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Video

Future Development of EcoBoost Technology

2012-05-10
Ford's EcoBoost GTDI engine technology (Gasoline Direct Injection, Turbo-charging and Downsizing) is being successfully implemented in the market place with the EcoBoost option accounting for significant volumes in vehicle lines as diverse as the F150 pickup truck, Edge CUV and the Lincoln MKS luxury sedan. A logical question would be what comes after GTDI? This presentation will review some of the technologies that will be required for further improvements in CO2, efficiency and performance building on the EcoBoost foundation as well as some of the challenges inherent in the new technologies and approaches. Presenter Eric W. Curtis, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

The Mvma Investigation Into the Complexities of Heavy Truck Splash and Spray Problem

1985-01-01
856097
Splash and spray conditions created by tractor-trailer combinations operating on the Federal highway system have been studied and tested for many years with mixed results. Past events are reviewed briefly in this paper. In additional testing during 1983, using new state-of- the-art splash/spray suppressant devices, some encouragement was provided that these devices could work. The 1984 Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) test program was designed to develop practicable and reliable test procedures to measure effectiveness of splash and spray reduction methods applied to tractor-trailer combination vehicles. Over 40 different combinations of splash/spray suppression devices on five different tractors and three van trailer types were tested. The spray-cloud densities for some 400 test runs were measured by laser transmissometers and also recorded by still photography, motion pictures, and videotape. On-site observers made subjective ratings of spray density.
Technical Paper

The Development of Ford's Natural Gas Powered Ranger

1985-11-11
852277
Operation of America's first factory built vehicles modified to operate on natural gas began in April, 1984, when Ford Motor Company delivered the first of 27 specially equipped 1984 Ranger pickup trucks to 25 major utility and natural gas related companies in the United States and Canada. In addition to the fuel system, modifications to these test vehicles include a 12.8:1 compression ratio engine and a unique distributor calibration to provide performance similar to the gasoline powered vehicle. The fuel tanks are significantly more expensive than gasoline tanks and remain one of the major cost issues with a natural gas powered vehicle. There are however, no unresolvable technological issues that would prevent motor vehicles from operating economically and efficiently on natural gas.
Technical Paper

Optimization of New Plastic Bracket NVH Characteristics using CAE

2012-10-02
2012-36-0195
NVH requirements are critical in new driveline developments. Failure modes due to resonances must be carefully analyzed and potential root causes must have adequate countermeasures. One of the most common root causes is the modal alignment. This work shows the steps to design and optimize a new plastic bracket for an automotive half shaft bearing. This bracket replaces a very stiff bracket, made of cast iron. The initial design of plastic bracket was not stiff enough to bring natural frequency of the system above engine second order excitation at maximum speed. The complete power pack was modeled and NVH CAE analysis was performed. The CAE outputs included Driving Point Response, Frequency Response Function and Modal analysis. The boundary conditions were discussed deep in detail to make sure the models represented actual system.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Developing and Validating Air Brake Tubes for Commercial Vehicles

2012-10-02
2012-36-0272
The pneumatic air brake system for heavy commercial trucks is composed by a large number of components, aiming its proper work and compliance with rigorous criteria of vehicular safety. One of those components, present along the whole vehicle, is the air brake tube, ducts which feed valves and reservoirs with compressed air, carrying signals for acting or releasing the brake system. In 2011, due to a lack of butadiene in a global scale, the manufacturing of these tubes was compromised; as this is an important raw material present on the polymer used so far, PA12. This article introduces the methodology of selecting, developing and validating in vehicle an alternative polymer for this application. For this purpose, acceptance criteria have been established through global material specifications, as well as bench tests and vehicular validation requirements.
Technical Paper

A General Formulation for Topology Optimization

1994-11-01
942256
Topology optimization is used for obtaining the best layout of vehicle structural components to achieve predetermined performance goals. Unlike the most common approach which uses the optimality criteria methods, the topology design problem is formulated as a general optimization problem and is solved by the mathematical programming method. One of the major advantages of this approach is its generality; thus it can solve various problems, e.g. multi-objective and multi-constraint problems. The MSC/NASTRAN finite element code is employed for response analyses. Two automotive examples including a simplified truck frame and a truck frame crossmember are presented.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Delivery Module for Light Truck Applications

1993-11-01
932980
This paper reviews the design and development of a self-filling, in-tank fuel system reservoir intended for use in diesel engine vehicle applications. This new idea eliminates engine driveability concerns (stumbles, hesitations, stalling, etc.) associated with an inconsistent supply of fuel from the fuel tank to the engine, particularly during sudden vehicle maneuvers and with low fuel tank conditions.
Technical Paper

Impact of Computer Aided Engineering on Ford Motor Company Light Truck Cooling Design and Development Processes

1993-11-01
932977
This paper presents the benefits of following a disciplined thermal management process during the design and development of Ford Light Truck engine cooling systems. The thermal management process described has evolved through the increased use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools. The primary CAE tool used is a numerical simulation technique within the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The paper discusses the need to establish a heat management team, develop a heat management model, construct a three dimensional CFD model to simulate the thermal environment of the engine cooling system, and presents CFD modeling examples of Ford Light Trucks with engine driven cooling fans.
Technical Paper

Off Track - Frame and Suspension Tuning (FAST)

1994-12-01
942535
Through Frame and Suspension Tuning (FAST) you can identify suspension and frame Set-ups in the lab with out risk to the car or driver. For on track verification the number of Set-ups can be reduced from an unlimited number to 2 or 3 and then optimized on the track, rather than developed on the track. This method can be used with all forms of racing. It has been applied to Indy, GT, Winston Cup, and Trans Am cars. Through the use of a road simulator we are able to evaluate and improve the frame and suspension dynamics in a laboratory. This paper will focus on the first step in the tuning process, frame tuning. If the frame is not tuned for the input energy conditions it can become an uncontrolled suspension component. The first step is to identify the frame dynamic characteristics. Operational deform shapes are measured to identify local and global motion. The frames are modified to optimize the response for the type of race track.
Technical Paper

Scavenging of a Firing Two-Stroke Spark-Ignition Engine

1994-03-01
940393
Current demands for high fuel efficiency and low emissions in automotive powerplants have drawn attention to the two-stroke engine configuration. The present study measured trapping and scavenging efficiencies of a firing two-stroke spark-ignition engine by in-cylinder gas composition analysis. Intermediate results of the procedure included the trapped air-fuel ratio and residual exhaust gas fraction. Samples, acquired with a fast-acting electromagnetic valve installed in the cylinder head, were taken of the unburned mixture without fuel injection and of the burned gases prior to exhaust port opening, at engine speeds of 1000 to 3000 rpm and at 10 to 100% of full load. A semi-empirical, zero-dimensional scavenging model was developed based on modification of the non-isothermal, perfect-mixing model. Comparison to the experimental data shows good agreement.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Expanded Polypropylene Foam Coring to Improve Bumper Foam Core Energy Absorbing Capability

1995-02-01
950549
To design a cost, weight, and energy efficient bumper foam energy absorber, it is important to consider optimizing the shape of coring employed in the design of the system. In this paper, a number of foam coring patterns are studied by both empirical and analytical methods. The size and shape of proposed core designs are studied in detail with consideration given to several different densities of expanded polypropylene (EPP) foam. Using the finite element method of structural analysis, it is possible to have an inside look at the stress distribution during deformation of foam structures. An optimization study using the finite element method is conducted using the energy absorption ratio as an efficiency parameter. Several coring patterns are studied and recommended for bumper foam core design based on high energy absorption efficiency and low tear stress.
Technical Paper

The Effect of MMT on the OBD-11 Catalyst Efficiency Monitor

1993-10-01
932855
The effect of MMT on the OBD-II catalyst efficiency monitor has been investigated. The results conclusively show that manganese which is deposited onto the catalyst during the combustion of MMT- containing fuel provides for an increased level of catalyst oxygen storage capacity. This added oxygen storage was found to result in a reduced rear EGO sensor response and caused malfunctioning catalysts to be incorrectly diagnosed by the OBD-II catalyst efficiency monitor.
Technical Paper

A New Approach for Weight Reduction in Truck Frame Design

1993-11-01
933037
A new, systematic, sensitivity based design process for weight reduction is presented. Traditionally, a trial and error method is used when a design fails to meet the weight and the design criteria, which often conflict. This old approach not only is time and cost consuming but also does not provide insight into structural behavior. This proposed process uses state-of-the-art technologies such as design sensitivity analysis, numerical optimization, graphical user interface, etc. It handles multi-discipline design criteria simultaneously and provides design engineers insight into structural responses for frequency, durability, and stiffness concerns and a means for systematic weight reduction and quality improvement. The new design process has been applied for the weight reduction of advanced truck frame designs. Results show that a significant weight savings has been achieved while all design criteria are met.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for Natural Gas Vehicle Catalytic Converters

1993-11-01
933036
Bench reactor experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of operating temperature, precious metal loading, space velocity, and air-fuel (A/F) ratio on the performance of palladium (Pd) catalysts under simulated natural gas vehicle (NGV) exhaust conditions. The performance of these catalysts under simulated gasoline vehicle (GV) conditions was also investigated. In the case of simulated NGV exhaust, where methane was used as the prototypical hydrocarbon (HC) species, peak three-way conversion was obtained under richer conditions than required with simulated GV exhaust (propane and propene HC species). Moreover, the hydrocarbon efficiency of the catalyst under simulated NGV exhaust conditions was more sensitive to both A/F ratio and perturbations in A/F ratio than the HC efficiency under GV exhaust conditions.
Technical Paper

Front suspension LCA bushing optimization

2010-10-06
2010-36-0248
When considering ride comfort and precision there are lots of components in the vehicle suspensions that have influence in this behavior and some ride occurrences (mainly higher frequencies) are rubber bushing responsibility but due their compliance, other vehicle attributes, steering and handling, can be affected. So the correct components tuning can maintain or improve vehicle attributes to address desired brand DNA and vehicle its specific needs. These studies were done considering the elastokinematics of front axle only due need of improve its comfort concerning higher frequencies (impacts and harshness). In addiction, correlation between subjective evaluation and objective data acquisition/post processing is desirable to optimize development time. Based in subjective directional, the activities time was reduced and final configuration reached faster.
Journal Article

Effects of Fuel Cell Material Properties on Water Management Using CFD Simulation and Neutron Imaging

2010-04-12
2010-01-0934
Effects of fuel cell material properties on water management were numerically investigated using Volume of Fluid (VOF) method in the FLUENT. The results show that the channel surface wettability is an important design variable for both serpentine and interdigitated flow channel configurations. In a serpentine air flow channel, hydrophilic surfaces could benefit the reactant transport to reaction sites by facilitating water transport along channel edges or on channel surfaces; however, the hydrophilic surfaces would also introduce significantly pressure drop as a penalty. For interdigitated air flow channel design, it is observable that liquid water exists only in the outlet channel; it is also observable that water distribution inside GDL is uneven due to the pressure distribution caused by interdigitated structure. An in-situ water measurement method, neutron imaging technique, was used to investigate the water behavior in a PEM fuel cell.
Technical Paper

Ford Motor Companys' new Torqshift 6 Automatic Transmission for Super Duty F250-F550 Truck

2010-04-12
2010-01-0859
Ford developed the 6R140 TorqShift six-speed transmission for the Ford F-series SuperDuty trucks. The 6R140 transmission is specifically designed to manage the increased torque produced by the 6.7-liter Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine. It is also matched with the 6.2-liter V-8 gasoline engine. By design, the new 6R140 transmission seamlessly delivers the enormous low-rpm torque produced by the new diesel engine and efficiently manages the higher rpm of the new gasoline engine.
Journal Article

Efficient Integration for a Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) System

2010-04-12
2010-01-0665
The integration of a HIL system involves many software and hardware elements. During the integration process, various errors may occur. In this paper, the Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology is applied to develop an integration process for a generic type of HIL system. The development follows the DCOV (Design, Characterize, Optimize and Verify) four-phase approach. The result is an efficient process proven to meet the customer's needs, reduce integration errors and deliver a high quality HIL system within less time.
Journal Article

Development of the Combustion System for a Flexible Fuel Turbocharged Direct Injection Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0585
Gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engines, such as EcoBoost™ from Ford, are becoming established as a high value technology solution to improve passenger car and light truck fuel economy. Due to their high specific performance and excellent low-speed torque, improved fuel economy can be realized due to downsizing and downspeeding without sacrificing performance and driveability while meeting the most stringent future emissions standards with an inexpensive three-way catalyst. A logical and synergistic extension of the EcoBoost™ strategy is the use of E85 (approximately 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) for knock mitigation. Direct injection of E85 is very effective in suppressing knock due to ethanol's high heat of vaporization - which increases the charge cooling benefit of direct injection - and inherently high octane rating. As a result, higher boost levels can be achieved while maintaining optimal combustion phasing giving high thermal efficiency.
Journal Article

Laboratory and Vehicle Demonstration of “2nd-Generation” LNT + in-situ SCR Diesel NOx Emission Control Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-0305
This study extends research previously reported from our laboratory [SAE 2009-01-0285] on diesel NOx control utilizing a new generation of Lean NOx Trap (LNT) plus in-situ Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst systems. Key findings from this work include 1) evidence for a “non-ammonia” reduction pathway over the SCR catalyst (in addition to the conventional ammonia pathway), 2) high NOx conversions utilizing LNT formulations with substantially lower platinum group metal (PGM) loadings than utilized in earlier systems, 3) ability of the downstream SCR catalyst to maintain high overall system NOx efficiency with aged LNTs, and 4) effectiveness of both Cu- and Fe-zeolite SCR formulations to enhance overall system NOx efficiency. FTP NOx conversion efficiencies in excess of 95% were obtained on two light-duty vehicle platforms with lab-aged catalyst systems, thus showing potential of the LNT+SCR approach for achieving the lowest U.S. emissions standards
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