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Future Development of EcoBoost Technology

2012-05-10
Ford's EcoBoost GTDI engine technology (Gasoline Direct Injection, Turbo-charging and Downsizing) is being successfully implemented in the market place with the EcoBoost option accounting for significant volumes in vehicle lines as diverse as the F150 pickup truck, Edge CUV and the Lincoln MKS luxury sedan. A logical question would be what comes after GTDI? This presentation will review some of the technologies that will be required for further improvements in CO2, efficiency and performance building on the EcoBoost foundation as well as some of the challenges inherent in the new technologies and approaches. Presenter Eric W. Curtis, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

The Mvma Investigation Into the Complexities of Heavy Truck Splash and Spray Problem

1985-01-01
856097
Splash and spray conditions created by tractor-trailer combinations operating on the Federal highway system have been studied and tested for many years with mixed results. Past events are reviewed briefly in this paper. In additional testing during 1983, using new state-of- the-art splash/spray suppressant devices, some encouragement was provided that these devices could work. The 1984 Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) test program was designed to develop practicable and reliable test procedures to measure effectiveness of splash and spray reduction methods applied to tractor-trailer combination vehicles. Over 40 different combinations of splash/spray suppression devices on five different tractors and three van trailer types were tested. The spray-cloud densities for some 400 test runs were measured by laser transmissometers and also recorded by still photography, motion pictures, and videotape. On-site observers made subjective ratings of spray density.
Technical Paper

The Development of Ford's Natural Gas Powered Ranger

1985-11-11
852277
Operation of America's first factory built vehicles modified to operate on natural gas began in April, 1984, when Ford Motor Company delivered the first of 27 specially equipped 1984 Ranger pickup trucks to 25 major utility and natural gas related companies in the United States and Canada. In addition to the fuel system, modifications to these test vehicles include a 12.8:1 compression ratio engine and a unique distributor calibration to provide performance similar to the gasoline powered vehicle. The fuel tanks are significantly more expensive than gasoline tanks and remain one of the major cost issues with a natural gas powered vehicle. There are however, no unresolvable technological issues that would prevent motor vehicles from operating economically and efficiently on natural gas.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT- Maintaining Your Cool at 200 MPH

2004-03-08
2004-01-1257
An integrated engineering approach using computer modeling, laboratory and vehicle testing enabled the Ford GT engineering team to achieve supercar thermal management performance within the aggressive program timing. Theoretical and empirical test data was used during the design and development of the engine cooling system. The information was used to verify design assumptions and validate engineering efforts. This design approach allowed the team to define a system solution quickly and minimized the need for extensive vehicle level testing. The result of this approach was the development of an engine cooling system that adequately controls air, oil and coolant temperatures during all driving and environmental conditions.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Research on Turbulent Flame Propagation Combustion Modeling Using a Direct Chemical Kinetics Model

2013-09-08
2013-24-0023
The present work focused on modeling turbulent flame propagation combustion process using a direct chemical kinetics model. Firstly, the theory of turbulent flame propagation combustion modeling directly using chemical kinetics is given in detail. Secondly, two important techniques in this approach are described. One technique is the selection of chemical kinetics mechanism, and the other one is the selection of AMR (adaptive mesh refinement) level. A reduced chemical kinetics mechanism with minor modification by the authors of this paper which is suitable for simulating gasoline engine under warm up operating conditions was selected in this work. This mechanism was validated over some operating conditions close to some engine cases. The effect of AMR level on combustion simulation is given, and an optimum AMR level of both velocity and temperature is recommended.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Dominant Noise Transfer Paths in Statistical Energy Analysis Vehicle Model from Test as Basis for Variant Vehicle Development

2013-05-13
2013-01-1994
For purposes of reducing development time, cost and risk, the majority of new vehicles are derived strongly or at least generally from a surrogate vehicle, often of the same general size or body style. Previous test data and lessons learned can be applied as a starting point for design of the new vehicle, especially at early phases of the design before definite design decisions have been finalized and before prototype of production test hardware is available. This is true as well of vehicle NVH development where most new vehicles being developed are variants of existing vehicles for which the main noise transfer paths from sources of interest are already understood via test results and existing targets. The NVH targets for new vehicles are defined via benchmarking, market considerations, and other higher-level decisions. The objective is then to bridge the gap between test data from surrogate vehicles to direct support of the NVH development of new vehicle programs.
Technical Paper

Radiating Panel NVH Performance Evaluations for Vehicle Design

2013-05-13
2013-01-1991
Vehicle interior acoustic performance is an important part of customer satisfaction. Radiating panels enclosing the vehicle cabin are very important for vehicle interior quietness. One of the most critical vehicle panels for the engine noise propagation to the vehicle interior is the dash panel. Most of the engine noise propagates through the dash panel to the vehicle interior. The dash material density, thickness and its damping properties significantly influence the dash panel sound transmission performance. In this study, the dash design of “Vehicle A” has been evaluated using the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) modeling and NVH testing tools. SEA and physical testing of 2′×2′ square sample panels were conducted on different dash materials and lamination materials. Dash component level and vehicle level SEA to TEST correlation results are reported to highlight the NVH performance of the dash design as well as the SEA prediction capability and its applicability in vehicle design.
Journal Article

Experimental Study on Enhanced FXLMS Algorithm for Active Impulsive Noise Control

2013-05-13
2013-01-1951
Active noise control (ANC) technique with the filtered-x least mean square (FXLMS) algorithm has proven its efficiency and drawn increasingly interests in vehicle noise control applications. However, many vehicle interior and/or exterior noises are exhibiting non-Gaussian type with impulsive characteristic, such as diesel knocking noise, injector ticking, impulsive crank-train noise, gear rattle, and road bumps, etc. Therefore, the conventional FXLMS algorithm that is based on the assumption of deterministic and/or Gaussian signal may not be appropriate for tackling this type of impulsive noise. In this paper, an ANC system configured with modified FXLMS (MFXLMS) algorithm by adding thresholds on reference and error signal paths is proposed for impulsive noise control. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, an experimental study is conducted in the laboratory.
Technical Paper

Modal Parameter Estimation on Automotive Development

2012-11-25
2012-36-0641
Modal parameter identification is used to identify those parameters of the model which describe the dynamic properties of a vibration system. Structural dynamic methods and technologies have been used with great success by the automotive industry. Experimental Modal Analysis is the process of determining the modal parameters (modes, natural frequencies, damping factors) of a linear, time-invariant system. One common reason for experimental modal analysis is the verification or correction of the results of the analytical approach. Another reason to extract the modal parameters experimentally is due to its use for future evaluations such as structural modifications. This paper presents the Experimental Modal Analysis of a car in trimmed body configuration which represents a complex system due to the systems attached to it, increasing its damping and measuring noise. Both frequency and time domain system identification methods are studied to obtain the main modes of the structure.
Journal Article

Review of Soot Deposition and Removal Mechanisms in EGR Coolers

2010-04-12
2010-01-1211
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers are commonly used in diesel engines to reduce the temperature of recirculated exhaust gases in order to reduce NOX emissions. Engine coolant is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes fouling due to particulate soot deposition, condensation of hydrocarbon, water and acid. Fouling experience results in cooler effectiveness loss and pressure drop. In this study, possible soot deposition mechanisms are discussed and their orders of magnitude are compared. Also, probable removal mechanisms of soot particles are studied by calculating the forces acting on a single particle attached to the wall or deposited layer. Our analysis shows that thermophoresis in the dominant mechanism for soot deposition in EGR coolers and high surface temperature and high kinetic energy of soot particles at the gas-deposit interface can be the critical factor in particles removal.
Technical Paper

Optimization of New Plastic Bracket NVH Characteristics using CAE

2012-10-02
2012-36-0195
NVH requirements are critical in new driveline developments. Failure modes due to resonances must be carefully analyzed and potential root causes must have adequate countermeasures. One of the most common root causes is the modal alignment. This work shows the steps to design and optimize a new plastic bracket for an automotive half shaft bearing. This bracket replaces a very stiff bracket, made of cast iron. The initial design of plastic bracket was not stiff enough to bring natural frequency of the system above engine second order excitation at maximum speed. The complete power pack was modeled and NVH CAE analysis was performed. The CAE outputs included Driving Point Response, Frequency Response Function and Modal analysis. The boundary conditions were discussed deep in detail to make sure the models represented actual system.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Developing and Validating Air Brake Tubes for Commercial Vehicles

2012-10-02
2012-36-0272
The pneumatic air brake system for heavy commercial trucks is composed by a large number of components, aiming its proper work and compliance with rigorous criteria of vehicular safety. One of those components, present along the whole vehicle, is the air brake tube, ducts which feed valves and reservoirs with compressed air, carrying signals for acting or releasing the brake system. In 2011, due to a lack of butadiene in a global scale, the manufacturing of these tubes was compromised; as this is an important raw material present on the polymer used so far, PA12. This article introduces the methodology of selecting, developing and validating in vehicle an alternative polymer for this application. For this purpose, acceptance criteria have been established through global material specifications, as well as bench tests and vehicular validation requirements.
Technical Paper

1.8L Sierra-Mondeo Turbo-Diesel Valvetrain Friction Reduction Using a Solid Film Lubricant

1994-10-01
941986
A 1.8L turbocharged diesel engine valvetrain friction was investigated, and the effectiveness of using a solid film lubricant (SFL) coating in reducing friction was determined throughout the operable speed range. This valvetrain design features direct acting mechanical bucket valve lifters. Camshaft journal bearing surfaces and all camshaft rubbing surfaces except lobe tips were coated. The direct acting bucket shims were etched with a cross hatch pattern to a depth sufficient to sustain a SFL film coating on the shim rubbing surfaces subjected to high surface loads. The SFL coated valvetrain torque was evaluated and compared with uncoated baseline torque. Coating the cam bearing journal surfaces alone with II-25D SFL reduced valvetrain friction losses 8 to 17% for 250 to 2000 rpm cam speed range (i.e. 500 - 4000 rpm engine speed). When bucket tappet and shims were also coated with the SFL, further significant reductions in coated valvetrain friction were observed.
Technical Paper

A General Formulation for Topology Optimization

1994-11-01
942256
Topology optimization is used for obtaining the best layout of vehicle structural components to achieve predetermined performance goals. Unlike the most common approach which uses the optimality criteria methods, the topology design problem is formulated as a general optimization problem and is solved by the mathematical programming method. One of the major advantages of this approach is its generality; thus it can solve various problems, e.g. multi-objective and multi-constraint problems. The MSC/NASTRAN finite element code is employed for response analyses. Two automotive examples including a simplified truck frame and a truck frame crossmember are presented.
Technical Paper

A New Method Development to Predict Brake Squeal Occurrence

1994-11-01
942258
A new method to predict brake squeal occurrence was developed by MSC under contract to Ford Motor Company. The results indicate that the stability characteristics of this disc brake assembly are governed mainly by the frictional properties between the pads and rotor. The stability is achieved when the friction coefficient of the pads is decreasing as the contact force increases. Based on the results, a stable brake system can be obtained without changing the brake structure by incorporating the appropriate frictional coefficient in the brake system. The method developed here can be also used as a tool to test the quality of any brake design in the early design stage.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Delivery Module for Light Truck Applications

1993-11-01
932980
This paper reviews the design and development of a self-filling, in-tank fuel system reservoir intended for use in diesel engine vehicle applications. This new idea eliminates engine driveability concerns (stumbles, hesitations, stalling, etc.) associated with an inconsistent supply of fuel from the fuel tank to the engine, particularly during sudden vehicle maneuvers and with low fuel tank conditions.
Technical Paper

Impact of Computer Aided Engineering on Ford Motor Company Light Truck Cooling Design and Development Processes

1993-11-01
932977
This paper presents the benefits of following a disciplined thermal management process during the design and development of Ford Light Truck engine cooling systems. The thermal management process described has evolved through the increased use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools. The primary CAE tool used is a numerical simulation technique within the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The paper discusses the need to establish a heat management team, develop a heat management model, construct a three dimensional CFD model to simulate the thermal environment of the engine cooling system, and presents CFD modeling examples of Ford Light Trucks with engine driven cooling fans.
Technical Paper

A New Mechanism for Measuring Exhaust A/F

1993-11-01
932957
Exhaust gas air-fuel ratio (A/F) sensors are common devices in powertrain feedback control systems aimed at minimizing emissions. Both resistive (using TiO2) and electrochemical (using ZrO2) mechanisms are used in the high temperature ceramic devices now being employed. In this work a new mechanism for making the measurement is presented based on the change in the workfunction of a Pt film in interaction with the exhaust gas. In particular it is found that the workfunction of Pt increases reversibly by approximately 0.7 V at that point (the stoichiometric ratio) where the exhaust changes from rich to lean conditions. This increase arises from the adsorption of O2 on the Pt surface. On returning to rich conditions, catalytic reaction of the adsorbed oxygen with reducing species returns the workfunction to its original value. Two methods, one capacitive and one thermionic, for electrically sensing this workfunction change and thus providing for a practical device are discussed.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Valve Overlap on Idle Operation: Comparison of Model and Experiment

1993-10-01
932751
Validation of the Ford General Engine SIMulation program (GESIM) with measured firing data from a modified single cylinder Ricardo HYDRA research engine is described. GESIM predictions for peak cylinder pressure and burn duration are compared to test results at idle operating conditions over a wide range of valve overlap. The calibration of GESIM was determined using data from only one representative world-wide operating point and left unchanged for the remainder of the study. Valve overlap was varied by as much as 36° from its base setting. In most cases, agreement between model and data was within the accuracy of the measurements. A cycle simulation computer model provides the researcher with an invaluable tool for acquiring insight into the thermodynamic and fluid mechanical processes occurring in the cylinder of an internal combustion engine.
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