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Video

Future Development of EcoBoost Technology

2012-05-10
Ford's EcoBoost GTDI engine technology (Gasoline Direct Injection, Turbo-charging and Downsizing) is being successfully implemented in the market place with the EcoBoost option accounting for significant volumes in vehicle lines as diverse as the F150 pickup truck, Edge CUV and the Lincoln MKS luxury sedan. A logical question would be what comes after GTDI? This presentation will review some of the technologies that will be required for further improvements in CO2, efficiency and performance building on the EcoBoost foundation as well as some of the challenges inherent in the new technologies and approaches. Presenter Eric W. Curtis, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

Gear Whine Improvements for an Automatic Transmission through Design Retargeting and Manufacturing Variability Reduction

2001-04-30
2001-01-1505
Gear whine in 1st gear for an automatic transmission that has been in production for nearly thirty years was identified as an NVH issue. Due to advances in vehicle level refinement, and reduction of other masking noises, the automatic transmission gear whine became an issue with the customer. Since the transmission was already in production, the improvements had to be within the boundaries of manufacturing feasibility with existing equipment to avoid costly and time consuming investment in new machines. The approach used was one of identifying optimum values of existing gear parameters to provide a reduction in passenger compartment noise. The problem was in a light truck application. Objective noise measurements were recorded for 10 transmissions from more than 50 driven in vehicles. The transmissions were disassembled and the gears inspected.
Technical Paper

Correlating Stressed Environmental Testing of Structural Composites to Service

2001-03-05
2001-01-0094
A compact in-situ tensile stress fixture was designed for the study of the combined effects of stress and automotive environments on structural glass fiber-reinforced composite materials. With this fixture, a standardized 300 hour laboratory screening test was developed to compare the residual property loss of composite materials due to concurrent exposure to stress and environment. It is of great importance that the data gathered in the laboratory have correlation to on-vehicle (in-service) performance, and that both lab and real world data be taken with a test system (in-situ test fixtures) capable of providing accurate and consistent results under either test condition.
Technical Paper

Ford 2011 6.7L Power Stroke® Diesel Engine Combustion System Development

2011-04-12
2011-01-0415
A new diesel engine, called the 6.7L Power Stroke® V-8 Turbo Diesel, and code named "Scorpion," was designed and developed by Ford Motor Company for the full-size pickup truck and light commercial vehicle markets. The combustion system includes the piston bowl, swirl level, number of nozzle holes, fuel spray angle, nozzle tip protrusion, nozzle hydraulic flow, and nozzle-hole taper. While all of these parameters could be explored through extensive hardware testing, 3-D CFD studies were utilized to quickly screen two bowl concepts and assess their sensitivities to a few of the other parameters. The two most promising bowl concepts were built into single-cylinder engines for optimization of the rest of the combustion system parameters. 1-D CFD models were used to set boundary conditions at intake valve closure for 3-D CFD which was used for the closed-cycle portion of the simulation.
Technical Paper

Implementation of ABS System on an Existing Heavy Trucks Line-up in Accordance to Brazilian Resolution No. 312/09 (CONTRAN)

2012-10-02
2012-36-0466
The automotive industry has been increasingly researching and working on improving vehicle and passenger safety over the years. Following countries such as the United States and European Union, the Brazilian government has been publishing many resolutions with the objective of improving the safety of their fleet. With the publication of resolution 312 from CONTRAN (National Traffic Counsel), on April 3rd, 2009, the installation of ABS (Anti-lock Brake System) feature has become mandatory for all car and truck models to be sold in Brazil, following a staggered implementation starting on January 1st, 2010. The ABS system adds to the vehicle's current brake system, not allowing the wheels to lock during braking, which helps preserve the vehicle's stability and improve its safety, thus avoiding accidents. The technology, which is already available in a few car models, is not yet developed for the heavy trucks applications in this market.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Developing and Validating Air Brake Tubes for Commercial Vehicles

2012-10-02
2012-36-0272
The pneumatic air brake system for heavy commercial trucks is composed by a large number of components, aiming its proper work and compliance with rigorous criteria of vehicular safety. One of those components, present along the whole vehicle, is the air brake tube, ducts which feed valves and reservoirs with compressed air, carrying signals for acting or releasing the brake system. In 2011, due to a lack of butadiene in a global scale, the manufacturing of these tubes was compromised; as this is an important raw material present on the polymer used so far, PA12. This article introduces the methodology of selecting, developing and validating in vehicle an alternative polymer for this application. For this purpose, acceptance criteria have been established through global material specifications, as well as bench tests and vehicular validation requirements.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of CD Variation With Aspect Ratio

1999-03-01
1999-01-0649
There is little information in the technical literature about the dependence of drag coefficient, CD, on aspect ratio (height/width) for car and truck aerodynamics. Some of the information suggests that CD should increase with aspect ratio as the flow over the body becomes more two dimensional. Recent tests of candidate shapes for a commercial van with various roof heights suggested the opposite is true; the taller vans had lower drag coefficients. This report discusses the results of several experimental investigations to examine this relationship. Scale model and production drag measurements of commercial vans are presented along with drag measurements of simple shapes. The shapes consisted of eight radiused rectangular boxes of constant length and frontal area, but with different height/width ratios. The effects of underbody roughness and bumper presence were evaluated and are discussed.
Technical Paper

Ford's SULEV Dedicated Natural Gas Trucks

1997-05-01
971662
Ford Motor Company has introduced its dedicated Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) trucks as mid-year 1997 offerings to complement its dedicated Crown Victoria and bi-fuel Qualified Vehicle Modifier (QVM) product line-up. The 5.4L F-250 full-size pick-up truck and the 5.4L E-250/E-350 full-size vans are production vehicles maintaining Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) quality and warranty while complying with all applicable corporate, federal and state requirements. Both trucks are the first OEM vehicles to certify at the Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (SULEV) California medium-duty vehicle standard, the Federal Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) standard, and the Federal Inherently Low Emission Vehicle (ILEV) emission standard. The use of natural gas (NG) as a vehicle fuel required unique hardware changes in the areas of fuel storage, fuel metering, and the emission control system.
Technical Paper

High Frequency NVH Analysis of Full Size Pickups Using “SEAM”

1997-05-20
971974
The recent surveys of customer satisfaction regarding full size pickup trucks have created new mandates in performance of such vehicles. The customers for this class of vehicles demand new frontiers in attributes such as NVH, ride and handling performance that previously only belonged to the luxury passenger cars. The full size pickup truck in question must retain a tough image and be as durable as the previous generation truck that it replaces. But it also needs to be user friendly in order for one to drive it like an every day passenger car on a daily basis. The challenge is to design for the NVH performance that matches and surpasses many well behaved and “good” NVH passenger cars without any compromise in durability performance. An NVH 7-8 subjective rating performance is targeted for the design of full size pickup truck during vehicle operation.
Technical Paper

Commercial Van Diesel Idle Sound Quality

1997-05-20
971980
The customer's perception of diesel sounds is receiving more attention since diesel engines are being used more frequently in recent years. This paper summarizes the results of a study investigating the sound quality of diesel idle sounds in eight vans and light trucks. Subjective evaluations were conducted both in the US and the UK so that a comparison could be made. Paired comparison of annoyance and semantic differential subjective evaluation techniques were used. Correlation analysis was applied to the subjective evaluation results to determine annoying characteristics. Subjective results indicated that most annoyance rankings were similar for both the US and UK participants, with some specific differences. Correlation of objective measures to annoyance indicated a high correlation to ISO 532B loudness, dBA and kurtosis in the 1.4 kHz to 4 kHz range (aimed at quantifying the impulsiveness perception).
Technical Paper

Durability Analysis of Pickup Trucks Using Non-Linear FEA

1996-10-01
962223
One of the difficulties in predicting the structural behavior of vehicles such as the full size pickup trucks is the non-linearities involved during the course of the durability events. The current practice in durability and fatigue life prediction of vehicles is to conduct fatigue analysis on the structure using the measured road loads and estimate the fatigue incurred using the in-house and commercially available programs. In this paper the authors attempt to seek a different solution to the durability problem by conducting an upfront non-linear analysis. The results are then compared with the prediction by the fatigue life program in addition to the durability test results obtained on the early prototypes. To conduct the non-linear analysis ABAQUS FEA program is chosen for this investigation and for the linear analysis MSC/NASTRAN is utilized. Subsequently in-house fatigue program is used to predict the fatigue incurred.
Technical Paper

Light Truck Aerodynamic Simulations Using a Lattice Gas Based Simulation Technique

1999-11-15
1999-01-3756
Several studies have been conducted in an effort to bring Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) out of the research arena (5) and into the product design environment as a useful aerodynamic design tool. The focus of these studies has ranged from extremely simple shapes to more complex geometries representative of real vehicles. This paper presents the results of real vehicle applications in which CFD was used to predict the aerodynamic effect of proposed surface modifications. The simulation data was generated using a numerical method derived from lattice gas theory to evaluate the aerodynamic effect of surface modifications. The commercial software Powerflow was used to prepare the model, perform the simulation and post-process the results. These case studies were performed in parallel with real vehicle development programs. The depth of experimental comparison data was limited by traditional vehicle program timing and budget constraints.
Journal Article

Development of the Combustion System for a Flexible Fuel Turbocharged Direct Injection Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0585
Gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engines, such as EcoBoost™ from Ford, are becoming established as a high value technology solution to improve passenger car and light truck fuel economy. Due to their high specific performance and excellent low-speed torque, improved fuel economy can be realized due to downsizing and downspeeding without sacrificing performance and driveability while meeting the most stringent future emissions standards with an inexpensive three-way catalyst. A logical and synergistic extension of the EcoBoost™ strategy is the use of E85 (approximately 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) for knock mitigation. Direct injection of E85 is very effective in suppressing knock due to ethanol's high heat of vaporization - which increases the charge cooling benefit of direct injection - and inherently high octane rating. As a result, higher boost levels can be achieved while maintaining optimal combustion phasing giving high thermal efficiency.
Journal Article

NVH Development of the Ford 2.7L 4V-V6 Turbocharged Engine

2015-06-15
2015-01-2288
A new turbocharged 60° 2.7L 4V-V6 gasoline engine has been developed by Ford Motor Company for both pickup trucks and car applications. This engine was code named “Nano” due to its compact size; it features a 4-valves DOHC valvetrain, a CGI cylinder block, an Aluminum ladder, an integrated exhaust manifold and twin turbochargers. The goal of this engine is to deliver 120HP/L, ULEV70 emission, fuel efficiency improvements and leadership level NVH. This paper describes the upfront design and optimization process used for the NVH development of this engine. It showcases the use of analytical tools used to define the critical design features and discusses the NVH performance relative to competitive benchmarks.
Technical Paper

Sound Package Design for Lightweight Vehicles

2015-06-15
2015-01-2343
OEMs are racing to develop lightweight vehicles as government regulations now mandate automakers to nearly double the average fuel economy of new cars and trucks by 2025. Lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber composites are being used as structural members in vehicle body and suspension components. The reduction in weight in structural panels increases noise transmission into the passenger compartment. This poses a great challenge in vehicle sound package development since simply increasing weight in sound package components to reduce interior noise is no longer an option [1]. This paper discusses weight saving approaches to reduce noise level at the sources, noise transmission paths, and transmitted noise into the passenger compartment. Lightweight sound package materials are introduced to treat and reduce airborne noise transmission into multi-material lightweight body structure.
Technical Paper

A Multibody Dynamics Approach to Leaf Spring Simulation for Upfront Analyses

2015-06-15
2015-01-2228
Drivelines used in modern pickup trucks commonly employ universal joints. This type of joint is responsible for second driveshaft order vibrations in the vehicle. Large displacements of the joint connecting the driveline and the rear axle have a detrimental effect on vehicle NVH. As leaf springs are critical energy absorbing elements that connect to the powertrain, they are used to restrain large axle windup angles. One of the most common types of leaf springs in use today is the multi-stage parabolic leaf spring. A simple SAE 3-link approximation is adequate for preliminary studies but it has been found to be inadequate to study axle windup. A vast body of literature exists on modeling leaf springs using nonlinear FEA and multibody simulations. However, these methods require significant amount of component level detail and measured data. As such, these techniques are not applicable for quick sensitivity studies at design conception stage.
Book

Road Vehicle Dynamics

2008-06-19
This book provides a detailed and well-rounded overview of the dynamics of road vehicle systems. Readers will come to understand how physical laws, human factor considerations, and design choices come together to affect a vehicle's ride, handling, braking, and acceleration. Following an introduction and general review of dynamics, topics include: analysis of dynamic systems; tire dynamics; ride dynamics; vehicle rollover analysis; handling dynamics; braking; acceleration; and total vehicle dynamics.
Technical Paper

Thermal Durability Testing for Underbody Fibrous Heat Shields

1995-02-01
950620
The design and composition of heat shields is becoming a major factor in the design of future automobiles. The optimization of heat insulation materials is crucial in keeping size, mass, and cost to a minimum. The purpose of this paper is to describe the testing of four different fibrous insulating materials simulating 150,000 miles of the Underbody heat shielding that a light duty truck may experience. The materials were tested before and after the thermal durability experiment to show the degraded conduction performance of each sample.
Technical Paper

A Study on Ride-Down Efficiency and Occupant Responses in High Speed Crash Tests

1995-02-01
950656
In vehicle crash tests, an unbelted occupant's kinetic energy is absorbed by the restraints such as an air bag and/or knee bolster and by the vehicle structure during occupant ride-down with the deforming structure. Both the restraint energy absorbed by the restraints and the ride-down energy absorbed by the structure through restraint coupling were studied in time and displacement domains using crash test data and a simple vehicle-occupant model. Using the vehicle and occupant accelerometers and/or load cell data from the 31 mph barrier crash tests, the restraint and ride-down energy components were computed for the lower extremity, such as the femur, for the light truck and passenger car respectively.
Technical Paper

The New Ford 6.7L V-8 Turbocharged Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1101
A new diesel engine, called the 6.7L Power Stroke® V-8 Turbocharged Diesel, and code named "Scorpion" has been designed and developed by Ford Motor Company for the full-size pickup truck and light commercial vehicle markets. It incorporates the latest design technology to meet 2010 model year emission regulations for both chassis and dynamometer-based certifications, and is compatible with up to B20 biodiesel fuel. The engine is an entirely new 90 degree V-8 design featuring inboard exhaust, piezo common rail fuel injection, a new dual compressor wheel turbocharger, and dual loop cooling systems. The 6.7L is Ford's first diesel engine designed for the North American pickup and light commercial truck market.
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