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Technical Paper

Development of Emission Transfer Functions for Predicting the Deterioration of a Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst

Urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts have the capability to deliver the high NOx conversion efficiencies required for future emission standards. However, the potential for the occasional over-temperature can lead to the irreversible deactivation of the SCR catalyst. On-board diagnostics (OBD) compliance requires monitoring of the SCR function to make sure it is operating properly. Initially, SCR catalyst performance metrics such as NOx conversion, NH3 oxidation, NH3 storage capacity, and BET surface area are within normal limits. However, these features degrade with high temperature aging. In this work, a laboratory flow reactor was utilized to determine the impact on these performance metrics as a function of aging condition. Upon the completion of a full time-at-temperature durability study, four performance criteria were established to help determine a likely SCR failure.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of the Impact of Exhaust Turbine Redesign, for Narrow VGT Operating Range, on the Performance of Diesel Engines with Assisted Turbocharger

Electrically assisted turbochargers are a promising technology for improving boost response of turbocharged engines. These systems include a turbocharger shaft mounted electric motor/generator. In the assist mode, electrical energy is applied to the turbocharger shaft via the motor function, while in the regenerative mode energy can be extracted from the shaft via the generator function, hence these systems are also referred to as regenerative electrically assisted turbochargers (REAT). REAT allows simultaneous improvement of boost response and fuel economy of boosted engines. This is achieved by optimally scheduling the electrical assist and regeneration actions. REAT also allows the exhaust turbine to operate within a narrow range of optimal vane positions relative to the unassisted variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). The ability to operate within a narrow range of VGT vane positions allows an opportunity for a more optimal turbine design for a REAT system.
Technical Paper

Selective Catalytic Reduction Control with Multiple Injectors

Over the past decade urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has become a leading aftertreatment solution to meet increasingly stringent Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions requirements in diesel powertrains. A common trend seen in modern SCR systems is the use of "split-brick" configurations where two SCR catalysts are placed in thermally distinct regions of the aftertreatment. One catalyst is close-coupled to the engine for fast light-off and another catalyst is positioned under-floor to improve performance at high space velocities. Typically, a single injector is located upstream of the first catalyst to provide the reductant necessary for efficient NOx reduction. This paper explores the potential benefit, in terms of improved NOx reduction, control of NH3 slip or reduced reductant consumption, of having independently actuated injectors in front of each catalyst.
Technical Paper

Limitations of Real-Time Engine-Out NOx Estimation in Diesel Engines

Many excellent papers have been written about the subject of estimating engine-out NOx on diesel engines based on real-time available data. The claimed accuracy of these models is typically around 6-10% on validation data sets with known inputs. This reported accuracy typically ignores input uncertainties, thus arriving at an optimistic estimate of the model accuracy in a real-time application. In our paper we analyze the effect of input uncertainty on the accuracy of engine-out NOx estimates via a numerical Monte Carlo simulation and show that this effect can be significant. Even though our model is based on an in-cylinder pressure sensor, this sensor is limited in its capability to reduce the effect of other measured inputs on the model.
Journal Article

Smart DPF Regenerations - A Case Study of a Connected Powertrain Function

The availability of connectivity and autonomy enabled resources, within the automotive sector, has primarily been considered for driver assist technologies and for extending the levels of vehicle autonomy. It is not a stretch to imagine that the additional information, available from connectivity and autonomy, may also be useful in further improving powertrain functions. Critical powertrain subsystems that must operate with limited or uncertain knowledge of their environment stand to benefit from such new information sources. Unfortunately, the adoption of this new information resource has been slow within the powertrain community and has typically been limited to the obvious problem choices such as battery charge management for electric vehicles and efforts related to fuel economy benefits from adaptive/coordinated cruise control. In this paper we discuss the application of connectivity resources in the management of an aftertreatment sub-system, the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF).