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Video

C-Max Energi - Ford's Plug-In Solution

2011-11-07
Evolving the current state of the art Hybrid Technology for vehicles with plug-in capability will yield three significant results, the displacement of petroleum with electricity for transportation, improved efficiency and reduced emissions. As the technology evolves from the Ford Escape Hybrid Plug-In demo fleet, Ford is in the final stages of development of the C-Max Energi, which will be delivered in 2012 as a highly efficient, full purpose vehicle designed to meet customer expectations without compromise. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.
Video

OBD Experiences: A Ford Perspective

2012-01-24
Some the OBD-II regulations have been around for a long time or seem to be intuitively obvious. It is easy to assume to assume that everyone knows how to implement them correctly, that is, until someone actually reads the words and tries to do it. Most often, these issues come up when modifying existing OBD features, not when creating completely new ones. This presentation contains a few examples of features that should have been easy to implement, but turned out not to be easy or simple. Presenter Paul Algis Baltusis, Ford Motor Co.
Video

Future Development of EcoBoost Technology

2012-05-10
Ford's EcoBoost GTDI engine technology (Gasoline Direct Injection, Turbo-charging and Downsizing) is being successfully implemented in the market place with the EcoBoost option accounting for significant volumes in vehicle lines as diverse as the F150 pickup truck, Edge CUV and the Lincoln MKS luxury sedan. A logical question would be what comes after GTDI? This presentation will review some of the technologies that will be required for further improvements in CO2, efficiency and performance building on the EcoBoost foundation as well as some of the challenges inherent in the new technologies and approaches. Presenter Eric W. Curtis, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

Continuous measurement of soot and soluble organic fraction emission from advanced powertrain

2000-06-12
2000-05-0314
Particulate matter (PM) emission from vehicles is one of the biggest issues in terms of environmental protection and influence to human body. Thus, a variety of measurement technologies have been develop so far. Currently, a gravimetric method is most commonly used in the automotive industry, partially because it is specified in the regulations. This method uses a combination of a dilution tunnel and a filter that collects the PM from the diluted sample gas with subsequent weighting by a micro balance. However, since this technique is a batch measurement, it is impossible to determine at what point of the emissions test the Soot, SOF (Soluble Organic Fraction), and the total PM are emitted. Thus the demand for real-time PM measurement under transient test conditions has increased.
Technical Paper

Making the Case for a Next Generation Automotive Electrical System

1998-10-19
98C006
Introduction of an array of new electrical and electronic features into future vehicles is generating vehicle electrical power requirements that exceed the capabilities of today's 14 volt electrical systems. In the near term (5 to 10 years), the existing 14V system will be marginally capable of supporting the expected additional loads with escalating costs for the associated charging system. However, significant increases in vehicle functional content are expected as future requirements to meet longer-term (beyond 10 years) needs in the areas of emission control, fuel economy, safety, and passenger comfort. A higher voltage electrical system will be required to meet these future requirements. This paper explores the functional needs that will mandate a higher voltage system and the benefits derivable from its implementation.
Technical Paper

The Mvma Investigation Into the Complexities of Heavy Truck Splash and Spray Problem

1985-01-01
856097
Splash and spray conditions created by tractor-trailer combinations operating on the Federal highway system have been studied and tested for many years with mixed results. Past events are reviewed briefly in this paper. In additional testing during 1983, using new state-of- the-art splash/spray suppressant devices, some encouragement was provided that these devices could work. The 1984 Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) test program was designed to develop practicable and reliable test procedures to measure effectiveness of splash and spray reduction methods applied to tractor-trailer combination vehicles. Over 40 different combinations of splash/spray suppression devices on five different tractors and three van trailer types were tested. The spray-cloud densities for some 400 test runs were measured by laser transmissometers and also recorded by still photography, motion pictures, and videotape. On-site observers made subjective ratings of spray density.
Technical Paper

The Development of Ford's Natural Gas Powered Ranger

1985-11-11
852277
Operation of America's first factory built vehicles modified to operate on natural gas began in April, 1984, when Ford Motor Company delivered the first of 27 specially equipped 1984 Ranger pickup trucks to 25 major utility and natural gas related companies in the United States and Canada. In addition to the fuel system, modifications to these test vehicles include a 12.8:1 compression ratio engine and a unique distributor calibration to provide performance similar to the gasoline powered vehicle. The fuel tanks are significantly more expensive than gasoline tanks and remain one of the major cost issues with a natural gas powered vehicle. There are however, no unresolvable technological issues that would prevent motor vehicles from operating economically and efficiently on natural gas.
Journal Article

In-Cylinder Particulate Matter and Spray Imaging of Ethanol/Gasoline Blends in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0259
A single-cylinder Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine with optical access was used to investigate the effects of ethanol/gasoline blends on in-cylinder formation of particulate matter (PM) and fuel spray characteristics. Indolene was used as a baseline fuel and two blends of 50% and 85% ethanol (by volume, balance indolene) were investigated. Time resolved thermal radiation (incandescence/natural luminosity) of soot particles and fuel spray characteristics were recorded using a high speed camera. The images were analyzed to quantify soot formation in units of relative image intensity as a function of important engine operating conditions, including ethanol concentration in the fuel, fuel injection timing (250, 300 and 320° bTDC), and coolant temperature (25°C and 90°C). Spatially-integrated incandescence was used as a metric to quantify the level of in-cylinder PM formed at the different operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Diesel EGR Cooler Fouling with Ni-Fe-Cr-Al DPF at Freeway Cruise

2010-10-05
2010-01-1955
This study investigates the effect of diesel particulate filters (DPF) on the performance of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers. EGR coolers were tested with and without the use of a DPF and their measured performances were compared. The exhaust gas was filtered using a Ni-Fe-Cr-Al metallic foam wall flow diesel particulate filter. The DPFs used in this investigation had very low Space Velocity (SV) characteristics in order to minimize the effect of filtration on the pressure drop. Two different measurement methods were employed to determine particulate matter (PM) emission levels at locations before and after the DPF. The first method involved the collection of PM on quartz filters followed by thermal analysis of the filters to monitor the removal of soot, semi-volatile organics, and sulfate across the DPF. The second method measured the time resolved PM mass in the exhaust with a Dekati Mass Monitor.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Research on Turbulent Flame Propagation Combustion Modeling Using a Direct Chemical Kinetics Model

2013-09-08
2013-24-0023
The present work focused on modeling turbulent flame propagation combustion process using a direct chemical kinetics model. Firstly, the theory of turbulent flame propagation combustion modeling directly using chemical kinetics is given in detail. Secondly, two important techniques in this approach are described. One technique is the selection of chemical kinetics mechanism, and the other one is the selection of AMR (adaptive mesh refinement) level. A reduced chemical kinetics mechanism with minor modification by the authors of this paper which is suitable for simulating gasoline engine under warm up operating conditions was selected in this work. This mechanism was validated over some operating conditions close to some engine cases. The effect of AMR level on combustion simulation is given, and an optimum AMR level of both velocity and temperature is recommended.
Journal Article

Review of Soot Deposition and Removal Mechanisms in EGR Coolers

2010-04-12
2010-01-1211
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers are commonly used in diesel engines to reduce the temperature of recirculated exhaust gases in order to reduce NOX emissions. Engine coolant is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes fouling due to particulate soot deposition, condensation of hydrocarbon, water and acid. Fouling experience results in cooler effectiveness loss and pressure drop. In this study, possible soot deposition mechanisms are discussed and their orders of magnitude are compared. Also, probable removal mechanisms of soot particles are studied by calculating the forces acting on a single particle attached to the wall or deposited layer. Our analysis shows that thermophoresis in the dominant mechanism for soot deposition in EGR coolers and high surface temperature and high kinetic energy of soot particles at the gas-deposit interface can be the critical factor in particles removal.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Developing and Validating Air Brake Tubes for Commercial Vehicles

2012-10-02
2012-36-0272
The pneumatic air brake system for heavy commercial trucks is composed by a large number of components, aiming its proper work and compliance with rigorous criteria of vehicular safety. One of those components, present along the whole vehicle, is the air brake tube, ducts which feed valves and reservoirs with compressed air, carrying signals for acting or releasing the brake system. In 2011, due to a lack of butadiene in a global scale, the manufacturing of these tubes was compromised; as this is an important raw material present on the polymer used so far, PA12. This article introduces the methodology of selecting, developing and validating in vehicle an alternative polymer for this application. For this purpose, acceptance criteria have been established through global material specifications, as well as bench tests and vehicular validation requirements.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Total and Speciated Hydrocarbon Removal from Engine Exhaust Using Activated Carbon

1994-10-01
941999
A hydrocarbon trapping system for cold start emissions was constructed and tested using two types of carbonaceous adsorbents provided by Corning, Inc. One was made by combining activated carbon with an organic binder and extruding it into a honeycomb, and the other by depositing a carbon coating on a ceramic monolith. The tests were carried out on an engine in a dynamometer laboratory to characterize the performance of the carbon elements under transient cold start conditions. Performance was evaluated by continuously measuring exhaust gas hydrocarbon concentrations upstream and downstream of the trap, using conventional emissions consoles. Samples were also collected for off-line analysis of individual hydrocarbon species using gas chromatography to examine differences in adsorption of individual species. The speciated hydrocarbon data were used to distinguish between the mass trapping efficiency and a reactivity-based trapping efficiency of the adsorbant traps.
Technical Paper

A General Formulation for Topology Optimization

1994-11-01
942256
Topology optimization is used for obtaining the best layout of vehicle structural components to achieve predetermined performance goals. Unlike the most common approach which uses the optimality criteria methods, the topology design problem is formulated as a general optimization problem and is solved by the mathematical programming method. One of the major advantages of this approach is its generality; thus it can solve various problems, e.g. multi-objective and multi-constraint problems. The MSC/NASTRAN finite element code is employed for response analyses. Two automotive examples including a simplified truck frame and a truck frame crossmember are presented.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Delivery Module for Light Truck Applications

1993-11-01
932980
This paper reviews the design and development of a self-filling, in-tank fuel system reservoir intended for use in diesel engine vehicle applications. This new idea eliminates engine driveability concerns (stumbles, hesitations, stalling, etc.) associated with an inconsistent supply of fuel from the fuel tank to the engine, particularly during sudden vehicle maneuvers and with low fuel tank conditions.
Technical Paper

Impact of Computer Aided Engineering on Ford Motor Company Light Truck Cooling Design and Development Processes

1993-11-01
932977
This paper presents the benefits of following a disciplined thermal management process during the design and development of Ford Light Truck engine cooling systems. The thermal management process described has evolved through the increased use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools. The primary CAE tool used is a numerical simulation technique within the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The paper discusses the need to establish a heat management team, develop a heat management model, construct a three dimensional CFD model to simulate the thermal environment of the engine cooling system, and presents CFD modeling examples of Ford Light Trucks with engine driven cooling fans.
Technical Paper

A New Mechanism for Measuring Exhaust A/F

1993-11-01
932957
Exhaust gas air-fuel ratio (A/F) sensors are common devices in powertrain feedback control systems aimed at minimizing emissions. Both resistive (using TiO2) and electrochemical (using ZrO2) mechanisms are used in the high temperature ceramic devices now being employed. In this work a new mechanism for making the measurement is presented based on the change in the workfunction of a Pt film in interaction with the exhaust gas. In particular it is found that the workfunction of Pt increases reversibly by approximately 0.7 V at that point (the stoichiometric ratio) where the exhaust changes from rich to lean conditions. This increase arises from the adsorption of O2 on the Pt surface. On returning to rich conditions, catalytic reaction of the adsorbed oxygen with reducing species returns the workfunction to its original value. Two methods, one capacitive and one thermionic, for electrically sensing this workfunction change and thus providing for a practical device are discussed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Operating Parameters on Hydrocarbon Oxidation in the Exhaust Port and Runner of a Spark-Ignited Engine

1995-02-01
950159
The effect of engine operating parameters (speed, spark timing, and fuel-air equivalence ratio [Φ]) on hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation within the cylinder and exhaust system is examined using propane or isooctane fuel. Quench gas (CO2) is introduced at two locations in the exhaust system (exhaust valve or port exit) to stop the oxidation process. Increasing the speed from 1500 to 2500 RPM at MBT spark timing decreases the total, cylinder-exit HC emissions by ∼50% while oxidation in the exhaust system remains at 40% for both fuels. For propane fuel at 1500 rpm, increasing Φ from 0.9 (fuel lean) to 1.1 (fuel rich) reduces oxidation in the exhaust system from 42% to 26%; at 2500 RPM, exhaust system oxidation decreases from 40% to approximately 0% for Φ = 0.9 and 1.1, respectively. Retarded spark increases oxidation in the cylinder and exhaust system for both fuels. Decreases in total HC emissions are accompanied by increased olefinic content and atmospheric reactivity.
Technical Paper

Compression Ratio and Coolant Temperature Effects on HC Emissions from a Spark- Ignition Engine

1995-02-01
950163
Modern four-valve engines are running at ever higher compression ratios in order to improve fuel efficiency. Hotter cylinder bores also can produce increased fuel economy by decreasing friction due to less viscous oil layers. In this study changes in compression ratio and coolant temperature were investigated to quantify their effect on exhaust emissions. Tests were run on a single cylinder research engine with a port-deactivated 4-valve combustion chamber. Two compression ratios (9.15:1 and 10.0:1) were studied at three air/fuel ratios (12.5, 14.6 and 16.5) at a part load condition (1500 rpm, 3.8 bar IMEP). The effect of coolant temperature (66 °C and 108°C) was studied at the higher compression ratio. The exhaust was sampled and analyzed for both total and speciated hydrocarbons. The speciation analysis provided concentration data for hydrocarbons present in the exhaust containing twelve or fewer carbon atoms.
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