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Video

Future Development of EcoBoost Technology

2012-05-10
Ford's EcoBoost GTDI engine technology (Gasoline Direct Injection, Turbo-charging and Downsizing) is being successfully implemented in the market place with the EcoBoost option accounting for significant volumes in vehicle lines as diverse as the F150 pickup truck, Edge CUV and the Lincoln MKS luxury sedan. A logical question would be what comes after GTDI? This presentation will review some of the technologies that will be required for further improvements in CO2, efficiency and performance building on the EcoBoost foundation as well as some of the challenges inherent in the new technologies and approaches. Presenter Eric W. Curtis, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Model Development of Sid-Iis

1999-10-10
99SC06
This paper describes the development and validation of a finite element model of the SID-IIs beta+-prototype dummy using a nonlinear explicit finite element code. The geometry of the SID-IIs dummy is modeled with shell and solid elements from digital scans. The material properties are derived from dynamic tests and the model validation is conducted on component, subassembly and full assembly levels. Component level validation of the head/neck, arm, ribs, and lumbar spine is presented. The model validation of the thorax and pelvis subassemblies as well as pendulum calibration tests (shoulder, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis) and rigid-wall sled tests of the fully assembled dummy mode is also presented. The model response compares favorably with experimental data and provides a reasonable level of confidence in the model biofidelity.
Technical Paper

Investigating Ankle Injury Mechanisms in Offset Frontal Collisions Utilizing Computer Modeling and Case-Study Data

1999-10-10
99SC14
A significant number of documented ankle injuries incurred in automobile accidents indicate some form of lateral loading is present to either cause or influence injury. A high percentage of these cases occur in the absence of occupant compartment intrusion. To date, no specific ankle injury mechanism has been identified to explain these types of injuries. To investigate this problem, several resources were used including full-scale crash test data, finite element models, and case study field data. Results from car-to-car, offset frontal crash tests indicate a significant lateral acceleration (10-18 g) occurs at the same time as the peak in longitudinal acceleration. The combined loading condition results in a significant lateral force being applied to the foot-ankle region while the leg region is under maximum compression.
Technical Paper

Automotive Obstacle Detection Systems: a Survey of Design Requirements and Vehicle Integration Issues

1998-10-19
98C021
Obstacle detection technology has made significant progress in the last five years in the important product areas of quality, performance and affordability. Ford Motor Company's market research indicates that our customers are very interested in new safety features. Drivers consider obstacle detection and collision warning technology as the next breakthrough in safety technology. Ford recognizes the importance of moving from the collision mitigation to the collision avoidance paradigm. Fortunately, the first step in collision avoidance can be taken by equipping the vehicle with reliable and affordable obstacle detection sensors
Technical Paper

Computer Simulations of a Range of Car-Pedestrian Collisions

1985-01-01
856111
Realistically, the only way to significantly improve the pedestrian injury situation is by separation of the vehicle and pedestrian population to prevent collision occurring, since injury to a pedestrian is inevitable if hit by a car travelling at even low speeds. However, it is important to assess the contribution that vehicle design characteristics can make to minimise the consequences of such collisions for a variety of pedestrian types, and to establish the various vehicle parameters that can influence pedestrian injury. This paper describes the initial stages of an investigation into these parameters by means of computer simulation. First, the joint, inertia, and contact characteristics of a 50th percentile adult dummy and a 6-year-old child dummy were established by tests. The contact characteristics of a range of car fronts were also determined from pendulum tests at speeds of 24 and 40km/h.
Technical Paper

The Mvma Investigation Into the Complexities of Heavy Truck Splash and Spray Problem

1985-01-01
856097
Splash and spray conditions created by tractor-trailer combinations operating on the Federal highway system have been studied and tested for many years with mixed results. Past events are reviewed briefly in this paper. In additional testing during 1983, using new state-of- the-art splash/spray suppressant devices, some encouragement was provided that these devices could work. The 1984 Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) test program was designed to develop practicable and reliable test procedures to measure effectiveness of splash and spray reduction methods applied to tractor-trailer combination vehicles. Over 40 different combinations of splash/spray suppression devices on five different tractors and three van trailer types were tested. The spray-cloud densities for some 400 test runs were measured by laser transmissometers and also recorded by still photography, motion pictures, and videotape. On-site observers made subjective ratings of spray density.
Technical Paper

Inclusion of Crashworthiness in Concept Design

1985-01-01
856090
A side impact study carried out on a particular vehicle has been described and used as a case study to represent a methodology for incorporating side crashworthiness in a new vehicle concept design. In the automotive design environment, it has proved difficult to include side crashworthiness satisfactorily in the initial stages of the passenger car design. Lack of vehicle data at such a stage does not allow detailed finite element analysis. It is, however, possible to suggest the required collapse properties for individual components within the structure so that, through a coarse finite element idealization, a design for crashworthiness can be carried out. The crash properties of the structure can be arrived at by parametric studies of individual components that are absorbing the major portion of the crash energy.
Technical Paper

The Development of Ford's Natural Gas Powered Ranger

1985-11-11
852277
Operation of America's first factory built vehicles modified to operate on natural gas began in April, 1984, when Ford Motor Company delivered the first of 27 specially equipped 1984 Ranger pickup trucks to 25 major utility and natural gas related companies in the United States and Canada. In addition to the fuel system, modifications to these test vehicles include a 12.8:1 compression ratio engine and a unique distributor calibration to provide performance similar to the gasoline powered vehicle. The fuel tanks are significantly more expensive than gasoline tanks and remain one of the major cost issues with a natural gas powered vehicle. There are however, no unresolvable technological issues that would prevent motor vehicles from operating economically and efficiently on natural gas.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Developing and Validating Air Brake Tubes for Commercial Vehicles

2012-10-02
2012-36-0272
The pneumatic air brake system for heavy commercial trucks is composed by a large number of components, aiming its proper work and compliance with rigorous criteria of vehicular safety. One of those components, present along the whole vehicle, is the air brake tube, ducts which feed valves and reservoirs with compressed air, carrying signals for acting or releasing the brake system. In 2011, due to a lack of butadiene in a global scale, the manufacturing of these tubes was compromised; as this is an important raw material present on the polymer used so far, PA12. This article introduces the methodology of selecting, developing and validating in vehicle an alternative polymer for this application. For this purpose, acceptance criteria have been established through global material specifications, as well as bench tests and vehicular validation requirements.
Technical Paper

High Chest Accelerations in the Hybrid III Dummy Due to Interference in the Hip Joint

1994-11-01
942224
The design of the Hybrid III dummy's hip joint limits the allowable relative rotation between the dummy's lower torso and femur assembly. This limited motion is thought to cause abnormally high chest accelerations in some front barrier crash tests. This paper describes static testing and computer modeling to quantify the hip joint range of motion and its effect on dummy chest accelerations. To verify model results, a series of HYGE sled tests were completed using modified hip joints.
Technical Paper

Head Injury Potential Assessment in Frontal Impacts by Mathematical Modeling

1994-11-01
942212
The potential of head injury in frontal barrier impact tests was investigated by a mathematical model which consisted of a finite element human head model, a four segments rigid dynamic neck model, a rigid body occupant model, and a lumped-mass vehicle structure model. The finite element human head model represents anatomically an average adult head. The rigid body occupant model simulates an average adult male. The structure model simulates the interior space and the dynamic characteristics of a vehicle. The neck model integrates the finite element human head to the occupant body to give a more realistic kinematic head motion in a barrier crash test. Model responses were compared with experimental cadaveric data and vehicle crash data for the purpose of model validation to ensure model accuracy. Model results show a good agreement with those of the tests.
Technical Paper

A General Formulation for Topology Optimization

1994-11-01
942256
Topology optimization is used for obtaining the best layout of vehicle structural components to achieve predetermined performance goals. Unlike the most common approach which uses the optimality criteria methods, the topology design problem is formulated as a general optimization problem and is solved by the mathematical programming method. One of the major advantages of this approach is its generality; thus it can solve various problems, e.g. multi-objective and multi-constraint problems. The MSC/NASTRAN finite element code is employed for response analyses. Two automotive examples including a simplified truck frame and a truck frame crossmember are presented.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Delivery Module for Light Truck Applications

1993-11-01
932980
This paper reviews the design and development of a self-filling, in-tank fuel system reservoir intended for use in diesel engine vehicle applications. This new idea eliminates engine driveability concerns (stumbles, hesitations, stalling, etc.) associated with an inconsistent supply of fuel from the fuel tank to the engine, particularly during sudden vehicle maneuvers and with low fuel tank conditions.
Technical Paper

Impact of Computer Aided Engineering on Ford Motor Company Light Truck Cooling Design and Development Processes

1993-11-01
932977
This paper presents the benefits of following a disciplined thermal management process during the design and development of Ford Light Truck engine cooling systems. The thermal management process described has evolved through the increased use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools. The primary CAE tool used is a numerical simulation technique within the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The paper discusses the need to establish a heat management team, develop a heat management model, construct a three dimensional CFD model to simulate the thermal environment of the engine cooling system, and presents CFD modeling examples of Ford Light Trucks with engine driven cooling fans.
Technical Paper

A New Approach for Weight Reduction in Truck Frame Design

1993-11-01
933037
A new, systematic, sensitivity based design process for weight reduction is presented. Traditionally, a trial and error method is used when a design fails to meet the weight and the design criteria, which often conflict. This old approach not only is time and cost consuming but also does not provide insight into structural behavior. This proposed process uses state-of-the-art technologies such as design sensitivity analysis, numerical optimization, graphical user interface, etc. It handles multi-discipline design criteria simultaneously and provides design engineers insight into structural responses for frequency, durability, and stiffness concerns and a means for systematic weight reduction and quality improvement. The new design process has been applied for the weight reduction of advanced truck frame designs. Results show that a significant weight savings has been achieved while all design criteria are met.
Journal Article

Crash Performance Simulation of a Multilayer Thermoplastic Fuel Tank with Manufacturing and Assembly Consideration

2011-04-12
2011-01-0009
The modeling of plastic fuel tank systems for crash safety applications has been very challenging. The major challenges include the prediction of fuel sloshing in high speed impact conditions, the modeling of multilayer thermoplastic fuel tanks with post-forming (non-uniform) material properties, and the modeling of tank straps with pre-tensions. Extensive studies can be found in the literature to improve the prediction of fuel sloshing. However, little research had been conducted to model the post-forming fuel tank and to address the tension between the fuel tank and the tank straps for crash safety simulations. Hoping to help improve the modeling of fuel systems, the authors made the first attempt to tackle these major challenges all at once in this study by dividing the modeling of the fuel tank into eight stages. An ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) method was adopted to simulate the interaction between the fuel and the tank.
Technical Paper

Ford Motor Companys' new Torqshift 6 Automatic Transmission for Super Duty F250-F550 Truck

2010-04-12
2010-01-0859
Ford developed the 6R140 TorqShift six-speed transmission for the Ford F-series SuperDuty trucks. The 6R140 transmission is specifically designed to manage the increased torque produced by the 6.7-liter Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine. It is also matched with the 6.2-liter V-8 gasoline engine. By design, the new 6R140 transmission seamlessly delivers the enormous low-rpm torque produced by the new diesel engine and efficiently manages the higher rpm of the new gasoline engine.
Journal Article

Occupant Preferred Back Angle Relative to Head Restraint Regulations

2010-04-12
2010-01-0779
Having, by now, introduced several new vehicles that comply with FMVSS 202a, manufacturers are reporting an increased number of complaints from consumers who find that the head restraint is too close; negatively affecting their posture. It is speculated that one of the reasons that head restraints meeting the new requirement are problematic is that the FMVSS backset measurement is performed at a back angle that is more reclined than the back angle most drivers choose and the back angle at which the seat / vehicle was designed. The objective of this paper is to confirm this hypothesis and elaborate on implications for regulatory compliance in FMVSS 202a.
Journal Article

Axial Crash Testing and Finite Element Modeling of A 12-Sided Steel Component

2010-04-12
2010-01-0379
To improve the energy absorption capacity of front-end structures during a vehicle crash, a novel 12-sided cross-section was developed and tested. Computer-aided engineering (CAE) studies showed superior axial crash performance of the 12-sided component over more conventional cross-sections. When produced from advanced high strength steels (AHSS), the 12-sided cross-section offers opportunities for significant mass-savings for crash energy absorbing components such as front or rear rails and crush tips. In this study, physical crash tests and CAE modeling were conducted on tapered 12-sided samples fabricated from AHSS. The effects of crash trigger holes, different steel grades and bake hardening on crash behavior were examined. Crash sensitivity was also studied by using two different part fabrication methods and two crash test methods. The 12-sided components showed regular folding mode and excellent energy absorption capacity in axial crash tests.
Journal Article

Development of the Combustion System for a Flexible Fuel Turbocharged Direct Injection Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0585
Gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engines, such as EcoBoost™ from Ford, are becoming established as a high value technology solution to improve passenger car and light truck fuel economy. Due to their high specific performance and excellent low-speed torque, improved fuel economy can be realized due to downsizing and downspeeding without sacrificing performance and driveability while meeting the most stringent future emissions standards with an inexpensive three-way catalyst. A logical and synergistic extension of the EcoBoost™ strategy is the use of E85 (approximately 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) for knock mitigation. Direct injection of E85 is very effective in suppressing knock due to ethanol's high heat of vaporization - which increases the charge cooling benefit of direct injection - and inherently high octane rating. As a result, higher boost levels can be achieved while maintaining optimal combustion phasing giving high thermal efficiency.
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