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Technical Paper

Adhesive Modeling in Crash Simulation

A practical modeling methodology for adhesively bonded structures using discrete springs has been developed for crash simulation. As a first step, a series of coupon tests with adhesively bonded substrates have been conducted under tension, peel and shearing. Both deformable and rigid substrates have been used in these tests. The resulting data has been used to determine the properties of the adhesive springs. A set of numerical simulations of the coupon tests have been conducted to verify that the adhesive spring properties derived earlier do indeed represent the mechanical properties of the physical adhesives in the coupon tests.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Spot Weld under Impact Loading and Its Effect on Crash Simulation

Spot weld is the primary joining method to assemble the automotive body structure. In any crash events some separation of spot-welds can be expected. However, if this happens in critical areas of the vehicle it can potentially affect the integrity of the structure. It will be beneficial to identify such issues through CAE simulation before prototypes are built and tested. This paper reports a spot weld modeling methodology to characterize spot weld separation and its application in full vehicle crash simulation. A generalized two-node spring element with 6 DOF at each node is used to model the spot weld. Separation of spot welds is modeled using three alternative rupture criteria defined in terms of peak force, displacement and energy. Component level crash tests are conducted using VIA sled at various impact speeds to determine mean crush load and identify possible separation of welds.
Technical Paper

Development of a Target Vehicle Model For Vehicle-To-Vehicle Simulations: Part II Vehicle-To-Vehicle Impactsy

The objective of this study is to verify the performance of a target vehicle model in vehicle-to-vehicle impact applications. In some vehicle-to-vehicle tests, the target vehicle stays the same and the bullet vehicle changes from test to test depending on the programs under evaluation. To obtain reasonable crash pulse predictions in vehicle-to-vehicle impacts, it was decided to develop an accurate and robust target vehicle model first. The development of the target vehicle model was divided into two phases, rigid barrier and vehicle-to-vehicle impacts. Twelve rigid barrier tests, including full rigid barriers, angular rigid barriers, offset rigid barriers, and fixed rigid poles were adopted in the first phase of the study to calibrate the target vehicle model. The results of the study have been reported [1]. This paper focuses on the verification of vehicle-to-vehicle impacts.
Technical Paper

Extruded Aluminum Crash Can Topology for Maximizing Specific Energy Absorption

Specific energy absorption (SEA) is a quantitative measure of the efficiency of a structural member in absorbing impact energy. For an extruded aluminum crash can, SEA generally depends upon the topology of its cross-section. An investigation is carried out to determine the optimal cross-sectional topologies for maximizing SEA while considering manufacturing constrains such as, permissible die radii, gauges, etc. A comprehensive DOE type matrix of cross-sectional topologies has been developed by considering a wide variety of practical shapes and configurations. Since it is critical to include all feasible topologies, much thought and care has been given in developing this matrix. Detailed finite element crash analyses are carried out to simulate axial crushing of the selected crash cans topologies and the resulting specific energy absorption (SEA) is estimated for each case.
Technical Paper

Methodology On The Testing Of The Automobile Mount Dynamic Response

This paper reports the latest development of methodologies for testing and CAE modeling of the automobile mounts. The objective of this study is to provide dynamic mount properties for product evaluation and CAE modeling guideline for crashworthiness simulations. The methodology is divided into component, subsystem and full system levels. The study at the component level is to extract the dynamic parameters of mounts, such as stiffness and damping coefficient, based on the component tests. Furthermore, such parameters are employed to investigate the interaction between mount and connecting structures at the subsystem level. A robust connection mechanism from mount to surrounding structures is also developed during this process. Finally, the results from full vehicle system tests are compared with the CAE simulations to verify the methodology at the component and subsystem levels. A robust component test methodology is the first key element of this study.
Technical Paper

Development of a Target Vehicle Model for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Simulations: Part I Rigid Barrier Impacts

The objective of this study is to develop a target vehicle model for vehicle-to-vehicle impact applications. In order to provide reasonable predictions for crash pulses in vehicle-to-vehicle impacts, an accurate and robust target vehicle model was developed first. An ideal target vehicle model should be able to provide reasonable results when hit by different bullet vehicles at different impact speeds and under different impact conditions. This was achieved by calibrating the target vehicle model against different vehicle crash tests, which include full rigid barriers, angular rigid barriers, offset rigid barriers, and fixed rigid poles. Twelve rigid barrier tests were adopted in this study to calibrate the target vehicle model. During the calibration process, some of the vehicle structures were examined and remodeled carefully for their properties and mesh quality.
Technical Paper

Strain-Rate Characterization of Automotive Steel and the Effect of Strain-Rate in Component Crush Analysis

The effects of strain-rate and element mesh size on the numerical simulation of an automotive component impacted by a mass dropped from an instrumented drop tower was investigated. For this study, an analysis of a simple steel rail hat-section impacted by a mass moving at an initial velocity of 28Mph was performed using the explicit finite element code Radioss. Three constitutive material models: Elasto-Plastic (without strain rate), Johnson-Cook, and Zerilli-Armstrong were used to characterize the material properties for mild and high strength steel. Results obtained from the numerical analyses were compared to the experimental data for the maximum crush, final deformation shape, average crush force and the force-deflection curve. The results from this study indicate that the mechanical response of steel can be captured utilizing a constitutive material model which accounts for strain rate effect coupled with an average mesh size of 6 to 9mm.
Technical Paper

MMLV: Crash Safety Performance

The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy (DOE) project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while achieving frontal crash test performance comparable to the baseline vehicle. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The Mach-I vehicle design, comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364 kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0 liter three-cylinder engine, leading to the potential for reduced environmental impact and improved fuel economy.