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Technical Paper

Mean Value Engine Modelling of an SI Engine with EGR

Mean Value Engine Models (MVEMs) are simplified, dynamic engine models which are physically based. Such models are useful for control studies, for engine control system analysis and for model based engine control systems. Very few published MVEMs have included the effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). The purpose of this paper is to present a modified MVEM which includes EGR in a physical way. It has been tested using newly developed, very fast manifold pressure, manifold temperature, port and EGR mass flow sensors. Reasonable agreement has been obtained on an experiemental engine, mounted on a dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Port Air Mass Flow of SI Engines in Air/Fuel Ratio Control Applications

With the tightening of exhaust emission standards, wide bandwidth control of the air/fuel ratio (AFR) of spark ignition engines has attracted increased interest recently. Unfortunately, time delays associated with engine operation (mainly injection delays and transport delays from intake to exhaust) impose serious limitations to the achievable control bandwidth. With a proper choice of sensors and actuators, these limitations can be minimized provided the port air mass flow can be accurately predicted ahead in time. While the main objective of this work is to propose a complete AFR controller, the main focus is on the problems associated with port air mass flow prediction.
Technical Paper

On the Validity of Mean Value Engine Models During Transient Operation

Because there are no production-type sensors which are able to measure the flow directly at the intake port, it is becoming common practice to use models of varying complexity to infer the port air mass flow from other measurements. Given the tight requirements of modern air/fuel ratio (AFR) control strategies, the accuracy of these models needs to be better than ever, during steady-state of course (though λ feedback strategies are by design very robust), but mainly during transient operation. This paper describes why conventional models might be inaccurate during engine transients.
Technical Paper

Modelling of the Intake Manifold Filling Dynamics

Mean Value Engine Models (MVEMs) are dynamic models which describe dynamic engine variable (or state) responses as mean rather than instantaneous values on time scales slightly longer than an engine event. Such engine variables are the independent variables in nonlinear differential (or state) equations which can be quite compact but nevertheless quite accurate. One of the most important of the differential equations for a spark ignition (SI) engine is the intake manifold filling (often manifold pressure) state equation. This equation is commonly used to estimate the air mass flow to an SI engine during fast throttle angle transients to insure proper engine fueling. The purpose of this paper is to derive a modified manifold pressure state equation which is simpler and more physical than those currently found in the literature. This new formulation makes it easier to calibrate a MVEM for different engines and provides new insights into dynamic SI engine operation.