially available sensors we argue that there is little to no separation between healthy and damaged particulate filters. The challenges are illustrated with straightforward analytical calculations.
Technical Paper

An Excel Based Robust Design Tool for Vehicle Structural Optimization

2004-03-08
2004-01-1124
To reduce the cost of prototype and physical test, CAE analysis has been widely used to evaluate the vehicle performance during product development process. Combining CAE analysis and optimization approach, vehicle design process can be implemented more efficiently with affordable cost. Reliability based design optimization (RBDO) formulation considers variations of input variables, such as component gauges and material properties. As a result, the design obtained by using RBDO is more reliable and robust compared to those by deterministic optimization. The RBDO process starts from running simulation at DOE sampling data points, generating surrogate models (response surface) and performing robust and reliability based design optimization on the surrogate models by using Monte Carlo simulation. This paper presents a RBDO framework in Excel enviroment.
Technical Paper

Reliability-Based Design Optimization of a Vehicle Exhaust System

2004-03-08
2004-01-1128
This paper focuses on the methodology development and application of reliability-based design optimization to a vehicle exhaust system under noise, vibration and harshness constraints with uncertainties. Reliability-based design optimization provides a systematic way for considering uncertainties in product development process. As traditional reliability analysis itself is a design optimization problem that requires many function evaluations, it often requires tremendous computational resources and efficient optimization methodologies. Multiple functional response constraints and large number of design variables add further complexity to the problem. This paper investigates an integrated approach by taking advantages of variable screening, design of experiments, response surface model, and reliability-based design optimization for problems with functional responses. A typical vehicle exhaust system is used as an example to demonstrate the methodology.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT - Vehicle Aerodynamics - Updating a Legend

2004-03-08
2004-01-1254
This paper documents the processes and methods used by the Ford GT team to meet aerodynamic targets. Methods included Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis, wind tunnel experiments (both full-size and scale model), and on-road experiments and measurements. The goal of the team was to enhance both the high-speed stability and track performance of the GT. As a result of the development process, significant front and rear downforce was achieved while meeting the overall drag target.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Globalization and New Materials on the Transition to a Fully Digital Tool and Die

2009-04-20
2009-01-0979
Until recently, tool & die making was a very traditional industry, relying on extensive know-how accumulated over decades of practice. Essentially, it remained a two stage-process: engineering/manufacture, followed by tryout/productionization. Improvements focused on engineering and production methods, but tryout remained the exclusive domain of the die maker. At last, advances in computer modeling methods and the adoption of aggressive lean management principles have brought transformational changes to the tryout phase. At the same time, new safety and weight imperatives have increased the penetration of advanced materials, whose formability characteristics are quite different from mild steels. This paper will explore how these advanced materials affect this transformation.
Technical Paper

Harnessing Structural Optimization Techniques for Developing Efficient Light-Weight Vehicles

2009-04-20
2009-01-1234
The advent of various structural optimization methods has made the process of deriving efficient lightweight designs for complex structures under multiple load conditions far more attainable than ever before. Three of these methods, namely sizing, topology and topometry optimization have been used extensively in the structural optimization of body-in-white structures. While all these techniques have their unique advantages, they provide different solutions to the posed problem. In this paper, we examine how best these optimization techniques can be used to derive a more efficient design within a linear domain, through a case study. Depending on the starting point of the design, all three techniques can play a vital role in making design decisions.
Technical Paper

Development of Shear Fracture Criterion for Dual-Phase Steel Stamping

2009-04-20
2009-01-1172
Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) have been widely and successfully used in sheet metal stamping as a failure criterion to detect localized necking, which is the most common failure mechanism for conventional steels during forming. However, recent experience from stamping Dual-Phase steels found that, under certain circumstances such as stretching-bend over a small die radius, the sheet metal fails earlier than that predicted by the FLD based on the initiation of a localized neck. It appears that a different failure mechanism and mode are in effect, commonly referred to as “shear fracture” in the sheet metal stamping community. In this paper, experimental and numerical analysis is used to investigate the shear fracture mechanism. Numerical models are established for a stretch-bend test on DP780 steel with a wide range of bend radii for various failure modes. The occurrences of shear fracture are identified by correlating numerical simulation results with test data.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Advanced Compressor Technologies to Meet Future Diesel Emission Regulations

2009-04-20
2009-01-1469
The response to increasingly stringent light duty diesel emission regulation is a nearly unanimous increase in heavy Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) application to reduce feedgas NOx emissions. Little attention has been paid to the fact that heavy EGR usage is likely to push the engine operating conditions towards less efficient or even unstable regions of conventional centrifugal compressor operating maps. Moreover, the low oxygen content at part load operation also poses transient response challenges. Therefore, improving turbocharger efficiency at part load and extending the stable operating range is becoming critical for viable future low emission diesel engines. In this study of a turbocharger compression system, encompassing the airflow geometry from compressor impeller inlet to volute exit, a dual volute compressor concept was introduced, and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to investigate its effects on the overall expected performance level and range.
X