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Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Operating Parameters on Hydrocarbon Oxidation in the Exhaust Port and Runner of a Spark-Ignited Engine

1995-02-01
950159
The effect of engine operating parameters (speed, spark timing, and fuel-air equivalence ratio [Φ]) on hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation within the cylinder and exhaust system is examined using propane or isooctane fuel. Quench gas (CO2) is introduced at two locations in the exhaust system (exhaust valve or port exit) to stop the oxidation process. Increasing the speed from 1500 to 2500 RPM at MBT spark timing decreases the total, cylinder-exit HC emissions by ∼50% while oxidation in the exhaust system remains at 40% for both fuels. For propane fuel at 1500 rpm, increasing Φ from 0.9 (fuel lean) to 1.1 (fuel rich) reduces oxidation in the exhaust system from 42% to 26%; at 2500 RPM, exhaust system oxidation decreases from 40% to approximately 0% for Φ = 0.9 and 1.1, respectively. Retarded spark increases oxidation in the cylinder and exhaust system for both fuels. Decreases in total HC emissions are accompanied by increased olefinic content and atmospheric reactivity.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Air/Fuel Ratio on Wide Open Throttle HC Emissions from a Spark-Ignition Engine

1994-10-01
941961
Currently most automotive manufacturers calibrate for rich air/fuel ratios at wide open throttle which produces lower exhaust gas temperatures. Future federal emissions regulations may require less enrichment under these conditions. This study was undertaken to address the question of what happens to engine-out hydrocarbon emissions with different air/fuel ratios at wide open throttle. Tests were run on a single cylinder research engine with a two valve combustion chamber at a compression ratio of 9:1. The test matrix included three air/fuel ratios (10.5, 12.5 and 14.5) and two speeds (1500 and 3000 rpm) at wide open throttle as well as three air/fuel ratios (12.5, 14.6 and 16.5) at a part load condition (1500 rpm, 3.8 bar IMEP). The exhaust was sampled and analyzed for both total and speciated hydrocarbons. The speciation analysis provided concentration data for hydrocarbons present in the exhaust containing twelve or fewer carbon atoms.
Technical Paper

Fuel Composition Effects on Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Spark-Ignited Engine - Is Fuel Absorption in Oil Significant?

1995-10-01
952542
Absorption of fuel in engine oil layers has been shown to be a possible source of hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from spark-ignited engines. However, the magnitude of this source in a normally operating engine has not been determined unambiguously. In these experiments, a series of n-alkanes of widely different solubility (n-hexane through undecane) was added (1.5 wt % each) to a Base gasoline (CA Phase 2). Steady-state experiments were carried out at two coolant temperatures (339 and 380 K) using a single-cylinder engine with the combustion chamber of a production V-8. Both total and speciated engine-out HC emissions were measured. The emissions indices of the heavier dopants did not increase relative to hexane at either coolant temperature.
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