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Technical Paper

The Effects of Injector Targeting and Fuel Volatility on Fuel Dynamics in a PFI Engine During Warm-up: Part II - Modeling Results

The effects of injector targeting and fuel volatility on transient fuel dynamics were studied with a comprehensive quasi-dimensional model and compared with experimental results from Part I of this report (1). The model includes the transient, convective vaporization of four multi-component fuel films coupled with a transient thermal warm-up model for realistic valve, port and cylinder temperatures (2, 3). Two injector targetings were analyzed, first with the fuel impacting the intake valve and in addition, the fuel impacting the port floor directly in front of the intake valve. The model demonstrates the importance of both component temperature and fuel impaction area on fuel vaporization, transient air fuel ratio (AFR) response and the amount of liquid fuel entering the cylinder. Generally, a smaller injector footprint area will lead to more liquid fuel entering the cylinder even if the spray is targeted at the back of the intake valve.
Technical Paper

The Occurrence of Flash Boiling in a Port Injected Gasoline Engine

The occurrence of flash boiling in the fuel spray of a Port Fuel Injected (PFI) spark ignition engine has been observed and photographed during normal automotive vehicle operating conditions. The flash boiling of the PFI spray has a dramatic affect on the fuel spray characteristics such as droplet size and spray cone angle which can affect engine transient response, intake valve temperature and possibly hydrocarbon emissions. A new method of correlating the spray behavior using the equilibrium vapor/liquid (V/L) volume ratio of the fuel at the measured fuel temperature and manifold pressure is introduced.