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Technical Paper

Design of an Integral Perforated Manifold, Muffler, and Catalyst

The development of an integrated Perforated Manifold, Muffler, and Catalyst (PMMC) for an automotive engine exhaust system is described. The design aims to reduce tailpipe emissions and improve engine power while maintaining low sound output levels from the exhaust. The initial design, based on simplified acoustic and fluid dynamic considerations, is further refined through the use of a computational approach and bench tests. A final prototype is fabricated and evaluated using fired engine dynamometer experiments. The results confirm earlier analytical estimates for improved engine power and reductions of emissions and noise levels.
Journal Article

Effect of Aerodynamically Induced Pre-Swirl on Centrifugal Compressor Acoustics and Performance

The effect of aerodynamically induced pre-swirl on the acoustic and performance characteristics of an automotive centrifugal compressor is studied experimentally on a steady-flow turbocharger facility. Accompanying flow separation, broadband noise is generated as the flow rate of the compressor is reduced and the incidence angle of the flow relative to the leading edge of the inducer blades increases. By incorporating an air jet upstream of the inducer, a tangential (swirl) component of velocity is added to the incoming flow, which improves the incidence angle particularly at low to mid-flow rates. Experimental data for a configuration with a swirl jet is then compared to a baseline with no swirl. The induced jet is shown to improve the surge line over the baseline configuration at all rotational speeds examined, while restricting the maximum flow rate. At high flow rates, the swirl jet increases the compressor inlet noise levels over a wide frequency range.
Journal Article

Instabilities at the Low-Flow Range of a Turbocharger Compressor

The acoustic and performance characteristics of an automotive centrifugal compressor are studied on a steady-flow turbocharger test bench, with the goal of advancing the current understanding of compression system instabilities at the low-flow range. Two different ducting configurations were utilized downstream of the compressor, one with a well-defined plenum (large volume) and the other with minimized (small) volume of compressed air. The present study measured time-resolved oscillations of in-duct and external pressure, along with rotational speed. An orifice flow meter was incorporated to obtain time-averaged mass flow rate. In addition, fast-response thermocouples captured temperature fluctuations in the compressor inlet and exit ducts along with a location near the inducer tips.